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Free-ranging grey wolves (Canis lupus), which are presently recolonizing Italy, can be parasitized by a diversity of helminths, but have rarely been subject to studies of their parasites. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of road-killed grey wolves from the Piedmont region of Italy. Forty-two wolves were collected and examined for the presence of helminths. We recorded 12 helminth species: nine Nematoda and three Cestoda. The nematodes were: Ancylostoma caninum (7.1%), Capillaria sp. (2.4%), Molineus sp. (2.4%), Pterygodermatites affinis (11.9%), Physaloptera sibirica (9.5%), Toxocara canis (9.5%), Toxascaris leonina (2.4%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (26.2%); the cestodes were: Dipylidium caninum (4.8%), Mesocestoides sp. (4.8%) and Taenia multiceps (76.2%). Physaloptera sibirica had the highest mean intensity and T. multiceps had the highest prevalence. Based on age and sex, no differences in the intensity or prevalence of helminth species were found among the hosts. Molineus sp. was recorded for the first time in wolves from the Palearctic region; P. affinis and P. sibirica are respectively reported for the first time in wolves from Europe and Italy.
Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that often persists into adulthood and old age. Yet ADHD is currently underdiagnosed and undertreated in many European countries, leading to chronicity of symptoms and impairment, due to lack of, or ineffective treatment, and higher costs of illness.
Methods The European Network Adult ADHD and the Section for Neurodevelopmental Disorders Across the Lifespan (NDAL) of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), aim to increase awareness and knowledge of adult ADHD in and outside Europe. This Updated European Consensus Statement aims to support clinicians with research evidence and clinical experience from 63 experts of European and other countries in which ADHD in adults is recognized and treated.
Results Besides reviewing the latest research on prevalence, persistence, genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How should ADHD be properly diagnosed in adults? (3) How should adult ADHDbe effectively treated?
Conclusions ADHD often presents as a lifelong impairing condition. The stigma surrounding ADHD, mainly due to lack of knowledge, increases the suffering of patients. Education on the lifespan perspective, diagnostic assessment, and treatment of ADHD must increase for students of general and mental health, and for psychiatry professionals. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available, as are effective evidence-based treatments for ADHD and its negative outcomes. More research is needed on gender differences, and in older adults with ADHD.
Piglets can often suffer impaired antioxidant status and poor immune response during post-weaning, especially when chronic inflammation takes place, leading to lower growth rates than expected. Oral administration of dietary antioxidant compounds during this period could be a feasible way to balance oxidation processes and increase health and growth performance. The aim of the trial was to study the effects of an antioxidant feed supplement (melon pulp concentrate) that contains high concentration of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) on inflammation, antioxidant status and growth performance of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged weaned piglets. In total, 48 weaned piglets were individually allocated to four experimental groups in a 2×2 factorial design for 29 days. Two different dietary treatments were adopted: (a) control (CTR), fed a basal diet, (b) treatment (MPC), fed the basal diet plus 30 g/ton of melon pulp concentrate. On days 19, 21, 23 and 25 half of the animals within CTR and MPC groups were subjected to a challenge with intramuscular injections of an increasing dosage of LPS from Escherichia coli (serotype 0.55:B5) (+) or were injected with an equal amount of PBS solution (−). Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the trial and under the challenge period for interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, tumour necrosis factor α, haptoglobin, plasma SOD activity, total antioxidant capacity, reactive oxygen species, red blood cells and plasma resistance to haemolysis, and 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine. Growth performance was evaluated weekly. A positive effect of melon pulp concentrate was evidenced on total antioxidant capacity, half-haemolysis time of red blood cells, average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake, while LPS challenge increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and haptoglobin serum concentrations, with a reduced feed intake and gain : feed (G : F). The obtained results show that oral SOD supplementation with melon pulp concentrate ameliorates the total antioxidant capacity and the half-haemolysis time in red blood cell of post-weaning piglets, with positive results on growing performance.
In the present study, the sudden changes of the flow field past stalled airfoils for small variations of the Reynolds number are investigated numerically. A vortex particle method has been used for the simulations in a two-dimensional framework. The most critical configurations found with this solver are verified through the comparison with the solution given by a mesh-based finite volume solver. The airfoils considered are the NACA0010 and a narrow ellipse with the same thickness. The angle of attack is fixed to
for which complex dynamics of the flow can take place in the different viscous regimes inspected. The Reynolds number ranges between
and, within this interval, numerous bifurcations of the solution are observed in terms of mean lift and drag coefficients, Strouhal number and downstream wake. An analysis of these bifurcations is provided and links are made between the wake structures observed. On this base the flow patterns can be classified in different modes similarly to the analysis by Kurtulus (Intl J. Micro Air Vehicles, vol. 7(3), 2015, pp. 301–326; vol. 8(2), 2016, pp. 109–139). A discussion of the vortical evolution of the flow in the vicinity of the suction side of the airfoil is also provided.
The transdiagnostic model of eating disorders (ED) proposes common cognitive mechanisms in patients with ED psychopathology. Little is known about their role in the maintenance of ED in children and adolescents. This study aimed to determine whether the relationships between key factors (low self-esteem, weight and shape control, clinical perfectionism, interpersonal problems, distress and mood instability) and core maintaining mechanisms (binge-eating and restraint) would support a transdiagnostic theory in young patients.
A total of 419 patients (mean age 14.7 ± 2.14 years; age range: 7–18 years; males 13.8%) diagnosed with an ED were assessed in six Italian clinical centers in 2013. Multiple comparisons between ED diagnosis, correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed.
Of the entire collective, 51.5% of patients were diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), 12.3% were diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and 36.2% with Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS). In PCA, the core ED mechanisms, dietary restraint and binge eating, acted as poles of attraction of the other variables. The AN group was particularly linked to restraint and the BN group was particularly related to “Bulimia”. Considering the diagnostic subtypes, there were no significant differences between the anorexic binge-purging group, bulimic purging group and bulimic non-purging group, which constituted a unique cluster related to affective, interpersonal problems and to perfectionism, indicating a very homogeneous subgroup. Restricting anorexic group (AN-R), related to shape concern and anxious-depressed mood, was not linked to the other subtypes. EDNOS appeared to be opposed to the AN-R group; the binge eating disorder group appeared to be independent from others.
Our results suggest the presence of both specific and transdiagnostic mechanisms in ED subtypes, whose knowledge is of relevance for clinical practice.
The increased use of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) to investigate cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia fostered interest in its sensitivity in the context of family studies. As various measures of the same cognitive domains may have different power to distinguish between unaffected relatives of patients and controls, the relative sensitivity of MCCB tests for relative–control differences has to be established. We compared MCCB scores of 852 outpatients with schizophrenia (SCZ) with those of 342 unaffected relatives (REL) and a normative Italian sample of 774 healthy subjects (HCS). We examined familial aggregation of cognitive impairment by investigating within-family prediction of MCCB scores based on probands’ scores.
Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze group differences in adjusted MCCB scores. Weighted least-squares analysis was used to investigate whether probands’ MCCB scores predicted REL neurocognitive performance.
SCZ were significantly impaired on all MCCB domains. REL had intermediate scores between SCZ and HCS, showing a similar pattern of impairment, except for social cognition. Proband's scores significantly predicted REL MCCB scores on all domains except for visual learning.
In a large sample of stable patients with schizophrenia, living in the community, and in their unaffected relatives, MCCB demonstrated sensitivity to cognitive deficits in both groups. Our findings of significant within-family prediction of MCCB scores might reflect disease-related genetic or environmental factors.
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania for which there is a paucity of effective viable non-toxic drugs. There are 1·3 million new cases each year causing considerable socio-economic hardship, best measured in 2·4 million disability adjusted life years, with greatest impact on the poorest communities, which means that desperately needed new antileishmanial treatments have to be both affordable and accessible. Established medicines with cheaper and faster development times may hold the cure for this neglected tropical disease. This concept of using old drugs for new diseases may not be novel but, with the ambitious target of controlling or eradicating tropical diseases by 2020, this strategy is still an important one. In this review, we will explore the current state-of-the-art of drug repurposing strategies in the search for new treatments for leishmaniasis.
Local food systems are frequently touted as economic development strategies for rural communities. In this study, we estimated the local economic impacts of local compared with conventionally produced and marketed food in two regions of Missouri and one region in Nebraska. We found that local food systems generated substantial increases in value added for their local economies.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Hypervelocity stars (HVSs) are characterized by a total velocity in excess of the Galactic escape speed, and with trajectories consistent with coming from the Galactic Centre. We apply a novel data mining routine, an artificial neural network, to discover HVSs in the TGAS subset of the first data release of the Gaia satellite, using only the astrometry of the stars. We find 80 stars with a predicted probability >90% of being HVSs, and we retrieved radial velocities for 47 of those. We discover 14 objects with a total velocity in the Galactic rest frame >400 km s−1, and 5 of these have a probability >50% of being unbound from the Milky Way. Tracing back orbits in different Galactic potentials, we discover 1 HVS candidate, 5 bound HVS candidates, and 5 runaway star candidates with remarkably high velocities, between 400 and 780 km s−1. We wait for future Gaia releases to confirm the goodness of our sample and to increase the number of HVS candidates.
The stellar occultation technique is a powerful tool to study distant small solar system bodies. Currently, around 2 500 trans-neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs are known. With the astrometry from Gaia and large surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), accurate predictions of occultation events will be available to tens of thousands of TNOs and Centaurs and boost the knowledge of the outer solar system.
An electrophoretic process is proposed to deposit electrochemically-preformed Au or Pd NPs, with controlled size, directly on MWCNTs-based chemiresistors to improve the detection of aromatic pollutants, compared to pristine ones.
The sensing properties of pristine and functionalized MWCNTs were evaluated at an operating temperature of 40°C towards various concentrations of one aromatic pollutant, belonging to the dangerous BTEX class of compounds, m-Xylene. The sensing performance was related to the metal used in the functionalization process. Metal-doped MWCNTs sensors exhibited a very high gas sensitivity to m-Xylene even at low (80 ppb) concentration at low operating temperature (40°C), good reversibility and repeatability, with the sensing properties controlled by the type of deposited metal catalyst.
The results indicate that Metal-modified MWCNT-based chemiresistive gas sensors has good potential in practical applications, due to its remarkable performance, low power consumption, and facile synthesized methods.
The Digitised First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) provides low dispersion optical spectra for about 24 million sources. A two-step machine learning algorithm based on similarities to predefined templates is applied to select different classes of rare objects in the dataset automatically, for example late type stars, quasars and white dwarves. Identifying outliers from the groups of common astrophysical objects may lead to discovery of rare objects, such as gamma-ray burst afterglows.
Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation in these galaxies may be fuelled by recent inflow of metal-poor atomic gas. While this process is debated, it can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because gas cooling (necessary for star formation) is faster than the Hi-to-H2 conversion.
The prompt availability of reliable epidemiological information on emerging pandemics is crucial for public health policy-makers. Early in 2013, a possible new H1N1 epidemic notified by an intensive care unit (ICU) to GiViTI, the Italian ICU network, prompted the re-activation of the real-time monitoring system developed during the 2009–2010 pandemic. Based on data from 216 ICUs, we were able to detect and monitor an outbreak of severe H1N1 infection, and to compare the situation with previous years. The timely and correct assessment of the severity of an epidemic can be obtained by investigating ICU admissions, especially when historical comparisons can be made.
Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is the most pathogenic hantavirus in Europe with a case-fatality rate of up to 12%. To detect changes in risk for humans, the prevalence of antibodies to DOBV has been monitored in a population of Apodemus flavicollis in the province of Trento (northern Italy) since 2000, and a sudden increase was observed in 2010. In the 13-year period of this study, 2077 animals were live-trapped and mean hantavirus seroprevalence was 2·7% (s.e. = 0·3%), ranging from 0% (in 2000, 2002 and 2003) to 12·5% (in 2012). Climatic (temperature and precipitation) and host (rodent population density, rodent weight and sex, and larval tick burden) variables were analysed using Generalized Linear Models and multi-model inference to select the best model. Climatic changes (mean annual precipitation and maximum temperature) and individual body mass had a positive effect on hantavirus seroprevalence. Other possible drivers affecting the observed pattern need to be studied further.
Objectives: Many European countries perform rapid assessments of the relative effectiveness (RE) of pharmaceuticals as part of the reimbursement decision making process. Increased sharing of information on RE across countries may save costs and reduce duplication of work. The objective of this article is to describe the development of a tool for rapid assessment of RE of new pharmaceuticals that enter the market, the HTA Core Model® for Rapid Relative Effectiveness Assessment (REA) of Pharmaceuticals.
Methods: Eighteen member organisations of the European Network of Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) participated in the development of the model. Different versions of the model were developed and piloted in this collaboration and adjusted accordingly based on feedback on the content and feasibility of the model.
Results: The final model deviates from the traditional HTA Core Model® used for assessing other types of technologies. This is due to the limited scope (strong focus on RE), the timing of the assessment (just after market authorisation), and strict timelines (e.g. 90 days) required for performing the assessment. The number of domains and assessment elements was limited and it was decided that the primary information sources should preferably be a submission file provided by the marketing authorisation holder and the European Public Assessment Report.
Conclusions: The HTA Core Model® for Rapid REA (version 3.0) was developed to produce standardised transparent RE information of pharmaceuticals. Further piloting can provide input for possible improvements, such as further refining the assessment elements and new methodological guidance on relevant areas.
The crystal chemistry of wavellite from Zbirov (Czech Republic), ideally Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3·5H2O, was addressed by means of a multi-methodological approach based on electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) using wave-dispersive spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder and singlecrystal infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The EMPA data showed the presence of significant F replacing OH in the sample studied. The structure was solved in the Pcmn orthorhombic space group, with the following unit-cell constants: a = 9.6422(7), b = 17.4146(15), c = 7.0094(2) Å, V = 1176.98(10) Å3. Phosphorus atoms display tetrahedral (PO4) coordination, while Al cations display octahedral coordination. The mineral framework can be viewed as the repetition of cationic arrays made up of AlO6 polyhedra, bridged by PO4 groups and further joined by O–H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The single-crystal unpolarized Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum shows combination bands indicating the presence of both OH and H2O in the structure. Both FTIR and Raman spectra show a broad absorption extending from 3600 to 2800 cm−1 resulting from the overlapping of several components due to the water molecules and the OH group. The frequencies observed are comparable to those expected on the basis of the Libowitzky relationship for the range of D–H⋯A bond systems in the structure.