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What drives individuals toward a career in politics? Prior research on political ambition has often focused on socio-demographic variables while generally ignoring the importance of individual personality differences. Yet personality consistently predicts political knowledge, interest and participation, suggesting that individual differences may matter in addition to resources and the social environment. To this end, we assess the impact of both the HEXACO and Dark Triad models of personality in predicting nascent political ambition (that is, the initial desire to run for elected office) while controlling for well-established socio-demographic variables (for example, gender, income). Overall, we find considerable support for the predictive power of personality, especially the traits of honesty-humility, extraversion and narcissism. These results have important implications for understanding the kinds of people who are interested in a political career.
Little is known about prescribers’ attitudes regarding clinical nurses and antimicrobial stewardship. We conducted focus groups of prescribers and inquired about attitudes regarding nurses and stewardship. During 6 focus groups, prescribers were receptive to nursing involvement in stewardship activities, but noted structural barriers and knowledge gaps that should be addressed.
This study presents findings from a first-of-its-kind measurement campaign that includes simultaneous measurements of the full velocity and vorticity vectors in both pipe and boundary layer flows under matched spatial resolution and Reynolds number conditions. Comparison of canonical turbulent flows offers insight into the role(s) played by features that are unique to one or the other. Pipe and zero pressure gradient boundary layer flows are often compared with the goal of elucidating the roles of geometry and a free boundary condition on turbulent wall flows. Prior experimental efforts towards this end have focused primarily on the streamwise component of velocity, while direct numerical simulations are at relatively low Reynolds numbers. In contrast, this study presents experimental measurements of all three components of both velocity and vorticity for friction Reynolds numbers
ranging from 5000 to 10 000. Differences in the two transverse Reynolds normal stresses are shown to exist throughout the log layer and wake layer at Reynolds numbers that exceed those of existing numerical data sets. The turbulence enstrophy profiles are also shown to exhibit differences spanning from the outer edge of the log layer to the outer flow boundary. Skewness and kurtosis profiles of the velocity and vorticity components imply the existence of a ‘quiescent core’ in pipe flow, as described by Kwon et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 751, 2014, pp. 228–254) for channel flow at lower
, and characterize the extent of its influence in the pipe. Observed differences between statistical profiles of velocity and vorticity are then discussed in the context of a structural difference between free-stream intermittency in the boundary layer and ‘quiescent core’ intermittency in the pipe that is detectable to wall distances as small as 5 % of the layer thickness.
To determine the effectiveness and ease of use of an electronic reminder device in reducing urinary catheterization duration.
A randomized controlled trial with a cross-sectional anonymous online survey and focus group.
Ten wards in an Australian hospital.
All hospitalized patients with a urinary catheter.
An electronic reminder system, the CATH TAG, applied to urinary catheter bags to prompt removal of urinary catheters.
Catheterization duration and perceptions of nurses about the ease of use.
A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the rate of removal of catheters. A phenomenological approach underpinned data collection and analysis methods associated with the focus group.
In total, 1,167 patients with a urinary catheter were included. The mean durations in control and intervention phases were 5.51 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9–6.2) and 5.08 days (95% CI, 4.6–5.6), respectively. For patients who had a CATH TAG applied, the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.91–1.14; P = .75). A subgroup analysis excluded patients in an intensive care unit (ICU), and the use of the CATH TAG was associated with a 23% decrease in the mean, from 5.00 days (95% CI, 4.44–5.56) to 3.84 days (95% CI, 3.47–4.21). Overall, 82 nurses completed a survey and 5 nurses participated in a focus group. Responses regarding the device were largely positive, and benefits for patient care were identified.
The CATH TAG did not reduce the duration of catheterization, but potential benefits in patients outside the ICU were identified. Electronic reminders may be useful to aid prompt removal of urinary catheters in the non-ICU hospital setting.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Little is known about potentially obesogenic endocrine-disruptors’ effects on excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PPWR), which increase risk of adverse pregnancy and postnatal outcomes. We explored associations between prenatal organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure and increased weight both during and after pregnancy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Three dimethyl (DM) and three diethyl (DE) OP metabolites were measured in spot urine samples collected at <18, 18-25, and >25 gestational weeks among 688 participants in the Generation R Study. Metabolite levels were expressed as molar concentration/gram creatinine and log10-transformed. GWG and PPWR were calculated as the difference between weight at each prenatal/postnatal visit or maximum gestational weight and pre-pregnancy weight. In covariate-adjusted regression models we assessed associations of metabolite concentrations at each prenatal visit and, where appropriate, averaged across pregnancy with early-to-mid pregnancy, mid-to-late pregnancy, late pregnancy-to-maximum, and total GWG; insufficient and excessive GWG according to Institute of Medicine guidelines; and long-term PPWR at 6 and 10 years postpartum. Based on OP pesticides’ lipophilicity and association with hypomethylation, we investigated interactions with pre-pregnancy body mass index, periconceptional folic acid supplementation, and breastfeeding duration. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A 10-fold increase in late pregnancy DE metabolite concentration was associated with 1.34 kg [95% confidence interval: 0.55, 2.12] higher late pregnancy-to-maximum GWG. A 10-fold increase in mean DE metabolite concentration across pregnancy was associated with 2.41 kg [0.62, 4.20] lower PPWR at 6 years. Stratified analysis suggested that the prenatal finding was driven by women with pre-pregnancy BMI ≥25 kg/m2, while the postnatal finding was driven by women with pre-pregnancy BMI <25 kg/m2 and with inadequate folic acid supplementation. We found no associations between OP pesticide metabolites and insufficient or excessive weight gain and no interaction with breastfeeding. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In this longitudinal analysis, we observed a positive association of OP pesticide metabolites with GWG in late pregnancy among overweight/obese women, potentially reflecting inhibition of OP pesticide detoxification by oxidative stress. Postnatally, under/normal weight women with higher OP pesticide metabolites had lower PPWR, possibly due to better metabolic function and a more healthful diet. These results suggest that there may be a critical period during the late phase of pregnancy when OP pesticide exposure may increase GWG, and this association may be amplified in overweight/obese women. Areas for future research include examination of how the interaction between OP pesticides and polymorphisms of the paraoxonase (PON1) gene, which detoxifies OP pesticides, affect GWG/PPWR; exploration of the interplay among maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, oxidative stress, and PON1 levels; and characterization of the variability of OP pesticides exposure across pregnancy using more frequent repeated urine samples.
A new optical delivery system has been developed for the (scanning) transmission electron microscope. Here we describe the in situ and “rapid ex situ” photothermal heating modality of the system, which delivers >200 mW of optical power from a fiber-coupled laser diode to a 3.7 μm radius spot on the sample. Selected thermal pathways can be accessed via judicious choices of the laser power, pulse width, number of pulses, and radial position. The long optical working distance mitigates any charging artifacts and tremendous thermal stability is observed in both pulsed and continuous wave conditions, notably, no drift correction is applied in any experiment. To demonstrate the optical delivery system’s capability, we explore the recrystallization, grain growth, phase separation, and solid state dewetting of a Ag0.5Ni0.5 film. Finally, we demonstrate that the structural and chemical aspects of the resulting dewetted films was assessed.
Breakthrough Listen is a 10-yr initiative to search for signatures of technologies created by extraterrestrial civilisations at radio and optical wavelengths. Here, we detail the digital data recording system deployed for Breakthrough Listen observations at the 64-m aperture CSIRO Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. The recording system currently implements two modes: a dual-polarisation, 1.125-GHz bandwidth mode for single-beam observations, and a 26-input, 308-MHz bandwidth mode for the 21-cm multibeam receiver. The system is also designed to support a 3-GHz single-beam mode for the forthcoming Parkes ultra-wideband feed. In this paper, we present details of the system architecture, provide an overview of hardware and software, and present initial performance results.
Defined as the co-occurrence of more than two chronic conditions, multi-morbidity has been described as a significant health care problem: a trend linked to a rise in non-communicable disease and an ageing population. Evidence on the experiences of living with multi-morbidity in middle-income countries (MICs) is limited. In high-income countries (HICs), multi-morbidity has a complex impact on health outcomes, including functional status, disability and quality of life, complexity of health care and burden of treatment. Previous evidence also shows that multi-morbidity is consistently higher amongst women. This study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of women living with multi-morbidity in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana: to understand the complexity of their health needs due to multi-morbidity, and to document how the health system has responded. Guided by the Cumulative Complexity Model, and using stratified purposive sampling, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted between May and September 2015 across three polyclinics in the Greater Accra Region. The data were analysed using the six phases of Thematic Analysis. Overall four themes emerged: 1) the influences on patients’ health experience; 2) seeking care and the responsiveness of the health care system; 3) how patients manage health care demands; and 4) outcomes due to health. Spirituality and the stigmatization caused by specific conditions, such as HIV, impacted their overall health experience. Women depended on the care and treatment provided through the health care system despite inconsistent coverage and a lack of choice thereof, although their experiences varied by chronic condition. Women depended on their family and community to offset the financial burden of treatment costs, which was exacerbated by having many conditions. The implications are that integrated health and social support, such as streamlining procedures and professional training on managing complexity, would benefit and reduce the burden of multi-morbidity experienced by women with multi-morbidity in Ghana.
Douglas Nakashima, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), France,Igor Krupnik, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC,Jennifer T. Rubis, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), France
This essay examines and compares the treatment of the Decalogue in the theological ethics of Karl Barth and Dietrich Bonhoeffer. It argues that while both theologians orient their exposition of the Decalogue by attending to its primary character as divine self-revelation, approach it with a view to a Christian ethics of divine command, and frame their understandings in decisively christological terms, they differ markedly on the extent to which the commandments themselves can and ought to be understood as representing concrete divine commands.
Schmidt hammer (SH) sampling of 54 10Be-dated granite surfaces from the Pyrenees reveals a clear relationship between exposure and weathering through time (n=52, R2=0.96, P<0.01) and permits the use of the SH as a numerical dating tool. To test this 10Be-SH calibration curve, 100 surfaces were sampled from five ice-front positions in the Têt catchment, eastern Pyrenees, with results verified against independent 10Be and 14C ages. Gaussian modelling differentiates Holocene (9.4±0.6 ka), Younger Dryas (12.6±0.9 ka), Oldest Dryas (16.1±0.5 ka), last glacial maximum (LGM; 24.8±0.9 ka) and Würmian maximum ice extent stages (MIE; 40.9±1.1 ka). These data confirm comparable glacier lengths during the LGM and MIE (~300 m difference), in contrast to evidence from the western Pyrenees (≥15 km), reflecting the relative influence of Atlantic and Mediterranean climates. Moreover, Pyrenean glaciers advanced significantly during the LGM, with a local maximum at ~25 ka, driven by growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, southward advection of the polar front, and a solar radiation minimum in the Northern Hemisphere. This calibration curve is available online (http://shed.earth) to enable wider application of this method throughout the Pyrenees.
Prolonged or post-term pregnancies are associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity when compared with pregnancies ending at term. This adverse outcome is mainly associated with placental insufficiency, meconium aspiration syndrome, macrosomia, and birth injury.