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Though theory suggests that individual differences in neuroticism (a tendency to experience negative emotions) would be associated with altered functioning of the amygdala (which has been linked with emotionality and emotion dysregulation in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), results of functional neuroimaging studies have been contradictory and inconclusive. We aimed to clarify the relationship between neuroticism and three hypothesized neural markers derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging during negative emotion face processing: amygdala activation, amygdala habituation, and amygdala-prefrontal connectivity, each of which plays an important role in the experience and regulation of emotions. We used general linear models to examine the relationship between trait neuroticism and the hypothesized neural markers in a large sample of over 500 young adults. Although neuroticism was not significantly associated with magnitude of amygdala activation or amygdala habituation, it was associated with amygdala–ventromedial prefrontal cortex connectivity, which has been implicated in emotion regulation. Results suggest that trait neuroticism may represent a failure in top-down control and regulation of emotional reactions, rather than overactive emotion generation processes, per se. These findings suggest that neuroticism, which has been associated with increased rates of transdiagnostic psychopathology, may represent a failure in the inhibitory neurocircuitry associated with emotion regulation.
Consumers’ demand of leaner meat products is a challenge. Although betaine and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) have the potential to decrease porcine adipose tissue, their mode of action is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to determine the lipolytic effect of betaine and CLA in the adipose tissue of Iberian pigs. Adipose tissue explants from five pigs (38 kg BW) were prepared from dorsal subcutaneous adipose tissue samples and cultivated for 2 h (acute experiments) or 72 h (chronic experiments). Treatments included 100 µM linoleic acid (control), 100 µM trans-10, cis-12 CLA, 100 µM linoleic acid + 1 mM betaine and 100 µM trans-10, cis-12 CLA + 1 mM betaine (CLABET). To examine the ability of betaine or CLA to inhibit insulin’s suppression of isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis, test medium was amended with 1 µM isoproterenol ±10 nM insulin. Media glycerol was measured at the end of the incubations. Acute lipolysis (2 h) was increased by CLA and CLABET (85% to 121%; P < 0.05) under basal conditions. When lipolysis was stimulated with isoproterenol (1090%), acute exposure to betaine tended to increase (13%; P = 0.071), while CLA and CLABET increased (14% to 18%; P < 0.05) isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis compared with control. When insulin was added to isoproterenol-stimulated explants, lipolytic rate was decreased by 50% (P < 0.001). However, supplementation of betaine to the insulin + isoproterenol-containing medium tended to increase (P = 0.07), while CLABET increased (45%; P < 0.05) lipolysis, partly counteracting insulin inhibition. When culture was extended for 72 h, CLA decreased lipolysis under basal conditions (18%; P < 0.05) with no effect of betaine and CLABET (P > 0.10). When lipolysis was stimulated by isoproterenol (125% increase in rate compared with basal), CLA and CLABET decreased glycerol release (27%; P < 0.001) compared with control (isoproterenol alone). When insulin was added to isoproterenol-stimulated explants, isoproterenol stimulation of lipolysis was completely blunted and neither betaine nor CLA altered the inhibitory effect of insulin on lipolysis. Isoproterenol, and especially isoproterenol + insulin, stimulated leptin secretion compared with basal conditions (68% and 464%, respectively; P < 0.001), with no effect of CLA or betaine (P > 0.10). CLA decreased leptin release (25%; P < 0.001) when insulin was present in the media, partially inhibiting insulin stimulation of leptin release. In conclusion, betaine and CLA produced a biphasic response regarding lipolysis so that glycerol release was increased in acute conditions, while CLA decreased glycerol release and betaine had no effect in chronic conditions. Furthermore, CLA and CLABET indirectly increased lipolysis by reducing insulin-mediated inhibition of lipolysis during acute conditions.
Increased plasma α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) is correlated with reduced growth rates in neonatal swine. The specific physiological mechanisms contributing to this relationship are unknown. This study was performed to determine if AGP can modify muscle metabolism by examining glucose oxidation and protein synthesis in the C2C12 muscle cell line. Cells were used for experiments 4 days post-fusion as myotubes. Myotubes were exposed to AGP for 24 h, with the last 4 h used to monitor 14C-glucose oxidation or to measure protein synthesis by incorporation of 3H-tyrosine. Treatment of C2C12 myotubes with mouse AGP (100 µg/ml) reduced glucose oxidation (P<0.01, n=3 trials), whereas bovine insulin (1 µM) stimulated glucose oxidation (P<0.05, n=3 trials). Treatment with AGP in combination with insulin reduced 14C-glucose oxidation (P<0.05, n=3 trials), similar to the effect of AGP alone. Glucose transport, as measured by 3H-deoxyglucose uptake, was increased by 38% with 1 µM insulin (P<0.05, n=3 trials), whereas AGP alone increased glucose uptake by 36% (P<0.05, n=3 trials). The combination of insulin and AGP in the medium resulted in an 88% increase in glucose uptake (P<0.01, n=3 trials). Protein synthesis was measured by 3H-tyrosine incorporation into C2C12 myotubes. Insulin stimulated a 18% increase in 3H-tyrosine incorporation (P<0.05, n=6 trials). The incorporation of 3H-tyrosine into myotubes was reduced by 20% with AGP incubation (P<0.01, n=6 trials), like the 20% decrease in 3H-tyrosine incorporation in response to the combination of AGP and insulin (P<0.01, n=6 trials). Protein breakdown, as measured by the release of 3H-tyrosine from C2C12 myotubes, was reduced 27% by insulin (P<0.01, n=6 trials). Treatment with AGP had no effect on protein breakdown (P>0.05, n=6 trials), whereas incubation with both AGP and insulin reduced 3H-tyrosine release by 15% (P<0.01, n=6 trials). First, these data indicate that the acute phase protein AGP can interact with the skeletal muscle to reduce glucose oxidation, but this is not the result of an effect on glucose transport. Second, AGP can specifically reduce protein synthesis. Lastly, AGP can inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation, protein synthesis and breakdown.
If the zero age main sequence is expressed in the (V–I) versus (B–V)–(V–I) plane the reddening lines are found to lie at a great enough angle to allow reasonably accurate spectral type classification for stars later than ∼ F5. Earlier spectral types can also be identified but with lower accuracy. Comparison with the Q method of UBV photometry and with spectra of some of the program stars shows that the BVIc technique produces reliable results. As late–type stars constitute the most numerous spectral types and are plentiful in all galactic plane directions BVIc reddening distances can be derived close to the desired direction (although to smaller distances than techniques that utilize early type stars). The applicability of the technique is further enhanced by the use of CCDs which generally have a spectral response well suited for BVIc imaging observations. Using the new technique the distance to the PN NGC2440 was found to be (3100 ± 320)pc.
Fetuin A (also known as α2-Heremans–Schmid glycoprotein) is a protein primarily expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. Previous studies have suggested that plasma concentrations of fetuin A are elevated with impaired growth rate in swine. The present study was designed to examine the relationship of porcine fetuin A with growth rate in the pig and to also elucidate the regulation of fetuin A expression by examining the hormonal and cytokine regulation of fetuin A mRNA abundance in hepatocytes prepared from suckling piglets. Quantitative real-time PCR assay was used to quantify the number of fetuin A mRNA molecules/molecule cyclophilin mRNA. Total RNA was isolated from liver of three different groups of pigs to assess changes in mRNA abundance of fetuin A: normal piglets at day 1, day 7 day 21 or 6 months of age (n=6 for each age); runt and control piglets at day 1 of age (n=4); slow growing and normal growing piglets at 21 days of age (n=8). Following birth, fetuin A gene expression increased from day 1 and 7 of age (P<0.05), and then declined at 21 days of age (P<0.05), with a much greater decline to 6 months of age (P<0.01). Fetuin A mRNA abundance was higher in runt pigs v. their normal birth weight littermates (P<0.05). Similarly, fetuin A gene expression was higher in livers of pigs that were born at a normal weight but that grew much slower than littermates with the same birth weight (P<0.05). Hepatocytes were isolated from preweaned piglets and maintained in serum-free monolayer culture for up to 72 h to permit examination of the influences of hormones, cytokines and redox modifiers on fetuin A mRNA abundance. Fetuin A gene expression was enhanced by glucagon, T3 and resveratrol (P<0.05). Growth hormone, cytokines (interleukin6, tumor necrosis factor-α) and antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine, quercertin) reduced fetuin A mRNA abundance (P<0.05). A role for fetuin A in postnatal development is suggested by the differences in fetuin A mRNA abundance between runt piglets or slow growing piglets and their normal growing sized littermates. The hepatocyte experiments suggest multiple hormones and cytokines may contribute to the regulation of fetuin A during early growth of the pig.
Cerebral blood volume and metabolism of oxygen decline as part of human ageing, and this has been previously shown to be related to cognitive decline. There is some evidence to suggest that polyphenol-rich foods can play an important role in delaying the onset or halting the progression of age-related health disorders such as CVD and Alzheimer’s disease and to improve cognitive function. In the present study, an acute, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over, randomised Latin-square design study with a washout period of at least 14 d was conducted on twenty-seven, middle-aged (defined as 45–60 years) volunteers. Participants received either a 60 ml dose of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC), which contained 68·0 (sd 0·26) mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/l, 160·75 (sd 0·55) mean gallic acid equivalent/l and 0·59 (sd 0·02) mean Trolox equivalent/l, respectively, or a placebo. Cerebrovascular responses, cognitive performance and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and 1, 2, 3 and 5 h following consumption. There were significant differences in concentrations of total Hb and oxygenated Hb during the task period 1 h after MC consumption (P≤0·05). Furthermore, MC consumption significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (P≤0·05) over a period of 3 h, with peak reductions of 6±2 mmHg at 1 h after MC consumption relative to the placebo. Cognitive function and mood were not affected. These results show that a single dose of MC concentrate can modulate certain variables of vascular function; however, this does not translate to improvements in cognition or mood.
Africa is experiencing a rapid increase in adult obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). The H3Africa AWI-Gen Collaborative Centre was established to examine genomic and environmental factors that influence body composition, body fat distribution and CMD risk, with the aim to provide insights towards effective treatment and intervention strategies. It provides a research platform of over 10 500 participants, 40–60 years old, from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa. Following a process that involved community engagement, training of project staff and participant informed consent, participants were administered detailed questionnaires, anthropometric measurements were taken and biospecimens collected. This generated a wealth of demographic, health history, environmental, behavioural and biomarker data. The H3Africa SNP array will be used for genome-wide association studies. AWI-Gen is building capacity to perform large epidemiological, genomic and epigenomic studies across several African counties and strives to become a valuable resource for research collaborations in Africa.
Public Health England conducts enhanced national surveillance of tetanus, a potentially life-threatening vaccine-preventable disease. A standardized questionnaire was used to ascertain clinical and demographic details of individuals reported with clinically suspected tetanus. The 96 cases identified between 2001 and 2014 were analysed. The average annual incidence was 0·13/million (95% confidence interval 0·10–0·16) of which 50·0% were male. Where reported, 70·3% of injuries occurred in the home/garden (45/64). Overall, 40·3% (31/77) cases were in people who inject drugs (PWID), including a cluster of 22 cases during 2003–2004. Where known (n = 68), only 8·8% were age-appropriately immunized. The overall case-fatality rate was 11·0% (9/82). All tetanus-associated deaths occurred in adults aged >45 years, none of whom were fully immunized. Due to the success of the childhood immunization programme, tetanus remains a rare disease in England with the majority of cases occurring in older unimmunized or partially immunized adults. Minor injuries in the home/garden were the most commonly reported likely sources of infection, although cases in PWID increased during this period. It is essential that high routine vaccine coverage is maintained and that susceptible individuals, particularly older adults, are protected through vaccination and are offered timely post-exposure management following a tetanus-prone wound.
Despite national guidance recommending testing and vaccination of household contacts of hepatitis B-infected pregnant women, provision and uptake of this is sub-optimal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of in-home dried blood spot (DBS) testing to increase testing and vaccination of household contacts of hepatitis B-infected pregnant women as an alternative approach to conventional primary-care follow-up. The study was conducted across two London maternity trusts (North Middlesex and Newham). All hepatitis B surface antigen-positive pregnant women identified through these trusts were eligible for inclusion. The intervention of in-home DBS testing for household contacts was introduced at North Middlesex Trust from November 2010 to December 2011. Data on testing and vaccination uptake from GP records across the two trusts were compared between baseline (2009) and intervention (2010–2011) periods. In-home DBS service increased testing uptake for all ages (P < 0·001) with the biggest impact seen in partners, where testing increased from 30·3% during the baseline period to 96·6% during the intervention period in North Middlesex Trust. Although impact on vaccine uptake was less marked, improvements were observed for adults. The provision of nurse-led home-based DBS may be useful in areas of high prevalence.
Serum α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is elevated during late gestation and at birth in the pig and rapidly declines postnatally. In contrast, the pig is born with minimal lipid stores in the adipose tissue, but rapidly accumulates lipid during the first week. The present study examined if AGP can affect adipose tissue metabolism in the neonatal pig. Isolated cell cultures or tissue explants were prepared from dorsal subcutaneous adipose tissue of preweaning piglets. Porcine AGP was used at concentrations of 0, 100, 1000 and 5000 ng/ml medium in 24 h incubations. AGP reduced the messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of the lipogenic enzymes, malic enzyme (ME), fatty acid synthase and acetyl coA carboxylase by at least 40% (P<0.001). The activity of ME and citrate lyase were also reduced by AGP (P<0.05). Glucose oxidation was reduced by treatment with 5000 ng AGP/ml medium (P<0.05). The 14C-glucose incorporation into fatty acids was reduced by ~25% by AGP treatment for 24 h with 1000 ng AGP/ml medium (P<0.05). The decrease in glucose metabolism by AGP appears to function through an inhibition in insulin-mediated glucose oxidation and incorporation into fatty acids. This was supported by the analysis of the mRNA abundance for sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), carbohydrate regulatory element-binding protein (ChREBP) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), which all demonstrated reductions of at least 23% in response to AGP treatment (P<0.05). These data demonstrate an overall suppression of lipogenesis due to AGP inhibition of lipogenic gene expression in vitro, which the metabolic data and SREBP, ChREBP and IRS1 gene expression analysis suggest is through an inhibition in insulin-mediated events. Second, these data suggest that AGP may contribute to limiting lipogenesis within adipose tissue during the perinatal period, as AGP levels are highest for any serum protein at birth.
The Culgoora magnetograph (Ramsay et al., 1970) produces simultaneous filtergrams in opposite circular polarizations at a wavelength selected by a filter bandwidth 0.005 nm (Ramsay et al., 1970). In the blue wing of the 610.27 nm line of CaI, regions of magnetic fields in strong or weak plages are very obvious in one or other polarization, depending on polarity, even before subtraction; in one polarization they are bright, but almost invisible in the other. They are more difficult to discern at equal intervals from the line centre in the other wing (Figure 1). When subtractions are carried out to yield magnetograms of the same sense, the two magnetograms from opposite wings give results which appear to be much the same. An example is shown in Figure 2. Similar results are obtained over a wide range of positions in the wings of the 610.27 nm line.
The magnetograph is based on a high-resolution filter which serves in place of a spectrograph, except that a reasonably large field of view (one-quarter of the Sun's diameter) can be observed at the one instant. Observations are made by obtaining filtergrams of opposite circular polarizations simultaneously in the wing of a magnetically sensitive line. Exposure times are about 0.3 s, the angular resolution of the magnetic field is about 2 arc s, closest frame repetition rates about 8 s. The filtergrams are processed subsequently by photographic or television subtraction. Semiautomatic photographic and/or TV subtractions yield magnetograms suitable for cinematographic projection though the subtractions are not yet as perfect as those obtained by individual subtraction.
This study was designed to determine whether methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) can substitute for albumin in incubation medium for neonatal swine adipose tissue explants, or whether MCD affects metabolism and cytokine expression. Subcutaneous adipose tissue explants (100 ± 10 mg) were prepared from 21-day-old pigs. Explants were incubated in medium 199 supplemented with 25 mM HEPES, 1.0 nM insulin at 37°C. The medium also contained bovine serum albumin (BSA) or MCD at 0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2% or 0.3%. Tissue explants were treated with these media for 1 h and then switched to the same basal incubation medium containing 0.05% BSA. Explants were removed from basal medium at 2 or 8 h of incubation, and real-time PCR was performed to assess expression of tumor necrosis α (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL6), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACAC) and fatty acid synthase (FASN). Alternatively, rates of 14C-glucose oxidation and lipogenesis were monitored ± insulin (100 nM), following MCD treatment. Incubation with BSA had minimal effects on gene expression or adipose tissue metabolism, only producing a doubling in TNF mRNA abundance (P < 0.01). Treatment with MCD increased TNF mRNA abundance by eightfold (P < 0.009), whereas IL6 gene expression increased a 100-fold (P < 0.001) with a suppression in ACAC and FASN expression (P < 0.01). This was paralleled by MCD inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation and lipogenesis (P < 0.001). Addition of a TNF antibody to the incubation medium alleviated this inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism by ∼30% (P < 0.05).
Previous evidence has suggested an association between cryptosporidiosis and consumption of unfiltered drinking water from Loch Katrine in Scotland. Before September 2007, the water was only micro-strained and chlorinated; however, since that time, coagulation and rapid gravity filtration have been installed. In order to determine risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis, including drinking water, we analysed data on microbiologically confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis from 2004 to 2010. We identified an association between the incidence of cryptosporidiosis and unfiltered Loch Katrine drinking water supplied to the home (odds ratio 1·86, 95% confidence interval 1·11–3·11, P = 0·019). However, while filtration appears to be associated with initially reduced rates of cryptosporidiosis, evidence suggests it may paradoxically make those consumers more susceptible to other transmission routes in the long-term. These findings support implementation of similar treatment for other unfiltered drinking-water supplies, as a means of reducing cryptosporidiosis associated with drinking water.
The Australia Telescope was used in March–April 2005 to observe the 1.384 and 2.368-GHz emissions from the RS CVn binary HR 1099 in two sessions, each of 9-h duration and 11 days apart. Two intervals of highly polarised emission, each lasting 2–3 h, were recorded. During this coherent emission we employed a recently installed facility to sample the data at 78-ms intervals to measure the fine temporal structure and, in addition, all the data were used to search for fine spectral structure. We present the following observational results: (1) ∼100% left-hand circularly polarised emission was seen at both 1.384 and 2.368 GHz during separate epochs; (2) the intervals of highly polarised emission lasted for 2–3 h on each occasion; (3) three 22-min integrations made at 78-ms time resolution showed that the modulation index of the Stokes V parameter increased monotonically as the integration time was decreased and was still increasing at our resolution limit; (4) the extremely fine temporal structure strongly indicates that the highly polarised emission is due to an electron-cyclotron maser operating in the corona of one of the binary components; (5) the first episode of what we believe is ECME (electron-cyclotron maser emission) at 1.384 GHz contained a regular frequency structure of bursts with FWHM ∼48 MHz, which drifted across the spectrum at ∼0.7 MHz min−1. Our second episode of ECME at 2.368 GHz contained wider-band frequency structure, which did not permit us to estimate an accurate bandwidth or direction of drift; (6) the two ECME events reported in this paper agree with six others reported in the literature in occurring in the binary orbital phase range 0.5–0.7; (7) in one event of 8-h duration, two independent maser sources were operating simultaneously at 1.384 and 2.368 GHz.
We discuss two kinds of maser sources that may be responsible for driving the observed events that we believe are powered by ECME. One is based on the widely reported ‘loss-cone anisotropy', the second on an auroral analogue, which is driven by an unstable ‘horseshoe' distribution of fast-electron velocities with respect to the magnetic field direction. Generally, we favour the latter, because of its higher growth rate and the possibility of the escape of radiation which has been emitted at the fundamental electron cyclotron frequency. If the auroral analogue is operating, the magnetic field in the source cavity is ∼500 G at 1.384 GHz and ∼850 G at 2.368 GHz; the source brightness temperatures are of the order TB ∼ 1015 K.
We suggest that the ECME source may be an aurora-like phenomenon due to the transfer of plasma from the K2 subgiant to the G5 dwarf in a strong stellar wind, an idea that is based on VLBA maps showing the establishment of an 8.4 GHz source near the G5 dwarf at times of enhanced radio activity in HR 1099.