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Band ogives are a striking and enigmatic feature of Mer de Glace glacier flow. The surface mass balances (SMBs) of these ogives have been thoroughly investigated over a period of 12 years. We find similar cumulative SMBs over this period, ranging between −64.1 and −66.2 m w.e., on the dark and light ogives even though the dark ogive albedo is ~40% lower than that of the light ogives. We, therefore, looked for another process that could compensate for the large difference of absorbed short-wave radiation between dark and light ogives. Based on in situ roughness measurements, our numerical modeling experiments demonstrate that a significant difference in turbulent flux over the dark and light ogives due to different surface roughnesses could compensate for the difference in radiative forcing. Our results discard theories for the genesis of band ogives that are based on the assumption of a strong ice ablation contrast between dark and light ogives. More generally, our study demonstrates that future roughness changes are as important to analyze as the radiative impacts of a potential increase of aerosols or debris at the surface of glaciers.
Chickens have been selected for millenniums on their ability to select food in complex and variable environments. Artificial selection for juvenile body weight using a single balanced food might have modified the ability of chickens to adapt to a choice feeding situation (Siegel and Dunnington, 1990). However, diet selection for protein has been demonstrated in many recently published experiments (for review: Forbes and Shariatmadari, 1994).
Broiler chickens have been selected for increased growth rate and adapted to consumer demands. A range of commercial products is being developed from slower growing country-type meat chickens (named ‘Label’ in France) as well as from faster growing broilers with a high yield of breast meat. Nutritionists have to satisfy a need for feeding programmes adapted to meet the demands for various end-products. Selection for growth rate has to be shown to change the food intake behaviour of chickens (i.e. Barbato et al., 1980). Emmans (1991) demonstrated that chickens are able to adjust their food choices if the paradigm permits an adequate choice. In a series of experiments (see Picard et al., 1994 for review) the authors concluded that ‘high producing animals are not necessarily those that will react most clearly to an amino acid deficiency by altering their food intake and/or their feeding behavior’.
Up to now, genetic selection in cattle has been directed in favour of muscle growth, which changes muscle characteristics, and hence meat quality. One key concern, that now needs examination, is to understand the relationships between muscle growth and muscle characteristics related to meat quality. To achieve such a goal, muscles of divergently selected animals were analysed by three complementary approaches: (i) determination of muscle biochemical characteristics, (ii) identification of differentially expressed genes using transcriptomic and proteomic tools, (iii) identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) within candidate genes.
This paper aims at presenting a new dataset including the melt events derived from microwave remote sensing occurring in Antarctica from summer 1979/80 to 2005/06. The method for detecting melt events and sources of error is presented, and then trends in melt duration for every pixel are extracted from the dataset, mapped and analyzed. The analysis focuses on two particular cases, and the main results show that: (1) the trends over the period 1980–2006 in the Antarctic Peninsula match with lengthening of the melt season on the ice shelves and, surprisingly, shortening of the melt season in the mountainous area of the peninsula; and (2) the trends over the period 1996–2006 on the entire continent show a dipolar pattern, with the western regions experiencing decreasing melt duration, whereas East Antarctica and the Ross Ice Shelf experience increasing melt duration. This pattern closely mirrors the temperature pattern expected when the Southern Annular Mode is in a decreasing trend, as it is over the period 1996–2006. For further analysis and validation, the dataset has been made available at http://www-lgge.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr/~picard/melting/.
Snow grain-size characterization, its vertical and temporal evolution is a key parameter for the improvement and validation of snow and radiative transfer models (optical and microwave) as well as for remote-sensing retrieval methods. We describe two optical methods, one active and one passive shortwave infrared, for field determination of the specific surface area (SSA) of snow grains. We present a new shortwave infrared (SWIR) camera approach. This new method is compared with a SWIR laser- based system measuring snow albedo with an integrating sphere (InfraRed Integrating Sphere (IRIS)). Good accuracy (10%) and reproducibility in SSA measurements are obtained using the IRIS system on snow samples having densities greater than 200 kg m-3, validated against X-ray microtomography measurements. The SWIRcam approach shows improved sensitivity to snow SSA when compared to a near-infrared camera, giving a better contrast of the snow stratigraphy in a snow pit.
The specific surface area (SSA), defined as the surface area of ice per unit mass, is an important variable characterizing the complex microstructure of snow. Its application range covers the physical evolution of snow (metamorphism), photochemistry and optical and microwave remote sensing. This paper presents a new device, POSSSUM (Profiler Of Snow Specific Surface area Using SWIR reflectance Measurement), designed to allow the rapid acquisition of SSA profiles down to ∼20 m depth and with an effective vertical resolution of 10–20 mm. POSSSUM is based on the infrared (IR) reflectance technique: A laser diode operating at 1310 nm illuminates the snow at nadir incidence angle along the face of a drilled hole. The reflected radiance is measured at three zenith angles (20°, 40° and 60°) each for two azimuth angles (0° and 180°). A second laser operating at a shorter wavelength (635 nm), which is almost insensitive to SSA, allows the distance to the snow face to be estimated. The reflected IR radiance and the distance are combined to estimate bidirectional reflectances. These reflectances are converted into hemispherical reflectances and in turn into SSA using a theoretical formulation based on an asymptotic solution of the radiative transfer equation. The evaluation and validation of POSSSUM’s SSA measurements took place in spring 2009 in the French Alps. The new method was compared with the methane adsorption technique and DUFISSS, another well-validated instrument based on the IR technique. The overall measurement error is in the range 10–15%.
This paper aims to interpret the temporal variations of microwave brightness temperature (at 19 and 37GHz and at vertical and horizontal polarizations) in Antarctica using a physically based snow dynamic and emission model (SDEM). SDEM predicts time series of top-of-atmosphere brightness temperature from widely available surface meteorological data (ERA-40 re-analysis). To do so, it successively computes the heat flux incoming the snowpack, the snow temperature profile, the microwaves emitted by the snow and, finally, the propagation of the microwaves through the atmosphere up to the satellite. Since the model contains several parameters whose value is variable and uncertain across the continent, the parameter values are optimized for every 50 km × 50 km pixel. Simulation results show that the model is inadequate in the melt zone (where surface melting occurs on at least a few days a year) because the snowpack structure and its temporal variations are too complex. In contrast, the accuracy is reasonably good in the dry zone and varies between 2 and 4 K depending on the frequency and polarization of observations and on the location. At the Antarctic scale, the error is larger where wind is usually stronger, suggesting either that meteorological data are less accurate in windy regions or that some neglected processes (e.g. windpumping, surface scouring) are important. At Dome C, in calm conditions, a detailed analysis shows that most of the error is due to inaccuracy of the ERA-40 air temperature (∼2 K). Finally, the paper discusses the values of the optimized parameters and their spatial variations across the Antarctic.
In grass-based beef production systems (PS), early maturing (EM) breed types may be preferable to late maturing (LM) breed types in achieving adequate carcass fat cover. Biochemical and organoleptic characteristics of muscle from suckler bulls were investigated in EM and LM (n=28/breed) assigned to one of two PS (ad libitum concentrates and grass silage to slaughter (C) or ad libitum silage plus 2 kg concentrate daily during winter followed by 99 days at pasture and then an indoor finishing period on C (GSPC)) in a 2 breed type×2 PS factorial arrangement of treatments. Bulls were managed to have a common target carcass weight of 380 kg. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content was higher (P<0.05) for EM than LM, and for C than GSPC bulls. Collagen solubility was higher (P<0.05) for C than GSPC bulls. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and phosphofructokinase activities were higher (P<0.05) for LM than EM. Isocitrate dehydrogenase activity and the Type I myosin heavy chain (MyHC) proportion were higher (P<0.05) for EM than LM. The LDH activity and the Type IIX MyHC proportion were higher (P<0.05) for C than GSPC bulls. Sensory ratings for tenderness and juiciness were higher (P<0.01) for beef from EM than LM while sensory ratings for tenderness, flavour liking and overall liking were higher (P<0.001) for C than for GSPC bulls. Differences in sensory quality were largely eliminated when adjusted for IMF. Overall, carcass fat scores, IMF and sensory scores were higher in EM than LM and in C than GSPC bulls but most differences in sensory quality could be attributed to differences in IMF.
In practice cattle may be slaughtered at different combinations of age and weight. As each of these factors could affect meat quality traits, the present work aimed to identify which combination can be expected to increase overall meat quality of m. rectus abdominis of Charolais heifers. Totally, 40 heifers were slaughtered either at 26±1 or at 36±1 months of age. Young heifers were sampled at two different carcass weights (349±12 and 394±8 kg). Old heifers were also sampled at two different carcass weights (397±6 and 451±9 kg). The m. rectus abdominis was excised 24 h postmortem to determine metabolic enzyme activities, myosin heavy-chain isoform proportions, lipid contents, collagen content and collagen solubility. Shear force measurements were evaluated on raw and broiled meat after 14 days of ageing. Meat quality traits scored between 0 and 10 by sensory analysis. Increasing slaughter age from 26 to 36 months had no impact on either raw/broiled shear force (0.31⩽P⩽0.47) and/or meat quality traits (0.62⩽P⩽0.91) or on physicochemical properties of heifer’s meat samples. Increasing carcass weight for a similar slaughter age of 26 months had also impact neither on meat quality traits (0.52⩽P⩽0.91) nor on muscular properties. On the contrary, increasing carcass weight for a similar slaughter age of 36 months had induced a decrease of muscular shear force (raw muscle; P=0.009) and a concomitant decrease of total collagen content (P=0.03). Nevertheless, no significant impact on meat quality traits was revealed by the sensorial panel (0.13⩽P⩽0.49). Metabolic enzyme activities (0.13⩽P⩽0.86) and myosin heavy-chain proportions (0.13⩽P⩽0.96) were not significantly impacted by slaughter age and carcass weight. Thus, the impact of increasing carcass weight and/or slaughter age in young Charolais heifers has a limited impact on meat quality traits and associated muscular characteristics. Modulating heifer’s cycles (age and/or carcass weight in the studied range) appears to be a way to answer to the numerous marketing chains, without penalising meat quality traits.
This paper is devoted to the definition, analysis and implementation of semi-Lagrangian methods as they result from particle methods combined with remeshing. We give a complete consistency analysis of these methods, based on the regularity and momentum properties of the remeshing kernels, and a stability analysis of a large class of second and fourth order methods. This analysis is supplemented by numerical illustrations. We also describe a general approach to implement these methods in the context of hybrid computing and investigate their performance on GPU processors as a function of their order of accuracy.
Using transmission electron microscopy, we have analyzed dislocations in AlN nucleation layers and GaN films grown by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on the (0001) surface of epitaxially-grown 4H-SiC mesas with and without steps. For 4H-SiC substrates free of SiC surface steps, half-loop nucleation and glide parallel to the AlN/SiC interfacial plane play the dominant role in strain relief, with no mechanism for generating threading dislocations. In contrast, 4H-SiC mesa surfaces with steps give rise to regions of high stress at the heteroepitaxial interface, thereby providing an environment conducive to the nucleation and growth of threading dislocations, which act to accommodate misfit strain by the tilting of threading edge dislocations.
This paper reports the influence of screw dislocations on the lateral/vertical growth behavior of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) on-axis homoepitaxial 4H-SiC films grown on patterned mesas. Electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) was utilized to image both atomic steps and dislocations while the film structure/orientation was determined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The presence and position of screw dislocations within the mesa impacted the resultant film thickness, lateral shape, and atomic step morphology. Mesa side walls that incline inwards due to faceting during screw-dislocation driven vertical film growth can intersect with the dislocation step sources near the side walls. If this occurs for all screw dislocations on a mesa, we observe a transition towards laterally dominated growth that produces webbed structures and films surfaces exhibiting significantly lower step densities. Transition from vertical to lateral dominated growth is consistent with ECCI imaged dislocation very near a mesa side wall.
The interpretation of ECCI images in the forescattered geometry presents a more complex diffraction configuration than that encountered in the backscattered geometry. Determining the Kikuchi line that is the primary source of image intensity often requires more than simple inspection of the electron-channeling pattern. This problem can be addressed, however, by comparing recorded ECCI images of threading screw dislocations in 4H-SiC with simulated images. An ECCI image of this dislocation is found to give the orientation of the dominant Kikuchi line, greatly simplifying the determination of the diffraction simulation. In addition, computed images of threading screw dislocations in 4H-SiC were found to exhibit channeling contrast essentially identical to that obtained experimentally by ECCI and allowing determination of the dislocation Burgers vector.
Some proteins have been revealed as biomarkers for beef tenderness by previous studies. These markers could be used in immunological tests to predict beef tenderness, in living animals as well as in carcasses. It is well known that rearing practices modify the amounts of mRNA and proteins. Therefore, the reliability of protein tests could be affected by livestock and biological effects such as production systems, breed, muscle and animal type. This study analysed the effects of animal and muscle type on 24 proteins. The animals studied were 67 young bulls and 44 steers of the Charolais breed, and muscles were Longissimus thoracis and Semitendinosus. Protein amounts were determined by Dot blot, an immunological technique. Results showed that expressions of 20 proteins were influenced by animal and/or muscle type. These results could lead to modifications and adaptations of prediction tests according to rearing practice, bovine breed and beef cut.
The cracking behaviour of the oxide layer formed during hot rolling was studied together
with different combinations of process parameters in order to find their single influence
on the surface quality and formation of oxide defects. Several trials were performed on
the CRM pilot line to study in detail the impact of strip reduction, strip temperature,
entry scale thickness, roll degradation, lubrication, skin cooling, chemical composition
and humidity on the scale behaviour. In general, the degree of deformation, entry scale
thickness and rolling temperatures are the most important parameters and the importance
decreases in that order.
The cracking behaviour of the oxide layer formed during
hot rolling has been studied together with different
combinations of process parameters in order to find their
single influence on the surface quality and formation of
oxide defects. Several trials have been performed on the
CRM pilot line to study in detail the impact of strip reduction,
strip temperature, entry scale thickness, roll degradation,
lubrication, skin cooling, chemical composition and
humidity on the scale behaviour. In general the degree of
deformation, entry scale thickness and rolling temperatures
are the more important parameters and the importance
decreases in that order.
Nançay radio astronomy station teams are involved in several aspects of the Research and Development (R&D)
for radio astronomy detectors and systems:
i) Microelectronics: Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA), receiver on chip and
system in package. The long-term goal is to provide sub-systems for
the future Square Kilometer Array and its Pathfinders. A beamformer chip has been integrated
in the FP6 SKADS dense aperture array technology demonstrator EMBRACE. Wide band SiGe LNAs are
developed, beamformers with in-chip control are studied and more
complex integrated receivers are designed for the european Aperture Array
Verification Programme demonstrator.
ii) Digital signal processing: EMBRACE beamforming has been implemented
in the digital backend and RFI-mitigation oriented
signal processing has been designed for realtime systems,
including work for FP6 SKADS and FP7 PrepSKA.
iii) A study of Phased Array Feeds has started in 2008, in order to study
the radio electric properties of PAFs at the focus of large F/D
telescopes, such as the Nançay Radio Telescope, as well as to test PAF
systems in collaboration with the SPP/IRFU and LAL/IN2P3 laboratories.
A new epidemiologic typing method based on electrophoresis of esterases had been developed for differentiating between clinical isolates of Branhamella catarrhalis. Twenty-two epidemiologically significant strains obtained from three Chest Units, a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit and a Paediatric Unit were compared with 54 randomly selected strains and 4 reference strains, including the species type strain, ATCC 25238. Thirty-four distinct zymotypes were characterized by polyacrylamide-agarose gel electrophoresis of the 80 strains. One infrequent zymotype was found in 2 neonates and another in 2 adults with nosocomial bronchopulmonary infections, suggesting the nosocomial spread of 2 outbreak strains of B. catarrhalis. A more frequent zymotype was isolated from 3 neonates with nosocomial bronchopulmonary infection and from 2 children with nosocomial rhinopharyngitis. The remaining 12 epidemiologically significant strains were of varied zymotypes. This work demonstrates that esterase electrophoresis is a suitable, readily reproducible, stable typing system applicable to the wide range of strains found in B. catarrhalis nosocomial infections.