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With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
We performed a new series of measurements on samples that were part of early measurements on radiocarbon (14C) dating made in 1948–1949. Our results show generally good agreement to the data published in 1949–1951, despite vast changes in technology, with only two exceptions where there was a discrepancy in the original studies. Our new measurements give calibrated ages that overlap with the known ages. We dated several samples at four different laboratories, and so we were also able to make a small intercomparison at the same time. In addition, new measurements on samples from other Egyptian materials used by Libby and co-workers were made at UC Irvine. Samples of tree rings used in the original studies (from Broken Flute Cave and Centennial Stump) were obtained from the University of Arizona Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research archive and remeasured. New data were compared to the original studies and other records.
Gastrointestinal infection caused by pathogenic bacteria and viruses are an important cause of diarrhoea and ill-thrift in human and animal neonates (Guerrant et al., 1986, Radostits et al., 1994). Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Rotavirus are both important causes of neonatal diarrhoea, in addition E.coli is an important factor in the post-weaning diarrhoea syndrome seen in early weaned piglets (Radostits et al., 1994). Neonates reared on maternal milk are protected by antibodies (IgA in humans and pigs, IgG in ruminants) which act passively in the gut against organisms which cause gastrointestinal disease. This study investigated the protective effect of egg antibodies (Lohmann Animal Health) against E.coli and Rotavirus challenge in neonatal piglets. The eggs were sourced from hens vaccinated against E.coli and Rotavirus.
The tree-ring program at Belfast originally aimed at the construction of a 6000-year oak chronology. The stimulus for this work came from the large numbers of sub-fossil oaks uncovered in Northern Ireland during land drainage and motorway construction in the late 1960's (Pilcher et al 1977). It became clear that any attempt to build such a long chronology would break naturally into two distinct units. One unit related to the construction of a prehistoric (BC era) chronology dependent on the sampling of large numbers of essentially random sub-fossil timbers. For this unit to be successful, timbers would have to survive relatively uniformly through time. The second chronology building unit was related principally to the AD era, with a natural extension into the first millennium BC at least. This unit was envisaged as the link between the present day and the necessarily floating sub-fossil chronologies. This AD chronology was based on modern, historic, and archaeologic timbers.
Procedures of measurements and calculation remain as previously described. All samples are pretreated according to the methods described in R, 1971, v 13, p 103 and p 123 unless specified under the sample descriptions. Unless stated samples are from Ireland.
The dating equipment in the Palaeoecology Laboratory remains essentially as described in R., 1970, v. 12, p. 285–290, and the operating conditions as described in R., 1970, v. 12, p. 291–297. Small samples, however, have been counted at a filling pressure equivalent to 152 cm Hg at 20°C. Charcoal samples pretreated by nitration have been treated as described in R., 1970, v. 12, p. 285–290. Other charcoal samples have been pretreated using the following technique developed by P. Q. Dresser: samples are washed in 5% sodium hydroxide; this is followed by treatment in a solution composed of 8% potassium permanganate and 10% sulphuric acid, at 80°C for 20 mins, to remove residual rootlets and organic matter. Unless specifically stated, the samples have been collected by the authors and other members of the Laboratory: M. G. L. Baillie, P. Q. Dresser, Adelaide Goddard, and I. Goddard. Where a sample has been collected for a specific research project the collector's initials are given. Routine operation of the dating apparatus has been carried out by Mrs. Marilyn Carse and Mrs. Florence Qua to whom we are much indebted.
The dating equipment and operating conditions remain essentially as previously described. This list includes some small samples counted at a filling pressure equivalent to 76cm Hg. at 20°C. Carbon isotope ratios were obtained and calculated as described (R., 1973, v. 15, p. 212). All samples are from Ireland.
Bi-decade samples of dendrochronologically matched Irish Oak, measured with a precision of ca ± 20 years, covering the period 200 to 4000 BC are presented. The data are compared with the published data of Suess, de Jong, and Mook to provide a general calibration of the 14C time scale for this period. Although the dendrochronologic sequences presented are not absolutely tied to present, the best fit (based on 14C evidence) of the Belfast data to absolute chronologies, the error and evidence associated with such positioning is given. The intervals chosen for analysis were 20 years, reducing slightly the resolution of short-term variations when compared to 10-year intervals, which are sometimes measured. However, this calibration would suffice for most scientific purposes and certainly for the calendrical conversion of 14C dates derived from archaeologic samples.
The dating equipment in the Palaeoecology Laboratory has remained essentially as described in Belfast I (this volume). Rewiring of the counter has increased the detection efficiency slightly. Background count corrected to 1606 mb is now 11.0 counts/min and the net count rate for 95% of the NBS oxalic acid standard is 56.0 counts/min. All charcoal samples have been pretreated in accordance with the schedule given in Belfast I.
The dating equipment in the Queen's University Palaeoecology Laboratory was installed to provide data for research projects, initially dealing with the development of agriculture, in the departments of Botany and Archaeology.
High-precision measurement of dendrochronologically dated Irish oak at bi-decade/decade intervals has continued in the Belfast laboratory, extending the 14C data base from ca AD 1840 to 5210 BC. The dendrochronology is now considered absolute (see Belfast dendrochronology this conference) (Brown et al, 1986) and a continuous detailed curve is presented, showing the natural variations in the atmospheric concentration of 14C over >7000 years. Each data point has a precision of <2.5., and some 4500 years have now been compared with Seattle, giving excellent agreement. Discussion of this data base and the justification of the claimed accuracy is given together with a comparison of other chronologies. Some of the advantages and limitations of the above are discussed.
The dating equipment and operating conditions remain essentially as previously described. All samples in this list have been counted at a filling pressure equivalent to 152 cm Hg at 20°C. The proportional counter has recently been re-wired, resulting in a lowering of the operating voltage. Electron-microscopic examination of the old counter wire showed considerable thickening due to the accumulation of fine dust particles. A filter is being installed in the filling line to minimize this effect. Pretreatments are as given in previous date lists unless otherwise stated.
The dating equipment and operating conditions remain essentially as previously described. Samples in this list were counted at filling pressures equivalent to either 152 or 380 cm Hg at 20°C. Pretreatments are as given in previous lists unless otherwise specified. All wood samples were treated with sodium chlorite and dilute HCl to leave a cellulose-rich residue. Pine wood was in some cases extracted with petroleum spirit in a Soxhlet apparatus before this treatment, to remove resins.
We describe an X-ray polarimeter which will be flown on the SPECTRUM-X-Gamma mission. The instrument exploits three distinct physical processes to measure polarization: Bragg reflection from a graphite crystal, Thomson scattering from a metallic lithium target, and photoemission from a Cesium Iodide photocathode. These three processes allow polarization measurements over an energy band of 0.3 keV to 12 keV. The polarimeter will make possible sensitive measurements of several hundred known X-ray sources. X-ray polarization measurements will allow us to constrain the geometry of gas flow in X-ray binaries, identify nonthermal emission in supernova remnants, test current models for X-ray emission in radio pulsars, determine the radiation mechanisms in active galactic nuclei, and search for inertial frame dragging (Lense-Thirring effect) around the putative black hole in Cygnus X-1.
Episodes of depression and anxiety (D&A) during the transition from late adolescence to adulthood, particularly when persistent, are predictive of long-term disorders and associated public health burden. Understanding risk factors at this time is important to guide intervention. The current objective was to investigate the associations between maternal symptoms of D&A with offspring symptoms during their transition to adulthood.
Data from a large population-based birth cohort study, in South Brazil, were used. Prospective associations between maternal D&A and offspring risk of these symptoms during the transition to adulthood (18/19, 24 and 30 years) were estimated.
Maternal D&A in adolescence was associated with offspring symptoms across the transition to adulthood, associations were consistently stronger for females than for males. Daughters whose mothers reported D&A were 4.6 times (95% confidence interval 2.71–7.84) as likely to report D&A at all three time-points, than daughters of symptom-free mothers.
Maternal D&A is associated with persistent D&A during the daughter's transition to adulthood. Intervention strategies should consider the mother's mental health.
We sought to analyse the variation in the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus over three recent time points and characterise ductal ligation practices in preterm infants in the United States, adjusting for demographic and morbidity factors.
Using the Kids’ Inpatient Database from 2003, 2006, and 2009, we identified infants born at ⩽32 weeks of gestation with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus and ligation code. We examined patient and hospital characteristics and identified patient and hospital variables associated with ligation.
Of 182,610 preterm births, 30,714 discharges included a patent ductus arteriosus diagnosis. The rate of patent ductus arteriosus diagnosis increased from 14% in 2003 to 21% in 2009 (p<0.001). A total of 4181 ligations were performed, with an overall ligation rate of 14%. Ligation rate in infants born at ⩽28 weeks of gestation was 20% overall, increasing from 18% in 2003 to 21% in 2009 (p<0.001). The ligation rate varied by state (4–28%), and ligation was associated with earlier gestational age, associated diagnoses, hospital type, teaching hospital status, and region (p<0.001).
The rates of patent ductus arteriosus diagnosis and ligation have increased in the recent years. Variation exists in the practice of patent ductus arteriosus ligation and is influenced by patient and non-patient factors.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) differ in their biology and co-morbidities. We hypothesized that GAD but not PD symptoms at the age of 15 years are associated with depression diagnosis at 18 years.
Using longitudinal data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort we examined relationships of GAD and PD symptoms (measured by the Development and Well-Being Assessment) at 15 years with depression at 18 years (by the Clinical Interview Schedule – Revised) using logistic regression. We excluded adolescents already depressed at 15 years and adjusted for social class, maternal education, birth order, gender, alcohol intake and smoking. We repeated these analyses following multiple imputation for missing data.
In the sample with complete data (n = 2835), high and moderate GAD symptoms in adolescents not depressed at 15 years were associated with increased risk of depression at 18 years both in unadjusted analyses and adjusting for PD symptoms at 15 years and the above potential confounders. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for depression at 18 years in adolescents with high relative to low GAD scores was 5.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0–9.1, overall p < 0.0001]. There were no associations between PD symptoms and depression at 18 years in any model (high relative to low PD scores, adjusted OR = 1.3, 95% CI 0.3–4.8, overall p = 0.737). Missing data imputation strengthened the relationship of GAD symptoms with depression (high relative to low GAD scores, OR = 6.2, 95% CI 3.9–9.9) but those for PD became weaker.
Symptoms of GAD but not PD at 15 years are associated with depression at 18 years. Clinicians should be aware that adolescents with GAD symptoms may develop depression.
Figure 1 shows hybrid maps of the core of 3C 273B at five epochs, made with arrays of 4 or 5 VLBI antennas. The maps span a period of 3.5 years. They all show a bright eastern peak and a lower-brightness extension to the west. There is a local maximum in the western extension between 6 and 8 milliarcsec from the main peak. This “blob” moves steadily further away from the main peak along a roughly straight line in PA −116° ± 2°. Compare this with the position angle of the 25-arcsec optical jet, −137°. The maps show a slight curvature to the south with increasing separation from the main peak. Lower-resolution VLBI maps at lower frequencies show that this curvature continues at greater separations, suggesting a smooth connection between the milli-arcsecond position angle and the position angle of the optical jet. In our latest map (1981.09) the blob is no longer detectable with the limited dynamic range of the VLBI network (about 20:1).