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This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
Few studies have investigated the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment for negative symptoms of schizophrenia, reporting inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate whether 10 Hz stimulation of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during 3 weeks enhances treatment effects.
A multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial was performed in 32 patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder, and moderate to severe negative symptoms [Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative subscale ⩾15]. Patients were randomized to a 3-week course of active or sham rTMS. Primary outcome was severity of negative symptoms as measured with the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the PANSS negative symptom score. Secondary outcome measures included cognition, insight, quality of life and mood. Subjects were followed up at 4 weeks and at 3 months. For analysis of the data a mixed-effects linear model was used.
A significant improvement of the SANS in the active group compared with sham up to 3 months follow-up (p = 0.03) was found. The PANSS negative symptom scores did not show a significant change (p = 0.19). Of the cognitive tests, only one showed a significant improvement after rTMS as compared with sham. Finally, a significant change of insight was found with better scores in the treatment group.
Bilateral 10 Hz prefrontal rTMS reduced negative symptoms, as measured with the SANS. More studies are needed to investigate optimal parameters for rTMS, the cognitive effects and the neural basis.
Active control of a turbulent boundary layer has been experimentally investigated with a view to reducing the skin-friction drag and gaining some insight into the mechanism that leads to drag reduction. A spanwise-aligned array of piezo-ceramic actuators was employed to generate a transverse travelling wave along the wall surface, with a specified phase shift between adjacent actuators. Local skin-friction drag exhibits a strong dependence on control parameters, including the wavelength, amplitude and frequency of the oscillation. A maximum drag reduction of 50 % has been achieved at 17 wall units downstream of the actuators. The near-wall flow structure under control, measured using smoke–wire flow visualization, hot-wire and particle image velocimetry techniques, is compared with that without control. The data have been carefully analysed using techniques such as streak detection, power spectra and conditional averaging based on the variable-interval time-average detection. All the results point to a pronounced change in the organization of the perturbed boundary layer. It is proposed that the actuation-induced wave generates a layer of highly regularized streamwise vortices, which acts as a barrier between the large-scale coherent structures and the wall, thus interfering with the turbulence production cycle and contributing partially to the drag reduction. Associated with the generation of regularized vortices is a significant increase, in the near-wall region, of the mean energy dissipation rate, as inferred from a substantial decrease in the Taylor microscale. This increase also contributes to the drag reduction. The scaling of the drag reduction is also examined empirically, providing valuable insight into the active control of drag reduction.
The atomic-scale structure of grain boundaries (GBs) in yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia (YSZ) was investigated by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). Non-stoichiometric oxides have found a wide range of applications and therefore it is of importance to explore the role of GBs and their atomic-scale relaxation modes.  and  tilt GBs were examined by HREM in highly textured thin films of YSZ grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In addition, a special technique was developed to also allow the HREM study of twist and general GBs. GBs and triple junctions show quite dense arrangements of cation atomic columns. The GB core structures in YSZ can be contrasted to the more open structures in stoichiometric cubic oxides, such NiO, which are characterized by a relatively large GB excess volume. This appears to be due to several factors, including the necessary rearrangement of the oxygen sublattice near GBs in a CsCl2 type structure, the redeployment of oxygen vacancies near GBs, and the segregation of Y to the GB. Relative to stoichiometric oxides, such mechanisms provide additional degrees of freedom for atomic relaxations at GBs and the development of low-energy GBs. These additional relaxation modes, which result in GB cation arrangements more akin to metallic systems, are also reflected by Burgers vector dissociations observed in low-angle YSZ GBs.
Understanding the role of grain boundaries in controlling heat flow is critical to the success of many envisioned applications of nanocrystalline materials. This study focuses on the effect of grain boundaries on thermal transport behavior in nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition.
A cDNA library from white alpaca (Vicugna pacos) skin was constructed using SMART technology to investigate the global gene expression profile in alpaca skin and identify genes associated with physiology of alpaca skin and pigmentation. A total of 5359 high-quality EST (expressed sequence tag) sequences were generated by sequencing random cDNA clones from the library. Clustering analysis of sequences revealed a total of 3504 unique sequences including 739 contigs (assembled from 2594 ESTs) and 2765 singletons. BLAST analysis against GenBank nr database resulted in 1287 significant hits (E-value < 10−10), of which 863 were annotated through gene ontology analysis. Transcripts for genes related to fleece quality, growth and coat color (e.g. collagen types I and III, troponin C2 and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) were abundantly present in the library. Other genes, such as keratin family genes known to be involved in melanosome protein production, were also identified in the library. Members (KRT10, 14 and 15) of this gene family are evolutionarily conserved as revealed by a cross-species comparative analysis. This collection of ESTs provides a valuable resource for future research to understand the network of gene expression linked to physiology of alpaca skin and development of pigmentation.
Nanophase (n-) ZrO2 was produced in its pure and partially stabilized form by the gas-phase condensation method. The material was examined by x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering to obtain information on the structural evolution of the material during sintering. Two types of Y2O3 doped ZrO2 nanophase materials were made one by co-deposition of n-Y2O3 and n-ZrO2 in a consecutive manner and the second by mechanically mixing n-Y2O3 and n-ZrO2. We have determined that the co-deposition process is the most effect means of doping the n-ZrO2.
The future high density multilevel interconnection and packaging requires that the combination of the insulator and conductor layers has a low RC value. Thermal stress and diffusion during processing are issues of great concern in the high density multilevel structures. The problem can be alleviated by a proper choice of materials and processes that do not require high temperature. In this paper we propose to use parylene and its derivatives (dielectric constant 2.3–2.6) as the possible interlayer dielectrics and Cu (bulk resistivity ∼1.7 μ Ω-cm) as the conductor. Parylene can be vapor-deposited and cured at room temperature. The metallization of Cu has been achieved at room temperature using the newly developed partially ionized beam deposition technique. This technique has been shown to grow high quality metal films with low resistivity at low substrate temperatures. The interaction between Cu and parylene, including adhesion and diffusion, is also discussed.
PbTiO3 thin films grown on (001)MgO and (110)MgO by MOCVD have been characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The PbTiO3 films deposited on (001)MgO under the optimum conditions always show a bi-layer structure. The top layer of the films near the free surface is c-axis oriented with the orientation relationship (001)PbTiO3∥(001)MgO. The bottom layer of the films near the substrate is a-axis oriented with (100)PbTiO3∥(001)MgO. 90° domains were observed, but only in the caxis oriented layers. The thickness of the a-axis oriented layers near the substrate decreases with decreasing the cooling rate. PbTiO3 films deposited on (110) MgO, however, are single-layer, epitaxial films with (101)PbTiO3∥(110)MgO.
GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs (x=0.5, 0.6, 1.0) superlattices used as buffer layers in HEMT devices have been grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) at. atmospheric pressure, and characterized by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The initial stage of nucleation on the substrates has been clearly verified by examining the undulations of a 30na GaAs layer sandwiched between the substrate and the superlattice. Both Alo.5Gao.5As/GaAs and AlAs/GaAs superlattices can smooth out interface roughness caused by contaminations and dislocations on the substrate surface. The mechanism of smoothing effect has been discussed in detail.
Epitaxial PbTiOM3 films were prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on MgO(001), SrTiO3 (001) and LaAlO3 (001) surfaces. Four-circle X-ray diffraction and optical waveguiding experiments were performed to characterize the deposited films. The films on all three substrates were single-crystal; however, the domain structure of the films was strongly dependent on the substrate material. Films on MgO and LaAlO3 substrates showed a large amount of 90° domain structures, whereas, the degree of twinning was greatly suppressed for films on SrTiO3. The refractive indices and optical birefringence of the films were measured as a function of wavelength using the film-prism coupling method. We found that for films on LaAlO3 (001), the ordinary index and for films on MgO(001) both the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices were higher than those of bulk single-crystal PbTiO3. For films grown on SrTiO3 (001), the ordinary refractive index was very close to that of single crystal PbTiO3. We correlate the increased refractive index and the reduced birefringence to the degree of epitaxial strain and twinning in the samples, respectively.
Single-crystal thin films covering the full compositional range of Pb(ZrxTi1−x)O3(PZT) 0≤x≤1 have been deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The films were grown on epitaxial, RF-sputter-deposited SrRuO3 thin film electrodes on (001) SrTiO3 substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive electron spectroscopy (EDS) and optical waveguiding were used to characterize the crystalline structure, composition, refractive index, and film thickness of the deposited films. We found that the PZT films were single-crystalline for all compositions exhibiting cube-on-cube epitaxy with the substrate with very high degrees of crystallinity and orientation. We report the systematic variations in the optical, dielectric, polarization, and transport properties as a function of composition and the epitaxy-induced modifications in the solid-solution phase diagram of this system. These films exhibited electronic properties which showed clear systematic variations with composition. High values of remnant polarization (30–55 μC/cm2) were observed at all ferroelectric compositions. Unlike previous studies, the dielectric constant exhibited a clear dependence on composition with values ranging from 225–650. The coercive fields decreased with increasing Zr concentration to a minimum of 20 kV/cm at the (70/30) composition. In addition, these films exhibited both high resistivity and dielectric-breakdown strength (˜1013 Ω-cm at 100 kV/cm and >300 kV/cm, respectively) without any compensative doping.
Cu has two advantages over Al for sub-quarter micron interconnect application: (1) higher conductivity and (2) improved electromigration reliability. However, Cu diffuses quickly in SiO2and Si, and must be encapsulated. Polycrystalline films of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Ta, W, Mo, TiN, and Metal-Organo Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) TiN and Ti-Si-N have been evaluated as Cu diffusion barriers using electrically biased-thermal-stressing tests. Barrier effectiveness of these thin films were correlated with their physical properties from Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Secondary Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) analysis. The barrier failure is dominated by “micro-defects” in the barrier film that serve as easy pathways for Cu diffusion. An ideal barrier system should be free of such micro-defects (e.g., amorphous Ti-Si-N and annealed Ta). The median-time-to-failure (MTTF) of a Ta barrier (30 nm) has been measured at different bias electrical fields and stressing temperatures, and the extrapolated MTTF of such a barrier is > 100 year at an operating condition of 200C and 0.1 MV/cm.
A thin Ti-siuicide film is widely used today as the low resistance shunt in a semiconductor chip. As the feature size in the chip shrinks to sub-quarter micron, the thin Ti-silicide film formed on such narrow lines transforms from C49 to C54 at increasing temperatures and agglomerates at decreasing temperatures, closing the process window for Ti-salicide process. In contrast, low resistivity Co-silicide thin films can be formed on narrow lines below the agglomeration temperature. In addition, an epitaxial CoSi2 with a flat interface can be formed in source/drain areas, enabling the formation of very shallow junctions with low leakage current. Experimental results on formation of silicides from Co/Ti bilayers and thermal stability of the CoSi2 films will be presented, with special emphasis on the sheet resistance of the silicide film versus poly-line width down to 0.15 umn. Interaction between dopants and silicide films will also be discussed.
A combination of electric force microscopy (EFM) and non-contact scanning force microscopy (SFM) was used to study micro-indentation-induced dislocation bands in sphaleritic ZnS single crystals. Large local distortions in electrical potential from the dislocation bands were observed in the EFM images. For the first time, the electric charges of resting partial Zn(g) and S(g) dislocations were determined quantitatively. The results compare well with theoretical models.
Single-phase polycrystalline PbZrO3 (PZ) thin films, 3000-6000 A thick, have been grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on (111)Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates at ≍525°C. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the PZ films grown on (111)Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si (Pt/Tgi/Si) showed preferred pseudocubic (110) orientation. In contrast, PZ films grown on 150 A thick PbTiO3 (PT) template layers exhibited a pseudocubic (100) preferred orientation, and PZ films deposited on TiO2 template layers consisted of randomly oriented grains. The PZ films grown on Pt/Ti/Si with or without templates exhibited dielectric constants of 120-200 and loss tangents of 0.01-0.0. The PZ films with (110) orientation exhibited an electric-field-inducedtransformation from the antiferroelectric phase to the ferroelectric phase with a polarization of ≍34 µC/cm2, and the energy that was stored during switching was 7.1 J/cm3. The field needed to excite the ferroelectric state and that needed to revert to the antiferroelectric state were 50 and 250 kV/cm, respectively. Relationships between the MOCVD processing and the film microstructure and properties are discussed.
We have grown epitaxial Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) and (1-x)(Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)- x(PbTiO3) (PMN-PT) thin films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition at 700 - 780°C on (100) SrTiO3 and SrRuO3/SrTiO3 substrates. The zero-bias permittivity and loss measured at room temperature and 10 kHz for 220 nm thick pure PMN films were 900 and 1.5%, respectively. For PMN-PT films, the small-signal permittivity ranged from 1000 to 1500 depending on deposition conditions and Ti content; correspondingly low values for the zero-bias dielectric loss between 1 and 5% were determined for all specimens. For PMN-PT with x of approximately 0.30–0.35, polarization hysteresis with Pr,≈18μC/cm2 was obtained. Initial piezoresponse data are discussed.