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Kochia is one of the most problematic weeds in the United States. Field studies were conducted in five states (Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota) over 2 yr (2010 and 2011) to evaluate kochia control with selected herbicides registered in five common crop scenarios: winter wheat, fallow, corn, soybean, and sugar beet to provide insight for diversifying kochia management in crop rotations. Kochia control varied by experimental site such that more variation in kochia control and biomass production was explained by experimental site than herbicide choice within a crop. Kochia control with herbicides currently labeled for use in sugar beet averaged 32% across locations. Kochia control was greatest and most consistent from corn herbicide programs (99%), followed by soybean (96%) and fallow (97%) herbicide programs. Kochia control from wheat herbicide programs was 93%. With respect to the availability of effective herbicide options, glyphosate-resistant kochia control was easiest in corn, soybean, and fallow, followed by wheat; and difficult to manage with herbicides in sugar beet.
The characterization of defect configurations in various perovskite-like substrate materials for high Tc superconductor epitaxial films has been conducted using white beam synchrotron X-ray topography. The substrates were found to contain crystal lattice defects such as twins, dislocations and grain boundaries. It is shown that characterization of substrates can potentially afford insight into factors controlling the properties of the high Tc superconductor tilms supported on them. This can help in the selection of optimum substrate material. Defect formation mechanisms in individual materials as well as their respective influences on the films are discussed. Comparisons between the physical and chemical properties of several potential substrate materials are presented.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Oncostreams represent a novel growth pattern of GBM. In this study we uncovered the cellular and molecular mechanism that regulates the oncostreams function in GBM growth and invasion. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We studied oncostreams organization and function using genetically engineered mouse gliomas models (GEMM), mouse primary patient derived GBM model and human glioma biopsies. We evaluated the molecular landscape of oncostreams by laser capture microdissection (LCM) followed by RNA-Sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Oncostreams are multicellular structures of 10-20 cells wide and 2-400 μm long. They are distributed throughout the tumors in mouse and human GBM. Oncostreams are heterogeneous structures positive for GFAP, Nestin, Olig2 and Iba1 cells and negative for Neurofilament. Using GEMM we found a negative correlation between oncostream density and animal survival. Moreover, examination of patient’s glioma biopsies evidenced that oncostreams are present in high grade but no in low grade gliomas. This suggests that oncostreams may play a role in tumor malignancy. Our data also indicated that oncostreams aid local invasion of normal brain. Transcriptome analysis of oncostreams revealed 43 differentially expressed (DE) genes. Functional enrichment analysis of DE genes showed that “collagen catabolic processes”, “positive regulation of cell migration”, and “extracellular matrix organization” were the most over-represented GO biological process. Network analysis indicated that Col1a1, ACTA2, MMP9 and MMP10 are primary target genes. These genes were also overexpressed in more malignant tumors (WT-IDH) compared to the less malignant (IDH1- R132H) tumors. Confocal time lapse imagining of 3D tumor slices demonstrated that oncostreams display a collective motion pattern within gliomas that has not been seen before. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In summary, oncostreams are anatomically and molecularly distinctive, regulate glioma growth and invasion, display collective motion and are regulated by the extracellular matrix. We propose oncostreams as novel pathological markers valuable for diagnosis, prognosis and designing therapeutics for GBM patients.
Flexible piezoelectric generators (PEGs) present a unique opportunity for renewable and sustainable energy harvesting. Here, we present a low-temperature and low-energy deposition method using solvent evaporation-assisted three-dimensional printing to deposit electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-trifluoroethylene (TrFE) up to 19 structured layers. Visible-wavelength transmittance was above 92%, while ATR-FTIR spectroscopy showed little change in the electroactive phase fraction between layer depositions. Electroactivity from the fabricated PVDF-TrFE PEGs showed that a single structured layer gave the greatest output at 289.3 mV peak-to-peak voltage. This was proposed to be due to shear-induced polarization affording the alignment of the fluoropolymer dipoles without an electric field or high temperature.
The preconception, pregnancy and immediate postpartum and newborn periods are times for mothers and their offspring when they are especially vulnerable to major stressors – those that are sudden and unexpected and those that are chronic. Their adverse effects can transcend generations. Stressors can include natural disasters or political stressors such as conflict and/or migration. Considerable evidence has accumulated demonstrating the adverse effects of natural disasters on pregnancy outcomes and developmental trajectories. However, beyond tracking outcomes, the time has arrived for gathering more information related to identifying mechanisms, predicting risk and developing stress-reducing and resilience-building interventions to improve outcomes. Further, we need to learn how to encapsulate both the quantitative and qualitative information available and share it with communities and authorities to mitigate the adverse developmental effects of future disasters, conflicts and migrations. This article briefly reviews prenatal maternal stress and identifies three contemporary situations (wildfire in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada; hurricane Harvey in Houston, USA and transgenerational and migrant stress in Pforzheim, Germany) where current studies are being established by Canadian investigators to test an intervention. The experiences from these efforts are related along with attempts to involve communities in the studies and share the new knowledge to plan for future disasters or tragedies.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
We studied the radiolysis of a wide variety of N-heterocycles, including many of biological importance, and find that the majority are remarkably stable in the solid-state when subjected to large doses of ionizing gamma radiation from a 60Co source. Degradation of N-heterocycles as a function of dose rate and total dose was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Many N-heterocycles show little degradation when γ-irradiated up to a total dose of ~1 MGy, which approximates hundreds of millions of years’ worth of radiation emitted in meteorite parent bodies due to slow radionuclide decay. Extrapolation of these results suggests that these N-heterocyclic compounds would be stable in dry parent bodies over solar system timescales. We suggest that the abundance of these N-heterocycles as measured presently in carbonaceous meteorites is largely reflective of their abundance at the time aqueous alteration stopped in their parent bodies and the absence of certain compounds in present-day samples is either due to the formation mechanisms or degradation which occurred during periods of aqueous alteration or thermal metamorphism.
Introduction: Approximately 2-3 percent of emergency department (ED) visits are due to eye-related complaints, adding to the ED workload. Many of these could be seen instead by an optometrist who specializes in the examination, diagnosis and treatment of eye-related disorders. We sought to determine the proportion of ED patients with isolated eye-related complaints that could be managed by an optometrist. Methods: We performed an administrative database study and descriptive analysis of all patients presenting to Calgary EDs with eye-related complaints during a one-year period. We determined optometry eligibility by reviewing discharge diagnoses and assessing whether that condition was within the Alberta Association of Optometrys (AAO) defined scope of practice. Patients were considered ineligible if their condition was related to bites, stings, thermal burns, assault, MVA or operative complications; if they required hospitalization or referral to a non-eye specialist (e.g. neurology); if they had associated headache, dizziness, syncope, hypertension, neurologic abnormality (e.g. diplopia); if they had facial cellulitis, orbital infections, adverse drug effects, or if they underwent observation in the ED because of concerns about a cardiac or neurological condition. Results: In 2015, 7686 patients were seen in Calgarys 5 EDs with eye related complaints. Of these, 76.2% were optometry-eligible and 75% of optometry-eligible patients arrived during day or evening hours (0800-2100). The most common presenting complaints were visual disturbance (24.8%), redness (22.1%), and pain or photophobia (16.4%). Optometry-eligible patients waited an average of 110 min and had an ED LOS of 149 min. Conclusion: Approximately 3 in every 4 patients seen in the ED for eye related complaints could alternatively be seen by an optometrist. Further research is required to establish the feasibility of diversion to an optometrist from the ED for eye-related complaints.
How do some places with weak institutional capacity avoid being caught in the cycles of violence and criminality so often associated with African institutions in the ‘failed states’ literature? This paper exploits in-country variation in piracy incidence across different regions of Somalia to investigate how some territories with low state capacity can nonetheless deter piracy and provide relative order. We find that the usual explanation – state ‘failure’ in Somalia, compared with a reasonably functional government in Somaliland – does not withstand scrutiny. Somaliland's lack of piracy was not due to ‘strong’ state institutions, but can be attributed to the strength of a discourse that emphasises Somaliland's ‘inherent’ capacity for order against the disorder supposedly endemic to the rest of Somalia. The exploration of the discursive underpinnings of Somaliland's supposed ‘piratelessness’ has implications for understanding the relationship between state institutions, political order and violence, particularly where the state does not exercise a monopoly on force.
Six streams of dust were unexpectedly detected by the Ulysses dust detector while this spacecraft was approximately within one AU distance from Jupiter (Grün et al., 1993). Stream durations ranged from hours to days for individual streams. It was clear that the dust in these streams (or bursts), from their directionality of approach to the spacecraft and from the nearness of stream occurrences to Jupiter, emanated from the Jovian system.
Following the original report, Baguhl et al. (1994) later relaxed the criteria for differentiating true dust impacts from “noise pulses” and found almost triple the number of dust impacts in the six streams already found. They also found 5 more streams that, except for one stream, clearly emanated from the Jovian system. The criteria were relaxed in such a way as to not introduce “noise events” into the data.
Host–parasite dynamics can play a fundamental role in both the establishment success of invasive species and their impact on native wildlife. The net impact of parasites depends on their capacity to switch effectively between native and invasive hosts. Here we explore host-switching, spatial patterns and simple fitness measures in a slow-expanding invasion: the invasion of Asian house geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus) from urban areas into bushland in Northeast Australia. In bushland close to urban edges, H. frenatus co-occurs with, and at many sites now greatly out-numbers, native geckos. We measured prevalence and intensity of Geckobia mites (introduced with H. frenatus), and Waddycephalus (a native pentastome). We recorded a new invasive mite species, and several new host associations for native mites and geckos, but we found no evidence of mite transmission between native and invasive geckos. In contrast, native Waddycephalus nymphs were commonly present in H. frenatus, demonstrating this parasite's capacity to utilize H. frenatus as a novel host. Prevalence of mites on H. frenatus decreased with distance from the urban edge, suggesting parasite release towards the invasion front; however, we found no evidence that mites affect H. frenatus body condition or lifespan. Waddycephalus was present at low prevalence in bushland sites and, although its presence did not affect host body condition, our data suggest that it may reduce host survival. The high relative density of H. frenatus at our sites, and their capacity to harbour Waddycephalus, suggests that there may be impacts on native geckos and snakes through parasite spillback.
Analysis of injuries during military operations has focused on those related to combat. Non-combat complaints have received less attention, despite the need for many troops to be evacuated for non-battle illnesses in Iraq. This study aims to further characterize the disease and non-battle injuries (DNBIs) seen at a tertiary combat hospital and to describe the types of procedures and medications used in the management of these cases.
In this observational study, patients were enrolled from a convenience sample with non-combat-related diseases and injuries who were evaluated in the emergency department (ED) of a US military tertiary hospital in Iraq from 2007-2008. The treating emergency physician (EP) used a data collection form to enroll patients that arrived to the ED whose injury or illness was unrelated to combat.
Data were gathered on 1,745 patients with a median age of 30 years; 84% of patients were male and 85% were US military personnel. The most common diagnoses evaluated in the ED were abdominal disorders, orthopedic injuries, and headache. Many cases involved intravenous access, laboratory testing, and radiographic testing. Procedures performed included electrocardiogram, lumbar puncture, and intubation.
Disease and non-battle traumatic injuries are common in a tertiary combat hospital. Emergency providers working in austere settings should have the diagnostic and procedural skills to evaluate and treat DNBIs.
BebartaVS, MoraAG, NgPC, MasonPE, MuckA, MaddryJK. Disease and Non-Battle Traumatic Injuries Evaluated by Emergency Physicians in a US Tertiary Combat Hospital. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):53–57.
7″-resolution CO (1-0) observations of M82 with the Owens Valley millimeter-wave interferometer have resolved 2 components of molecular gas in the central 1.5 arcmin of the galaxy: (1) a high plane of M82, and (2) shell-like or filamentary structures of molecular gas, with size-scale as large as 400 pc, extending most likely out of the plane of the galaxy.
Observations of star formation sites in a number of molecular clouds, including NGC 7538, NGC 2071, Cepheus A and K3-50A, have been made using the Owens Valley millimeter wave interferometer. The measurements of 12CO, 13CO, CS and continuum emission are at resolutions of order 7″. Continuum emission at 2.7 mm is detected from all the cloud cores and, in general, the 12CO interferometer maps reveal the presence of high velocity, bipolar outflows within 10″ of these continuum sources. Thus, the origins of the outflows are readily identifiable; the flows themselves appear to remain collimated on scales of less than 1017 cm. The orientations of the flows are similar to those seen at lower resolution, except in Cepheus A, where the interferometer is capable of distinguishing between two outflows which are confused in single telescope maps.