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Lactogenesis is triggered by a rapid decline in plasma progesterone concentration combined with a peak in plasma prolactin concentration; in mice, there is a concurrent loss of mammary progesterone receptors (Haslam and Shyamala, 1980). The aims of this experiment were to determine the pattern of change of progesterone receptor and prolactin receptor mRNA during late gestation and early lactation and to determine whether abundance of mRNA for the two receptors are related to each other, to plasma concentrations of progesterone and prolactin or to piglet performance.
An updated compilation of published and new data of major-ion (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, NO3, SO4) and methylsulfonate (MS) concentrations in snow from 520 Antarctic sites is provided by the national ITASE (International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition) programmes of Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and the national Antarctic programme of Finland. The comparison shows that snow chemistry concentrations vary by up to four orders of magnitude across Antarctica and exhibit distinct geographical patterns. The Antarctic-wide comparison of glaciochemical records provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the fundamental factors that ultimately control the chemistry of snow or ice samples. This paper aims to initiate data compilation and administration in order to provide a framework for facilitation of Antarctic-wide snow chemistry discussions across all ITASE nations and other contributing groups. The data are made available through the ITASE web page (http://www2.umaine.edu/itase/content/syngroups/snowchem.html) and will be updated with new data as they are provided. In addition, recommendations for future research efforts are summarized.
Introduction: Data regarding adverse events (AEs) (unintended harm to the patient from health care provided) among children seen in the emergency department (ED) are scarce despite the high risk setting and population. The objective of our study was to estimate the risk and type of AEs, and their preventability and severity, among children treated in pediatric EDs. Methods: Our prospective cohort study enrolled children <18 years of age presenting for care during 21 randomized 8 hr-shifts at 9 pediatric EDs from Nov 2014 to October 2015. Exclusion criteria included unavailability for follow-up or insurmountable language barrier. RAs collected demographic, medical history, ED course, and systems level data. At day 7, 14, and 21 a RA administered a structured telephone interview to all patients to identify flagged outcomes (e.g. repeat ED visits, worsening/new symptoms, etc). A validated trigger tool was used to screen admitted patients’ health records. For any patients with a flagged outcome or trigger, 3 ED physicians independently determined if an AE occurred. Primary outcome was the proportion of patients with an AE related to ED care within 3 weeks of their ED visit. Results: We enrolled 6377 (72.0%) of 8855 eligible patients; 545 (8.5%) were lost to follow-up. Median age was 4.4 years (range 3 months to 17.9 yrs). Eight hundred and seventy seven (13.8%) were triaged as CTAS 1 or 2, 2638 (41.4%) as CTAS 3, and 2839 (44.7%) as CTAS 4 or 5. Top entrance complaints were fever (11.2%) and cough (8.8%). Flagged outcomes/triggers were identified for 2047 (32.1%) patients. While 252 (4.0%) patients suffered at least one AE within 3 weeks of ED visit, 163 (2.6%) suffered an AE related to ED care. In total, patients suffered 286 AEs, most (67.9%) being preventable. The most common AE types were management issues (32.5%) and procedural complications (21.9%). The need for a medical intervention (33.9%) and another ED visit (33.9%) were the most frequent clinical consequences. In univariate analysis, older age, chronic conditions, hospital admission, initial location in high acuity area of the ED, having >1 ED MD or a consultant involved in care, (all p<0.001) and longer length of stay (p<0.01) were associated with AEs. Conclusion: While our multicentre study found a lower risk of AEs among pediatric ED patients than reported among pediatric inpatients and adult ED patients, a high proportion of these AEs were preventable.
Calcium cyanamide is a nitrogenous fertilizer used predominantly for over a century in field and glasshouse vegetable and salad production. The current review draws together, for the first time, knowledge concerning the biological properties of the compound that benefit crop production by encouraging sustainable soil health and quality. This is achieved through the increase of microorganisms antagonistic to plant pathogens. The review also reports on the natural occurence and degradation of cyanamide. The literature survey provides a perspective of research from the early 1900s to current studies. This identifies that nitrogen is released steadily into the rhizosphere from this fertilizer. Calcium is also readily available for plant roots and promotes the alkaline soil conditions beneficial to benign microorganisms. Consequently, soil suppressiveness towards organisms such as Plasmodiophora brassicae, the cause of clubroot disease in brassicas, develops. The effects of calcium and accompanying changes in soil pH values are discussed in relation to the life-cycle stages of P. brassicae and the development of clubroot disease. Formulations of calcium cyanamide contain the dimeric form, dicyandiamide. This compound slows soil nitrification and subsequent nitrate leaching into ground waters, reducing potential pollution. Calcium cyanamide is normally used for growing specialized fresh produce and is not available in quantities comparable with ammoniacal fertilizers. It is contended, however, that it has properties deserving wider assessment because of their implications for sustainable cropping.
Effects of a marine oil-based n-3 LCPUFA supplement (mLCPUFA) fed from weaning until the end of the next lactation to sows with a predicted low litter birth weight (LBW) phenotype on growth performance and carcass quality of litters born to these sows were studied, based on the hypothesis that LBW litters would benefit most from mLCPUFA supplementation. Sows were allocated to be fed either standard corn/soybean meal-based gestation and lactation diets (CON), or the same diets enriched with 0.5% of the mLCPUFA supplement at the expense of corn. The growth performance from birth until slaughter of the litters with the lowest average birth weight in each treatment (n=24 per treatment) is reported in this paper. At weaning, each litter was split between two nursery pens with three to six pigs per pen. At the end of the 5-week nursery period, two barrows and two gilts from each litter that had individual birth weights closest to their litter average birth weight, were moved to experimental grow–finish pens (barn A), where they were housed as two pigs per pen, sorted by sex within litter. Remaining pigs in each litter were moved to another grow–finish barn (barn B) and kept in mixed-sex pens of up to 10 littermates. After 8 weeks, one of the two pigs in each pen in barn A was relocated to the pens holding their respective littermates in barn B. The remaining barrows and gilts were individually housed in the pens in barn A until slaughter. Maternal mLCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentration in the brain, liver and Semitendinosus muscle of stillborn pigs (P<0.01), did not affect eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA concentrations in sow serum at the end of lactation, and did not affect average daily gain, average daily feed intake or feed utilization efficiency of the offspring. BW was higher (P<0.01) in the second half of the grow–finish phase in pigs from mLCPUFA sows compared with controls in barn A, where space and competition for feed was minimal, but not barn B. Carcass quality was not affected by treatment for pigs from barn A, but maternal mLCPUFA supplementation negatively affected carcass quality in pigs from barn B. Collectively, these results suggest that nutritional supplementation of sows can have lasting effects on litter development, but that feeding mLCPUFA to sows during gestation and lactation was not effective in improving growth rates or carcass quality of LBW litters.
The effects of a marine oil-based n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (mLCPUFA) supplement fed to the sow from weaning, through the rebreeding period, during gestation and until end of lactation on litter characteristics from birth until weaning were studied in sows with known litter birth weight phenotypes. It was hypothesized that low birth weight (LBW) litters would benefit more from mLCPUFA supplementation than high birth weight litters. A total of 163 sows (mean parity=4.9±0.9) were rebred after weaning. Sows were pair-matched by parity and litter average birth weight of the previous three litters. Within pairs, sows were allocated to be fed either standard corn/soyabean meal-based gestation and lactation diets (CON), or the same diets enriched with 0.5% of the mLCPUFA supplement at the expense of corn. Each litter between 9 and 16 total pigs born was classified as LBW or medium/high average birth weight (MHBW) litter and there was a significant correlation (P<0.001) between litter average birth weight of the current and previous litters within sows (r=0.49). Sow serum was harvested at day 113 of gestation for determination of immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations. The number of pigs born total and alive were lower (P=0.01) in mLCPUFA than CON sows, whereas the number of stillborn and mummified pigs were similar between treatments. Number of stillborns (trend) and mummies (P<0.01) were higher in LBW than MHBW litters. Tissue weights and brain : tissue weight ratios were similar between treatments, but LBW litters had decreased tissue weights and increased brain : tissue weight ratios compared with MHBW litters. Placental weight was lower (P=0.01) in LBW than MHBW litters, but was not different between treatments. Average and total litter weight at day 1 was similar between treatments. mLCPUFA increased weaning weight (P=0.08) and average daily gain (P<0.05) in MHBW litters, but not in LBW litters. Pre-weaning mortality was similar between treatments, but was higher (P<0.01) in LBW than MHBW litters. IgG concentration in sow serum was similar between treatments and litter birth weight categories. In conclusion, litter birth weight phenotype was repeatable within sows and LBW litters showed the benchmarks of intra-uterine growth retardation (lower placental weight and brain sparing effects). As maternal mLCPUFA supplementation decreased litter size overall, only improved litter growth rate until weaning in MHBW litters, and did not affect pre-weaning mortality, maternal mLCPUFA supplementation was not an effective strategy in our study for mitigating negative effects of a LBW litter phenotype.
To identify predictors of increased adiposity for different measures of adiposity.
Prospective cohort study, the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS), with data at baseline (1990–1994) and wave 2 (2003–2007).
Participants recruited from the community.
Australian-born participants (n 5879) aged 40 to 69 years who were not current smokers and who were free from common chronic diseases at recruitment. At baseline and at wave 2, weight and waist circumference were measured; while demographic and lifestyle variables were obtained at baseline via structured interviews.
Participants who reported any recreational physical activity at baseline had lower weight and smaller waist circumference at wave 2 than those who did not, particularly for younger participants and for vigorous physical activity. Walking for leisure was not associated, and greater physical activity at work was associated, with greater adiposity measures at wave 2. A diet low in carbohydrates and fibre, but high in fat and protein, predicted greater weight and waist circumference at wave 2. Participants were less likely to have elevated weight or waist circumference at wave 2 if they consumed low to moderate amounts of alcohol.
Our findings indicate that promoting vigorous physical activity, encouraging a diet high in carbohydrate and fibre but low in fat and protein, and limiting alcohol intake could be promising approaches for preventing obesity in middle-aged adults. Similar interventions should successfully address the management of both weight and waist circumference, as they were predicted by similar factors.
Feeding n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to gilts or sows has shown different responses to litter growth, pre-weaning mortality and subsequent reproductive performance of the sow. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that feeding a marine oil-based supplement rich in protected n-3 LCPUFAs to gilts in established gestation would improve the growth performance of their litters; and (2) that continued feeding of the supplement during lactation and after weaning would offset the negative effects of lactational catabolism induced, using an established experimental model involving feed restriction of lactating primiparous sows. A total of 117 primiparous sows were pair-matched at day 60 of gestation by weight, and when possible, litter of origin, and were allocated to be either control sows (CON) fed standard gestation and lactation diets, or treated sows (LCPUFA) fed the standard diets supplemented with 84 g/day of a n-3 LCPUFA rich supplement, from day 60 of first gestation, through a 21-day lactation, and until euthanasia at day 30 of their second gestation. All sows were feed restricted during the last 7 days of lactation to induce catabolism, providing a background challenge against which to determine beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on subsequent reproduction. In the absence of an effect on litter size or birth weight, n-3 LCPUFA tended to improve piglet BW gain from birth until 34 days after weaning (P = 0.06), while increasing pre-weaning mortality (P = 0.05). It did not affect energy utilization by the sow during lactation, thus not improving the catabolic state of the sows. Supplementation from weaning until day 30 of second gestation did not have an effect on embryonic weight, ovulation rate or early embryonic survival, but did increase corpora lutea (CL) weight (P = 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were increased in sow serum and CL (P < 0.001), whereas only DHA levels increased in embryos (P < 0.01). In conclusion, feeding n-3 LCPUFA to gilts tended to improve litter growth, but did not have an effect on overall subsequent reproductive performance.
In this paper we consider force-free equilibrium solutions of the MHD equations in a spherical geometry for the case in which magnetic flux crosses the boundary of the containing vessel. The main motivation is to model more faithfully actual spheromak experiments in the laboratory, for which boundaries are unlikely to be magnetic surfaces. We show how a general inhomogeneous boundary field may be constructed from individual components. In particular, we consider the cases of a boundary field of dipolar form and one of quadrupolar form. We then go on to discuss solutions for fields embedded in point or ring electrodes using the ‘general solution’, some of which can be used to model experiments such as the PS-1- or CTX-type spheromaks.
In 2004 and 2005 through field trials in over 2500 locations in several agroecological zones, 40 new cassava varieties were introduced in Nigeria. The trials were managed by scientists, extension workers and farmers. The aim in introducing these new varieties was to pre-emptively manage cassava mosaic disease, to avert an imminent threat from the Ugandan strain of the pathogen and prevent damage to the Nigerian cassava economy. From these trials, 10 new varieties were selected and officially released for high root yield, high dry matter content and acceptability for food, industry and livestock. Cassava root rot is a major source of yield loss in Nigeria, especially where farmers practice late harvest because they wait for a good price from the market before harvest and sales. This paper investigated how the 40 varieties together with three old improved varieties currently in farmers' fields during the formal trials responded to root rot disease. No absolutely resistant variety was found, indicating that early harvest (9–11 months after planting) is still the best way to reduce losses from root rot. Root rot is also significantly (p ≤ 0.05) influenced by genotype and environment interaction. Most root rot was recorded in the humid forest and the least was in the Sudan savanna agroecological zone. Using a rank-sum method, the 43 varieties were separated into highly resistant, resistant, moderately resistant, moderately susceptible, susceptible and highly susceptible classes.
To improve understanding of relationships between crop diversity, weed management practices, and weed population dynamics, we used data from a field experiment and matrix models to examine how contrasting crop rotations affect velvetleaf. We compared a 2-yr rotation system (corn–soybean) managed with conventional rates of herbicides with a 4-yr rotation (corn–soybean–triticale + alfalfa–alfalfa) that received 82% less herbicide. In November 2002, a pulse of velvetleaf seeds (500 seeds m−2) was added to 7- by 7-m areas within replicate plots of each crop phase–rotation system combination. Velvetleaf seed, seedling, and reproductive adult population densities, seed production, and seed losses to predators were measured during the next year. Velvetleaf seed production was greater in the 4-yr rotation than in the 2-yr rotation (460 vs. 16 seeds m−2). Averaged over 12 sampling periods from late May to mid-November 2003, loss of velvetleaf seeds to predators also was greater in the 4-yr rotation than in the 2-yr rotation (32 vs. 17% per 2 d). Modeling analyses indicated that velvetleaf density in the 4-yr rotation should decline if cumulative losses of seeds produced in the soybean phase exceeded 40%. Achieving such a level of predation appears possible, given the observed rates of velvetleaf seed predation. In addition, no tillage occurs in the 4-yr rotation for 26 mo after soybean harvest, thus favoring seed exposure on the soil surface to predators. Models that included estimates of seed predation indicated that to prevent increases in velvetleaf density, weed control efficacy in soybean must be ≥ 93% in the 2-yr rotation, but could drop to 86% in the 4-yr rotation. These results support the hypothesis that diverse rotations that exploit multiple stress and mortality factors, including weed seed predation, can contribute to effective weed suppression with less reliance on herbicides.
Assessment of the stability of micronutrients is important in breeding for the enhanced nutritional quality of staple food crops as a means to alleviate malnutrition. Twenty early-maturing elite tropical maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes were evaluated over 2 years at three locations representing three distinct agroecologies in West and Central Africa (WCA). The objectives were to analyse the pattern of genotype×environment interactions (GEI) and environmental stability of iron and zinc concentrations in grain using the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) statistical model. Results indicated that the effects of genotypes, environments and GEI were significant (P<0·05) for both micronutrients. The effect of GEI was about double the contribution of the genotypes for grain iron and more than double the effect of genotypes for grain zinc. Partitioning of GEI indicated that variety×location was the dominant source of a significant amount of GEI for both micronutrients. Scores of the first two interaction principal component axes (IPCA1 and IPCA2) from the AMMI were significant and accounted for 0·68–0·75 of the pattern of GEI for both micronutrients. About half of the genotypes evaluated were stable for grain iron and zinc concentration over the set of environments. The AMMI model identified ACR98TZEMSR-W as the most stable genotype for grain iron and MAKA-SRBC5 was the most stable for grain zinc. However, the yellow genotype, AK94-DMR-ESR-Y was the most promising, with high and moderately stable concentrations of iron and zinc in the grain. Because it is yellow, with beta-carotene content and high concentrations of iron and zinc in the grain, it might significantly contribute to an improved intake of these micronutrients in populations who rely on maize for a major portion of their daily diet.
Intake, digestion and growth were examined in young Merino×Border Leicester wether sheep held
for 44 days in either cool (13–15°C, thermal humidity index 56–58) or
hot (32–40°C, 50–70% relative
humidity, thermal humidity index minimum 83–84, maximum 83–88) environments. The sheep were
offered diets of medium quality hay ad libitum alone (Con) or supplemented with either 22 g air-dry/kg metabolic liveweight (W0·75) of barley grain
fortified with urea and sulphur (Bar/N) or 10 g air-dry/kg W0·75
of fishmeal (FM). Intake of the Con diet by the sheep in the cool environment was
high at 79 g DM/kg W0·75
per day. Sheep in the hot environment had higher rectal temperatures and
higher respiration rates (40·1°C v. 39·2°C,
196 v. 56 respirations/min respectively, P<0·01). The hot
environment reduced (P<0·05) total dry matter (DM) intake,
estimated metabolizable energy (ME)
intake, liveweight (LW) gain and nitrogen (N) balance. The provision of supplements did not change
total DM intake, but increased (P<0·05) organic matter digestibility, estimated ME intake, LW gain
and N balance. Wool growth was increased much more by the FM than by the Bar/N supplement,
indicating that the supply of absorbed amino acids was increased substantially by the FM
supplement. Neither voluntary intake nor productivity were influenced by any interactions between
the thermal environments and the balance of nutrients provided by the diets. In conclusion, in these
young sheep consuming a high intake of a medium quality roughage diet, moderate heat stress
reduced intake and growth but did not affect the relative responses of the sheep to supplements
providing principally fermentable ME or a similar amount of fermentable ME and additional
The study sought to quantify psychiatric morbidity among survivors of a major air crash and to identify aetiological factors linked with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Sixty-eight of the 79 survivors (86%) were assessed at a clinical interview within one year of the disaster. The majority also completed the General Health Questionnaire, the Impact of Events Scale (IES) and the Zung Anxiety and Depression Scales.
Fifty-four of the study group (79%) met DSM–III–R criteria for a psychiatric disorder within one year of the disaster, of whom 27 (50%) had PTSD. Those who saw injured or dead people at the scene, or had sustained less severe injuries as measured by their Injury Severity Scores, or were under 35 years old, were significantly more likely to develop PTSD.
High rates of psychiatric morbidity are found in survivors of transportation disasters. Further studies are needed to identify those at most risk and to evaluate the benefits of psychological intervention.