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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can increase plant nutrient uptake and chemical defense production, both of which can improve plants’ ability to resist insect herbivory. Cover crops—non-commercial species planted in between cash crops in a crop rotation—can naturally alter both soil nutrients and AMF. We tested whether different cover crop species alter AMF colonization, plant nutrient status and plant–insect interactions in a subsequent maize crop. Cover crop species were either non-mycorrhizal, non-leguminous (canola, forage radish), mycorrhizal non-leguminous (cereal rye, oats), mycorrhizal leguminous (clover, pea) or absent (fallow). We measured the cascading consequences of cover crop treatment on maize root AMF colonization, maize growth and performance of an herbivorous insect (European corn borer) feeding on the maize. Maize AMF colonization was greater in plots previously planted with mycorrhizal (rye, oats) than non-mycorrhizal (canola, radish) cover crops or no cover crop (fallow). AMF colonization was linked to increased plant phosphorous and nitrogen, and maize growth increased with low plant N:P. Induced jasmonic acid pathway plant defenses increased with increasing maize growth and AMF colonization. European corn borer survivorship decreased with lower plant N:P, and insect development rate decreased with increased induced plant defenses. Our data describe a cascade in which cover crop species selection can increase or decrease mycorrhizal colonization of subsequent maize crop roots, which in turn impacts phosphorus uptake and may affect herbivory resistance in the maize. These results suggest that farmers could select cover crop species to manage nutrient uptake and pest resistance, in order to amend or limit fertilizer and pesticide use.
Herbicide resistance, and in particular multiple-herbicide resistance, poses an ever-increasing threat to food security. A biotype of junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] with resistance to four herbicides, imazamox, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, quinclorac, and propanil, each representing a different mechanism of action, was identified in Sunflower County, MS. Dose responses were performed on the resistant biotype and a biotype sensitive to all four herbicides to determine the level of resistance. Application of a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, malathion, with the herbicides imazamox and quinclorac resulted in increased susceptibility in the resistant biotype. Differential gene expression analysis of resistant and sensitive plants revealed that 170 transcripts were upregulated in resistant plants relative to sensitive plants and 160 transcripts were upregulated in sensitive plants. In addition, 507 transcripts were only expressed in resistant plants and 562 only in sensitive plants. A subset of these transcripts were investigated further using quantitative PCR (qPCR) to compare gene expression in resistant plants with expression in additional sensitive biotypes. The qPCR analysis identified two transcripts, a kinase and a glutathione S-transferase that were significantly upregulated in resistant plants compared with the sensitive plants. A third transcript, encoding an F-box protein, was downregulated in the resistant plants relative to the sensitive plants. As no cytochrome P450s were differentially expressed between the resistant and sensitive plants, a single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis was performed, revealing several nonsynonymous point mutations of interest. These candidate genes will require further study to elucidate the resistance mechanisms present in the resistant biotype.
Postel Nunatak in the Patuxent Range has been previously mapped as Nelson Limestone but there was no biostratigraphic support for that interpretation until now. We confirm that limestone exposures at Postel Nunatak are at least partly correlated with the Nelson Limestone of the Neptune Range, 160 km north-east, and are not correlative with the lower Cambrian Schneider Hills Limestone of the Argentina Range. Upper beds have yielded the trilobites Suludella? davnii Palmer & Gatehouse, 1972 and Solenopleura pruina Palmer & Gatehouse, 1972, which provide a basis for assignment to Cambrian Series 3 (late middle Cambrian), within the Drumian or lower Guzhangian stages. Limestone beds were deposited in a shallow marine setting, ranging from supratidal to lagoonal facies with rare subtidal intervals. These settings contrast with deeper water facies of the Neptune Range. Despite limitations in sampling density, isotopic analysis indicates that a greater than +2.5‰ shift in δ13C is consistent with δ13C trends documented for the Drumian Stage. Because the upper and lower contacts at Postel Nunatak are covered by snow and ice, the relationship with rocks mapped as the Patuxent Formation in the Patuxent Range remains uncertain, but part of it may belong to the Precambrian Hannah Ridge Formation.
This letter describes an innovative spin-coating system, built from off-the-shelf components, that can easily and inexpensively be integrated into any laboratory environment. Combined with a liquid suspension of conductive polymer, such a “rotary coater” enables simple coating of planar samples to create a physical protective barrier on the sample surface. This barrier aids in charge dissipation during scanning electron microscope and focused ion beam (FIB) imaging and provides wide-scale protection of the sample surface from ion bombardment during FIB imaging and gas-assisted deposition. This polymer layer replaces the localized and time-consuming electron beam deposition step typically performed during transmission electron microscopy lamella preparation. After observation, the coating can be easily removed, if desired. The described spin-coating procedure has minimal cost while providing repeatable positive results, without the need for expensive commercial coating instrumentation.
Supernova remnants (SNRs) are powerful particle accelerators. As a supernova (SN) blast wave propagates through the circumstellar medium (CSM), electrons and protons scatter across the shock and gain energy by entrapment in the magnetic field. The accelerated particles generate further magnetic field fluctuations and local amplification, leading to cosmic ray production. The wealth of data from Supernova 1987A is providing a template of the SN-CSM interaction, and an important guide to the radio detection and identification of core-collapse SNe based on their spectral properties. Thirty years after the explosion, radio observations of SNR 1987A span from 70 MHz to 700 GHz. We review extensive observing campaigns with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), and follow-ups with other radio telescopes. Observations across the radio spectrum indicate rapid changes in the remnant morphology, while current ATCA and ALMA observations show that the SNR has entered a new evolutionary phase.
We present wide-field, spatially and highly resolved spectroscopic observations of Balmer filaments in the northeastern rim of Tycho’s supernova remnant in order to investigate the signal of cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration. The spectra of Balmer-dominated shocks (BDSs) have characteristic narrow (FWHM ~ 10 km s−1) and broad (FWHM ~ 1000 km s−1) Hα components. CRs affect the Hα-line parameters: heating the cold neutrals in the interstellar medium results in broadening of the narrow Hα-line width beyond 20 km s−1, but also in reduction of the broad Hα-line width due to energy being removed from the protons in the post-shock region. For the first time we show that the width of the narrow Hα line, much larger than 20 km s−1, is not a resolution or geometric effect nor a spurious result of a neglected intermediate (FWHM ~ 100 km s−1) component resulting from hydrogen atoms undergoing charge exchange with warm protons in the broad-neutral precursor. Moreover, we show that a narrow line width ≫ 20 km s−1 extends across the entire NE rim, implying CR acceleration is ubiquitous, and making it possible to relate its strength to locally varying shock conditions. Finally, we find several locations along the rim, where spectra are significantly better explained (based on Bayesian evidence) by inclusion of the intermediate component, with a width of 180 km s−1 on average.
We carried out high resolution simulations of weakly-magnetized core-collapse supernovae in two-dimensional axisymmetry in order to see the influence of the magnetic field and rotation on the explosion. We found that the magnetic field amplified by magnetorotational instability (MRI) has a great positive impact on the explosion by enhancing the neutrino heating, provided that the progenitor has large angular momentum close to the highest value found in stellar evolution calculations. We also found that even for progenitors neither involving strong magnetic flux nor large angular momentum, the magnetic field is greatly amplified by the convection aand rotation, and this leads to the boost of the explosion again by enhancing the neutrino heating.
Supernova 1986J is almost the same age as SN 1987A, but was Type IIn, and likely had a massive progenitor. Located at 10 Mpc in NGC 891, it is one of the few supernovae whose radio emission can be resolved using VLBI. We present a new 5-GHz global-VLBI image of SN 1986J from 2014 as well as broadband VLA flux-density measurements. SN 1986J is unusual in that a compact synchrotron radio-emitting component appeared in the centre of the expanding shell of ejecta ~14 yr after the explosion, which now dominates the VLBI image. The central component is stationary to within the uncertainties (<570 km s−1), and it has a marginally resolved HWHM radius of (6.7−3.7+0.7) × 1016 cm. The shell has expanded with average v ≃ 5400 km s−1. The central component’s 5-GHz flux density is still increasing with time, and at present it has a 5-GHz νLν luminosity of ~4 × 1035 erg s−1, ~20 times that of the Crab Nebula. The central component may be due to a newly formed pulsar wind nebula, or an accreting black hole, or it may be due to interaction of the supernova shock with a highly structured environment left over from a progenitor which was in a close binary system. We discuss the newest observations and the constraints on its nature.
As supernova remnants (SNRs) age, they become efficient cosmic ray accelerators at their outer shell shocks. The current paradigm for shock acceleration theory favors turbulent field environs in the proximity of these shocks, turbulence driven by current instabilities involving energetic ions. With the imminent prospect of dedicated X-ray polarimeters becoming a reality, the possibility looms of probing turbulence on scales that couple to the super-TeV electrons that emit X-rays. This paper presents model X-ray polarization signatures from energetic electrons moving in simulated MHD turbulence of varying levels of “chaos.” The emission volumes are finite slabs that represent the active regions of young SNR shells. We find that the turbulent field energy must be quite limited relative to that of the total field in order for the X-ray polarization degree to be as strong as the radio measures obtained in some remnants. Results presented are pertinent to the planned IXPE and XIPE polarimeters.
We show how the dense shells of circumstellar gas immediately outside the red supergiants(RSGs) can affect the early optical light curves of Type II-P SNe taking the example of 2013ej. The peak in V, R and I bands, decline rate after peak and plateau length are found to be strongly influenced by the dense CSM formed due to enhanced mass loss during the oxygen and silicon burning stage of the progenitor. We find that the required explosion energy for the progenitors with CSM is reduced by almost a factor of 2.
In the framework of the Astronomical Validation and Early Science activities of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT, www.srt.inaf.it), we performed 22 GHz imaging observations of SNR W44 and IC443. Thanks to the single-dish imaging performances of SRT and innovative ad hoc imaging techniques, we obtained maps that provide a detailed view of the structure of the remnants. We are planning to exploit the high-frequency radio data of SNRs to better characterize the spatially-resolved spectra and search for possible spectral steepening or breaks in selected SNR regions, assessing the high-energy tail of the region-dependent electron distribution.
Young Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) are characterized by Balmer-dominated optical spectra, well-defined shell morphologies, > 1036 ergs s−1 X-ray luminosities, and a lack of massive stars and dense interstellar gas in their vicinity. Applying these characteristics and using archival deep HST and Chandra observations of M83, we search for young Type Ia SNRs in this spiral galaxy. This is a very difficult task!
Here we discuss the observational properties of supernovae exploding in extremely dense environments, namely Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn). In SNe IIn, the surrounding environments play significant role in the supernovae energetics and evolution. Thus they are different than other classes of core collapse supernovae, whose energetics are not significantly altered by their environments. Though high density of medium is a prerequisite for radio and X-ray emission, less than 10% on SNe IIn are bright in these bands. This has important implications for their progenitor models. I will discuss the radio and X-ray observations of SNe IIn, which are crucial to unravel their complex environments. We also discuss some individual supernovae belonging to this class and discuss as to how they have refined our understanding of SNe IIn. Finally the importance of well sampled long term light curves in radio and X-ray bands cannot be stressed enough.
In an aspherical supernova explosion, shock emergence is not simultaneous and non-radial flows develop near the stellar surface. Oblique shock breakouts tend to be easily developed in compact progenitors like stripped-envelop core collapse supernovae. According to Matzner et al. (2013), non-spherical explosions develop non-radial flows that alters the observable emission and radiation of a supernova explosion. These flows can limit ejecta speed, change the distribution of matter and heat of the ejecta, suppress the breakout flash, and most importantly engender collisions outside the star. We construct a global numerical FLASH hydrodynamic simulation in a two dimensional spherical coordinate, focusing on the non-relativistic, adiabatic limit in a polytropic envelope to see how these fundamental differences affect the early light curve of core-collapse SNe.
G326.3-1.8 (also known as MSH 15-56) has been detected in radio as a middle-aged composite supernova remnant (SNR) consisting of a SNR shell and a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) which has been crushed by the reverse shock. With the recent Fermi-LAT data release Pass 8 providing increased acceptance and angular resolution, we investigate the morphology of this SNR to disentangle the PWN from the SNR contributions and understand the nature of the γ-ray emission. We thus perform a morphological and spectral analysis from 300 MeV to 300 GeV which highlights the contributions from these two components. The simplest interpretation is hadronic emission from the SNR and harder leptonic emission from the PWN.
Reliable distances to Galactic Supernova remnants (SNRs) are essential to constrain parameters that reveal the evolutional process of SNRs. We carry out a project to measure SNRs’ distances in the first quadrant of the Galaxy. In this project, red clump stars (RCS) are used as standard candle to build the optical extinction (AV)-(D) distance relation in each direction of extinction-known SNRs. Here, G5.7-0.01, G54.1+0.3 and G78.2+2.1 are taken as typical examples. We obtain the distance of 3−0.3+0.4 kpc for G5.7-0.01, the lower limit of 5.8 kpc for G54.1+0.3, the upper limit of 2 kpc for G5.7-0.01. The results are consistent with distances from kinematic measurements. Hence, we highlight the RCS method can independently trace the distance to the SNRs.
I present my minority view that the majority (or even all) of core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are driven by jets rather than by neutrinos, and that the majority of type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) reach their explosion via the core degenerate scenario. New simulations presented at the meeting did not achieve an explosion of CCSNe. I critically examine other arguments that where presented in support of the neutrino-driven model, and present counter arguments that support the jet-driven explosion mechanism. The jets operate via a negative jet feedback mechanism (JFM). The negative feedback mechanism explains the explosion energy being several times the binding energy of the core in most CCSNe. We do not know yet what mechanism explodes massive stars and we do not know yet what evolutionary route leads white dwarfs to explode as SN Ia, and so we must be open to different ideas and critically examine old notions.
RX J1713.7-3946 is a prototype in the γ-ray-bright supernova remnants (SNRs) and is in continuing debates on its hadronic versus leptonic origin of the γ-ray emission. We explore the role played by the diffusive relativistic protons that escape from the SNR shock wave in the γ-ray emission, apart from the emission of high energy particles from the inside of the SNR. In the scenario that the SNR shock propagates in a clumpy molecular cavity, we consider that the γ-ray emission from the inside of the SNR may either arise from the IC scattering or from the interaction between the trapped energetic protons and the shocked clumps. The dominant origin between them depends on the electron-to-proton number ratio. The surrounding molecular cavity wall is considered to also produce γ-ray emission due to the “illumination” by the diffusive protons that escaped from the shock wave during the expansion history. The broad-band spectrum can be well explained by this two-zone model, in which the γ-ray emission from the inside governs the TeV band, while the outer emission component substantially contributes to the GeV γ-rays. The two-zone model can also explain the TeV γ-ray radial brightness profile that significantly stretches beyond the nonthermal X-ray emitting region.
Fostered by the possibilities of multi-dimensional computational modeling, in particular the advent of three-dimensional (3D) simulations, our understanding of the neutrino-driven explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) has experienced remarkable progress over the past decade. First self-consistent, first-principle models have shown successful explosions in 3D, and even failed cases may be cured by moderate changes of the microphysics inside the neutron star (NS), better grid resolution, or more detailed progenitor conditions at the onset of core collapse, in particular large-scale perturbations in the convective Si and O burning shells. 3D simulations have also achieved to follow neutrino-driven explosions continuously from the initiation of the blast wave, through the shock breakout from the progenitor surface, into the radioactively powered evolution of the SN, and towards the free expansion phase of the emerging remnant. Here we present results from such simulations, which form the basis for direct comparisons with observations of SNe and SN remnants in order to derive constraints on the still disputed explosion mechanism. It is shown that predictions based on hydrodynamic instabilities and mixing processes associated with neutrino-driven explosions yield good agreement with measured NS kicks, light-curve properties of SN 1987A and asymmetries of iron and 44Ti distributions observed in SN 1987A and Cassiopeia A.