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We present the KMOS (K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph) Cluster and VIRIAL (VLT IRIFU Absorption Line) Guaranteed Time Observation (GTO) programs. KMOS provides 24 arms each feeding an integral field unit (14×14 spaxels of 0.2″ pixels) for IZ, YJ, H and K band near infrared (NIR) medium resolution spectroscopy (R ∼ 3500). Targets are selected from a 7.2′ diameter patrol field. Ultra-deep spectroscopy of ∼ 80 early-type cluster galaxies (∼ 20hr on source) and ∼ 200 (∼ 10hr on source) early-type field galaxies at 1 < z < 2 will dramatically improve the situation at z > 1 for which measurements of stellar velocity dispersions and absorption indices are limited to a few, often relatively young passively evolving galaxies (e.g. Bezanson 2013). In ESO Periods P92 and P93, 15 nights worth of data has been collected for KMOS-Clusters and 6 nights for VIRIAL: this will be supplemented with more data in upcoming semesters. All galaxies have multiband HST imaging including existing or upcoming WFC3 IR imaging, providing stellar mass maps and sizes. Combined with our dispersion measurements, this will allow us to examine the fundamental plane and the dynamical mass of a large sample of z > 1 galaxies for the first time, for both cluster and field galaxies.
Daily acquisitions from satellite microwave sensors can be used to observe the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Arctic sea-ice snowmelt onset because the initial presence of liquid water in a dry snowpack causes a dramatic change in the active-and passive-microwave response. A daily sequence of backscatter coefficient images from the NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) clearly shows the spatially continuous progression of decreasing backscatter associated with snowmelt onset across the Arctic Ocean during spring 1997. A time series of the active NSCAT backscatter and a scattering index from the passive Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) show similar trends during the time of the melt onset. An NSCATsnowmelt-onset detection algorithm is developed using the derivative of the backscatter with respect to time to select a melt-onset date for each pixel, generating a melt map for the Arctic sea ice. Comparison between this melt map and one previously generated from an SSM/I scattering index shows the NSCAT algorithm predicts the onset occurs 1−10 days earlier than the SSM/I-based algorithm for most portions of multi-year ice.
Intense continua of electromagnetic radiation of very
brief duration are formed in the interaction of focused
ultra-short terawatt laser pulses with matter. Two different
kinds of experiments, which have been performed utilizing
the Lund 10 Hz titanium-doped sapphire terawatt laser system
are being described, where visible radiation and X-rays,
respectively, have been generated. Focusing into water
leads to the generation of a light continuum through self-phase
modulation. The propagation of the light through tissue
was studied addressing questions related to optical mammography
and specific chromophore absorption. When terawatt laser
pulses are focused onto a solid target with high nuclear
charge Z, intense X-ray radiation of few ps duration
and with energies exceeding hundreds of keV is emitted.
Biomedical applications of this radiation are described,
including differential absorption and gated-viewing imaging.
In July and August 1982 a bloom of Gyrodinium aureolum spread from its normal mid-Channel position to inshore waters off Plymouth. During some particularly calm weather in July and early August the presence of this bloom coincided with aberrant behaviour and some mortality of the bottom fauna. From previous observations in 1978 (Forster, 1979) it seemed probable thatthese damaging effects were related to the presence of the bloom. As soon as possible diving was carried out on positions where mortalities of affected species had been reported, or where previous observations had been made so that any changes could be easily recognized.
The ormer, Haliotis tuberculata L. is a greatly prized species in the Channel Isles. Since the original survey of the ormer population of Guernsey and the subsequent tagging experiments (Forster, 1962, 1967), periodical short visits to the island have been made to investigate the stocks of ormers, especially in areas fished by divers; in 1968 and 1974 visits were also made to Jersey. These surveys were all made at the request of the local Sea Fisheries Committee. In this paper we seek to bring together those aspects of the results which are of scientific interest and to discuss the role of various factors which may have affected the ormer populations particularly that of changes in temperature over the last hundred years. The reproductive biology of this species has recently been reported on by Hayashi (1980).
Callista chione (L.). is a fairly large, handsome bivalve of the family Veneridae. It is found around the coasts of Devon, Cornwall and Wales, though its distribution extends southwards to the Mediterranean. It is usually uncommon but has been found to occur at the eastern end of Whitsand Bay, near Plymouth at a density of about 1 per m2. Several specimens were taken in 1975 while testing a water lift system for the use of aqualung divers. Most of the shells were observed to bear a noticeable growth check in the form of a ridge several millimetres from the shell margin (Fig. 1). This ridge was not found in the older specimens in the laboratory's museum collection. To try to find out the cause of this growth check a tagging experiment was undertaken in 1976, although it was not possible to measure and mark out large numbers; recaptures in the following two years have been sufficient to provide some evidence for the average growth increment of different sizes of shell.
In conjunction with a tagging experiment on Callista chione (L.) in 1976, a small number of the large bivalve Arctica islandica (L.) (Family Arcticidae) were also tagged in a similar manner with plastic discs cemented on to the shell with fast-setting cyanoacrylate adhesive. Arctica is less common in Whitsand Bay than Callista but extends into deeper water, 50–60m. Holme (1953) suggested that the species is long-lived and produced spat infrequently. A few young Arctica have been taken in Whitsand Bay (length 29–37 mm) and also, more commonly, specimens of 80–100 mm. In 1976 five Arctica were tagged and relaid, three of these were recovered in 1977 and one in 1978. Three more were tagged in 1978 and searched for without success in 1979. The recovered specimens did not appear to have moved at all. The results of shell length measurements, though meagre, indicated that growth was very slow. For a shell of 82 mm length the increase was 1–5 mm in a year. For a shell of 101 mm there was no increment after two years. For a shell of 102 mm the annual increment was probably 0-1 mm. In this instance it seems likely that the original length should have been 102–3 mm instead of 103–2 which was recorded. For a shell of 108 mm an increment of 0–3 mm was found after 12 months. From these results the average increment of shells over 100 mm length is likely to be of the order of 0-1 mm per year.
Reports from anglers and divers indicated that in late August and September 1978 a substantial mortality of the bottom fauna and fish had occurred in the bays along the south coast of Cornwall, particularly in the St Austell area. It was therefore decided to carry out an investigation by diving and at the same time collect water samples from affected areas for further analysis. The following notes record the observations made during the period 19–28 September at various localities but mainly in St Austell Bay (see Fig. 1).
A high concentration of certain planktonic animals was found in a frontal region in the English Channel. Temperature, salinity and current measurements and direct visual observations (underwater) describe the nature of the front. It is shown that water depth, season, strong tidal mixing and residence time are important factors leading to the formation and maintenance of a turbulent convergent tidal front.
In 1971 and 1972 during the course of short cruises to the South Biscay area on R.V. ‘Sarsia’ several hauls were made with a 100 hook long-line on the Continental Slope at depths ranging from 800 to 3600 m. The hooks used were of two different patterns (Fig. 1) arranged alternately. The hooks were mounted on wire snoods of about 1 m length which were attached to the line at 10 m intervals by stainless-steel snap-on connectors. The object of this arrangement was to find out if the incurving hook pattern based on a traditional South Pacific type of wooden hook showed any advantage over a normal type of hook.
The results of bottom line fishing have shown that significant catches can be made down to 3000 m depth at several positions on the continental slope off south-west England (Forster, 1968). But when hooks were lifted off the bottom either deliberately or accidentally very few fish were taken. The chances of catching bathypelagic fish in mid-water by baited hooks therefore seemed slender. In 1966 when thin white lines were tried, they were bitten through several times, always at about 1100 m depth. Trials with baited hooks set on thin wire lines in 1967 showed that the black scabbard fish Aphanopus carbo could be taken at this depth. In 1968 and 1970 during the course of short voyages on R.V. ‘Sarsia’ further vertical line hauls were made, taking Aphanopus regularly and also two species of deep-water squaloids.
From 1964 to 1967, 163 deep-sea fish have been caught from 28 line hauls in depths of from 1000 to 3300 m. Slightly over half the total catch consisted of elasmobranchs. The largest individual fish was a shark Pseudotriakis microdon of 2·25 m length taken from 1400 m. The distribution of the eleven species taken regularly in these and previous hauls is compared and contrasted.