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An outbreak of mumps within a student population in Scotland was investigated to assess the effect of previous vaccination on infection and clinical presentation, and any genotypic variation. Of the 341 cases, 79% were aged 18–24. Vaccination status was available for 278 cases of whom 84% had received at least one dose of mumps containing vaccine and 62% had received two. The complication rate was 5·3% (mainly orchitis), and 1·2% were admitted to hospital. Genetic sequencing of mumps virus isolated from cases across Scotland classified 97% of the samples as genotype G. Two distinct clusters of genotype G were identified, one circulating before the outbreak and the other thereafter, suggesting the virus that caused this outbreak was genetically different from the previously circulating virus. Whilst the poor vaccine effectiveness we found may be due to waning immunity over time, a contributing factor may be that the current mumps vaccine is less effective against some genotypes. Although the general benefits of the measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine should continue to be promoted, there may be value in reassessing the UK vaccination schedule and the current mumps component of the MMR vaccine.
A wide variety of X-ray spectral forms has been reported in BL Lac objects. Concave spectra, i.e. a steep soft X-ray spectrum with a flat high energy tail, have been reported in a few of the brightest BL Lacs (e.g Urry 1986). Conversely, convex spectra (steep hard X-rays, flat soft X-ray spectrum) have also been reported, sometimes in the same objects (Madejski 1985, Barr et al 1988, George et al 1988). The high energy tails have usually been invoked as a signature of synchrotron-self-Compton emission. Two conflicting interpretations of the convex spectra have been made. Urry et al (1986) suggest absorption by a partially ionised medium, probably intrinsic to the BL Lac object, following the identification of an Oxygen absorption trough in the Einstein OGS spectrum of PKS 2155-304 by Canizares and Kruper (1984). Conversely, Barr et al (1988) attribute the hard X-ray steepening to energy loss mechanisms operating on a synchrotron source.
We demonstrate that the surface topography of a sample can be reconstructed from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns collected with a commercial EBSD system. This technique combines the location of the maximum background intensity with a correction from Monte Carlo simulations to determine the local surface normals at each point in an EBSD scan. A surface height map is then reconstructed from the local surface normals. In this study, a Ni sample was machined with a femtosecond laser, which causes the formation of a laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS). The topography of the LIPSS was analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reconstructions from EBSD patterns collected at 5 and 20 kV. The LIPSS consisted of a combination of low frequency waviness due to curtaining and high frequency ridges. The morphology of the reconstructed low frequency waviness and high frequency ridges matched the AFM data. The reconstruction technique does not require any modification to existing EBSD systems and so can be particularly useful for measuring topography and its evolution during in situ experiments.
Celebrity firms are firms that attract a high level of public attention and generate positive affective responses from stakeholder audiences (Rindova, Pollock, and Hayward 2006). Recent research has explored how and why firms become celebrities (Rindova et al. 2006; Zavyalova and Pfarrer 2015) and how celebrity creates value for firms (Pfarrer, Pollock, and Rindova 2010). Celebrity firms are more likely to have unexpectedly high performance – and gain additional benefits when they do so – while suffering fewer penalties when their performance is lower than expected (Pfarrer et al. 2010).
Rindova and colleagues have also argued that firms can engender “infamy,” which results from generating a high level of public attention and negative affective responses from stakeholder audiences. Central to both celebrity and infamy is that firms must engage in “deviant” or non-conforming behaviors. When viewed positively, these behaviors create a “rebel” celebrity persona attractive to at least some stakeholders; however, if the non-conforming behaviors are viewed negatively they can lead to an “outlaw” persona that at a minimum results in a loss of celebrity and possibly increases infamy.
Although researchers have begun to explore the causes and consequences of firm celebrity, little research (for a recent exception, see Zavyalova and Pfarrer ) has considered how firms become infamous. Building on Rindova and colleagues (2006), Zavyalova and Pfarrer (2015) argued that celebrity occurs through audience members’ identification with a firm's values and beliefs as presented in media-created narratives, and that infamy results from dis-identification with the organization's values and beliefs. Because firms face a plethora of stakeholder audiences with differing priorities and values, they further argued that the same firm can possess both celebrity and infamy simultaneously, as the same set of organizational values and beliefs can be the cause for identification with the firm by one stakeholder audience and dis-identification by another. Consequently, firms can lose celebrity in their quest to maintain it by eventually engaging in behaviors or revealing information that is inconsistent with audience members’ bases for identification.
Fundamental to the process of becoming infamous is the belief by a stakeholder group or groups that the firm is engaging in deviant behaviors that they consider wrongdoing.
Placebo responses raise significant challenges for the design of clinical trials. We report changes in agitation outcomes in the placebo arm of a recent trial of citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (CitAD).
In the CitAD study, all participants and caregivers received a psychosocial intervention and 92 were assigned to placebo for nine weeks. Outcomes included Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A), modified AD Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) Agitation/Aggression domain (NPI A/A) and Total (NPI-Total) and ADLs. Continuous outcomes were analyzed with mixed-effects modeling and dichotomous outcomes with logistic regression.
Agitation outcomes improved over nine weeks: NBRS-A mean (SD) decreased from 7.8 (3.0) at baseline to 5.4 (3.2), CMAI from 28.7 (6.7) to 26.7 (7.4), NPI A/A from 8.0 (2.4) to 4.9 (3.8), and NPI-Total from 37.3 (17.7) to 28.4 (22.1). The proportion of CGI-C agitation responders ranged from 21 to 29% and was significantly different from zero. MMSE improved from 14.4 (6.9) to 15.7 (7.2) and ADLs similarly improved. Most of the improvement was observed by three weeks and was sustained through nine weeks. The major predictor of improvement in each agitation measure was a higher baseline score in that measure.
We observed significant placebo response which may be due to regression to the mean, response to a psychosocial intervention, natural course of symptoms, or nonspecific benefits of participation in a trial.
1.1.1. In October 1980 the Council of the Faculty of Actuaries set up a Working Party with the following brief:—
(1) To investigate the criteria by which the solvency of life assurance companies should be assessed and to determine the amount of the solvency margin which should be required in practice by supervisory authorities. The existing requirements of the E.E.C. Life Establishment Directive should be considered with a view to recommending any desirable alterations thereto to be made when those requirements are reviewed in due course by the E.E.C. Commission. In carrying out its work the Working Party should co-operate with Working Parties or Committees of other actuarial bodies.
(2) To report the result of their investigations to Council.
Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is one of the most prevalent protozoan pathogens responsible for inducing human and animal disease worldwide. In this study, the glycoprotein-60 (gp60) subtyping tool was employed to assess the molecular diversity of C. parvum from human feces throughout Scotland during potential outbreaks. Over a 24-month period, microscopy analysis revealed 1139 positive feces containing Cryptosporidium species with 256 identified by molecular methods specifically as C. parvum. Cryptosporidium parvum was shown to be more prevalent in rural areas of Scotland and subtyping of 87 isolates demonstrated the predominant family as IIa, which occurred in 94% (n = 82) of isolates. The IIaA15G1R1 subtype was most common, being isolated from 47% (n = 41) of Scottish human cases. Non-IIa strains constituted a total of 5 isolates and included subtypes from the IIc, IId and IIg families. This information contributes significantly to existing knowledge and understanding of C. parvum subtypes in Scotland which is vital in assisting with the management of future local and national outbreaks.
Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis (synonyms: G. lamblia, G. duodenalis), is one of the most frequent parasites to infect the Scottish population. Transmission of the infective cysts in faecal matter is commonly via food and/or water. Giardia is subdivided into assemblages, where clinical and epidemiological differences have been described between assemblages A and B. This snapshot descriptive epidemiological study examines 30 positive cases of Giardia of which 72% (n = 21) were shown to be assemblage A, 14% (n = 4) assemblage B and 10% (n = 3) mixed assemblages (A and B). There was a 2:3 female:male ratio of affected individuals with foreign travel recorded in 22 of these cases. The commonest symptom was diarrhoea which was reported in 80% of cases followed by tiredness. Five cases required hospitalization emphasizing the importance of gaining a greater understanding of how Giardia assemblages influence clinical outcomes to assist in formulating guidelines to manage potential Giardia outbreaks.
The associations with weather and bathing water quality on infectious intestinal disease (IID) were investigated using data from two Scottish NHS Board areas. Monthly counts of viral and non-viral gastrointestinal infections were modelled as a smooth function of temperature, relative humidity and average monthly counts of faecal indicator organisms, respectively, adjusting for season and long-term trend effects. Strong seasonal patterns were observed for each group of pathogens. Peak viral gastrointestinal infection was in May while that of non-viral gastrointestinal infections was in July. A statistically significant negative association existed between weather (temperature and humidity) and viral infection. Average levels of non-viral gastrointestinal infections increased as temperature and relative humidity increased. Increasing levels of faecal indicator organisms in bathing waters were also associated with an increase in the average number of viral and non-viral gastrointestinal infections at the ecological level. Future climate change and prolonged precipitation events may result in increasing levels of faecal indicator organisms in bathing waters leading to likely increases in IIDs.
Previous evidence has suggested an association between cryptosporidiosis and consumption of unfiltered drinking water from Loch Katrine in Scotland. Before September 2007, the water was only micro-strained and chlorinated; however, since that time, coagulation and rapid gravity filtration have been installed. In order to determine risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis, including drinking water, we analysed data on microbiologically confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis from 2004 to 2010. We identified an association between the incidence of cryptosporidiosis and unfiltered Loch Katrine drinking water supplied to the home (odds ratio 1·86, 95% confidence interval 1·11–3·11, P = 0·019). However, while filtration appears to be associated with initially reduced rates of cryptosporidiosis, evidence suggests it may paradoxically make those consumers more susceptible to other transmission routes in the long-term. These findings support implementation of similar treatment for other unfiltered drinking-water supplies, as a means of reducing cryptosporidiosis associated with drinking water.
We study the properties of CuInSe2 thin films grown on glass and on Mo substrates. The investigation is carried out with X-ray diffraction, RBS, XTEM and SEM.
CuInSe2/Mo contact stability is investigated after annealing at 600°C. RBS reveals that this treatment induces an interdiffusion between the metal and the chalcopyrite. To clarify this reaction, we have investigated the individual thin-film couples upon annealing. RBS and X-ray diffraction reveal insignificant interaction between Mo/Cu and Mo/In, but Se reacts with Mo.
The mechanical behavior of RuAl-base intermetallic alloys with alloying additions of boron, niobium and platinum has been investigated. Compression tests have been performed at room temperature and 973 K. While the addition of alloying elements results in solid solution strengthening, the strain-rate sensitivity and the activation volumes do not show a significant variation, thereby suggesting that the macroscopic flow mechanisms are not strongly affected. Deformation substructure analysis of the niobium-containing alloy shows the presence of <100> and <110> dislocations, while the platinum-containing alloy additionally contains a significant density of <111> dislocations.
Over the last decade, Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations for tight binding Hamiltonians like the Hubbard and Anderson lattice models have made the transition from addressing abstract issues concerning the effects of electron-electron correlations on magnetic and metal-insulator transitions, to concrete contact with experiment. This paper presents results of applications of “determinant” QMC to systems with disorder such as the conductivity of thin metallic films, the behavior of the magnetic susceptibility in doped semiconductors, and Zn doped cuprate superconductors. Finally, preliminary attempts to model the Kondo volume collapse in rare earth materials are discussed.
We present the results from the spectroscopic follow-up of WR140 (WC7 + O4-5) during its last periastron passage in january 2009. This object is known as the archetype of colliding wind binaries and has a relatively large period (≃8 years) and eccentricity (≃0.89). We provide updated values for the orbital parameters, new estimates for the WR and O star masses and new constraints on the mass-loss rates.
We present preliminary results of a 4-month campaign carried out in the framework of the Mons project, where time-resolved Hα observations are used to study the wind and circumstellar properties of a number of OB stars.
Research has shown that up to 83% of friends and family members of people diagnosed with schizophrenia experience financial, emotional, and practical burdens. In their pioneering study of family psychoeducation, Falloon and colleagues found that reductions in family burden associated with family psychoeducation were associated with improvements in patient clinical status and reductions in relapse over time. The design of Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) permits investigation of the impact of random assignment to the first-generation antipsychotic perphenazine and four second-generation drugs on family outcomes over an 18-month study period. In addition, family members frequently take an active role in helping patients manage their medication and in other aspects of preventing relapse and promoting recovery. The findings of the CATIE study underscore the importance of involving family caregivers in treatment planning for their relatives with schizophrenia.
Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray emission is of great importance in several phenomena related to the formation of planetary systems and the atmospheres of planets. The atmospheric composition, and the mass of an exoplanet, are partly dependent on the X-ray and EUV radiation received during the first stages of formation and even during main sequence of the star. Biological life developing on exoplanets would depend severely on the high energy radiation arriving from its parent star.
Here we present a database of the X-ray and EUV emission of all the stars currently known to host exoplanets. The archive is public and accessible through the Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO). The database gives the user the option to download observed X-rays and EUV spectra. Synthetic spectra covering the spectral range 1–912 Å are also available (present day telescopes do not give access to the EUV range at λ > 180 Å). These spectra are created using coronal models after fitting observed spectra.