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We present a broad study of linear, clustered, noble gas puffs irradiated with the frequency doubled (527 nm) Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Pure Ar, Kr, and Xe clustered gas puffs, as well as two mixed-gas puffs consisting of KrAr and XeKrAr gases, make up the targets. Characterization experiments to determine gas-puff density show that varying the experimental parameter gas-delay timing (the delay between gas puff initialization and laser-gas-puff interaction) provides a simple control over the gas-puff density. X-ray emission (>1.4 keV) is studied as a function of gas composition, density, and delay timing. Xe gas puffs produce the strongest peak radiation in the several keV spectral region. The emitted radiation was found to be anisotropic, with smaller X-ray flux observed in the direction perpendicular to both laser beam propagation and polarization directions. The degree of anisotropy is independent of gas target type but increases with photon energy. X-ray spectroscopic measurements estimate plasma parameters and highlight their difference with previous studies. Electron beams with energy in excess of 72 keV are present in the noble gas-puff plasmas and results indicate that Ar plays a key role in their production. A drastic increase in harder X-ray emissions (X-ray flash effect) and multi-MeV electron-beam generation from Xe gas-puff plasma occurred when the laser beam was focused on the front edge of the linear gas puff.
The development of laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) over the past several years has led to an interest in very compact sources of X-ray radiation – such as “table-top” free electron lasers. However, the use of conventional undulators using permanent magnets also implies system sizes which are large. In this work, we assess the possibilities for the use of novel mini-undulators in conjunction with a LWFA so that the dimensions of the undulator become comparable with the acceleration distances for LWFA experiments (i.e., centimeters). The use of a prototype undulator using laser machining of permanent magnets for this application is described and the emission characteristics and limitations of such a system are determined. Preliminary electron propagation and X-ray emission measurements are taken with a LWFA electron beam at the University of Michigan.
A problem from the class of unsteady plane flows of an ideal fluid with a free boundary is considered. A conformal mapping of the exterior of a unit circle onto the region occupied by the fluid is sought. The solution is constructed in the form of power series in time or Laurent series which are analytically continued with the use of Padé approximants and change of variables of a certain special type. The free boundary shape and the pressure and velocity distributions are found. Singularities of the solution are studied.
At Nikolaev, in 1978, a system for the improvement in the stability of the light path between the transit instrument and the meridian mires was designed. Its purpose is to improve the accuracy of the azimuth determination and that of the collimation. This system consists of twelve sections of 8 mm thick steel tube with 160 mm diameter, each nine meters long. These tubes are lying in special steel cradles which rest on brick support columns spaced 8 meters apart, and these can be moved vertically and horizontally by 100 mm and 50 mm, respectively. Thus it is possible to align the axis of the tube exactly.
In this work, we have obtained explicit analytical formulae expressing the wave resistance of a two-dimensional body in terms of geometric parameters of nonlinear downstream waves. The formulae have been constructed in the form of high-order asymptotic expansions in powers of the wave amplitude with coefficients depending on the mean depth. To obtain these expansions, the second Stokes method has been used. The analysis represents the next step of the research carried out in Maklakov & Petrov (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 776, 2015, pp. 290–315), where the properties of the waves have been computed by a numerical method of integral equations. In the present work, we have derived a quadratic system of equations with respect to the coefficients of the second Stokes method and developed an effective computer algorithm for solving the system. Comparison with previous numerical results obtained by the method of integral equations has been made.
Results of characterization of 238Pu-doped Eu- and La-monazites using
single crystal XRD, Raman and XAFS spectroscopy and TEM are presented. It is
shown that despite significant accumulated doses (up to 9x1018
α-decays/gram) the Eu-monazite remains a single crystal. Unusual foamy
structures are observed by TEM and are interpreted as recrystallisation of
domains damaged by recoil U-ions. Partial recrystallisation of the surface
material is also supported by Raman and luminescence data.
The present-day realization of inertial coordinate system by means of traditional optical astrometry is the Fifth Fundamental Catalogue (FK5). The series of observations with new meridian instruments (CAMC, PMC-190, BAMC, HMC) show the significant correlated differences (up to 0.″1) of observational catalogues from the FK5. Moreover, FK5 mean epoch appears to be old (about 50 years ago) and FK5 proper motions would have essential errors owing to the fact that not many new original catalogues (only 25 in RA and 15 in DEC) were used when compiling FK5. It should be noted also that FK5 has a dissimilar accuracy of positions and proper motions of “old” and “new” stars.
The Seyfert 1.5 galaxy Akn564  is a well known X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN) included in our list of selected barred AGN. The galaxy was observed during the August 1996 season at the 2-m RCC telescope of the Astronomical Observatory “Rozhen” of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. ST-6 with standard Schott V, R, I filters were used. MIDAS'96 package was used for the data reduction with teh Richter's expansion for the surface photometry . Most of the basic data for the galaxy are shown in the Table 1 below.
The most commonly invoked power source of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is accretion of galactic gas (probably through a disk) onto a supermassive black hole in the center of the nucleus (Rees 1984). As is well known, a black hole is completely defined by its mass and angular momentum. The unification scheme of active galaxies assumes that two known Seyfert types (Sy1 and Sy2) are not intrinsically different, i. e. their black hole masses, accretion rates and the whole internal structures are identical (Antonucci 1993) and observed differences are due just to a different orientation to the observer of the axisymmetrical central structure (central engine, BLR and thick torus, shadowing broad lines from some directions).
Differential Interferometry (DI) combines high spectral and high spatial resolution. On non resolved objects, it yields the angular variation of the source photocenter as a function of wavelength which has been shown theoretically and experimentally to complement very usefully both interferometric and spectroscopic data in a large number of astrophysical problems. This paper presents the general characteristics of DI which are likely to allow improvements of the Doppler images of stellar surface structures as soon as interferometers with large apertures and baselines approaching 100 m are available.
Differential Interferometry (DI) is the application of high angular resolution interferometric techniques to objects observed simultaneously at different wavelengths. When applied to unresolved double stars it makes it possible to measure the variation of the object photocenter with wavelength, which yields angular and spectral information well beyond the classical resolution limits. Signal–to–noise ratio analysis shows that, if DI experiments are limited by photon and speckle noise, the technique can be applied to a large number of double systems for the measurement of vectorial angular separations and of radial-velocity differences. With 4-m telescopes, there are a few tens of binary systems for which DI should permit the resolution and the measurement of the position angle of the rotation axis of at least one of the components. A preliminary experiment permitted a high SNR resolution of the double star Capella with a 1.52-m telescope and showed the current limitations of DI performances resulting from an imperfect correction of detector geometrical distortions.
The expected progress of diffraction limited imaging methods and the apparition of new super resolution techniques like differential speckle interferometry would justify the construction of a 15 m class telescope dedicated to diffraction limited observations in order to fulfil the potential of high angular resolution astrophysics of 15 m class instruments, but the construction of such a telescope is conceivable only if its cost is much smaller than the cost of the equivalent all purposes VLT. In this paper we suggest that a telescope with a long and thin rectangular primary ( 16 m X.4m say ) , able to rotate around the optical axis to ensure a full coverage of the frequency plane, would do almost as well than a conventional 16 m aperture telescope for high angular resolution astronomy for a cost substancially reduced. The performances of such a Large Slit Aperture Telescope ( LSAT ) for classical and differential speckle interferometry are examined and the releases on the optical and mechanical constraints allowed by the dedication of the instrument to speckle techniques are discussed.
In experiments with neutral beam injection at the early stage of a Globus-M discharge, instabilities were observed that were excited by fast ions in the frequency range of 50–200 kHz, which were identified as toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE) (Petrov et al., Plasma Phys. Rep., vol. 37, 2011, pp. 1001–1005). In contradiction with the NSTX and MAST tokamaks, a regime of TAE generation was realized with strongly developed single modes. Magnetic measurements with fast Mirnov probes have shown that most of the modes have toroidal number
. The influence of the modes on the fast particle confinement was recorded by means of a tangentially directed neutral particle analyser (NPA) and neutron detector. Hydrogen and deuterium were used as target plasma and injected beam for study of the isotopic effect. At deuterium injection into the deuterium plasma, TAE led to the neutron rate dropping by 25 %, whereas NPA fluxes of high energy dropped by 75 %. At hydrogen injection, the drop in the measured NPA fluxes did not exceed 25 %.
It is proposed that transit observations on the islands of Spitsbergen (φ = 78°) and Ross (φ=− 78°) be organised in order to determine absolute right ascension by observing continually throughout the polar night.
In this work we have obtained exact analytical formulae expressing the wave resistance of a two-dimensional body by the parameters of the downstream non-breaking waves. The body moves horizontally at a constant speed
in a channel of finite depth
. We have analysed the relationships between the parameters of the upstream flow and the downstream waves. Making use of some results by Keady & Norbury (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 70, 1975, pp. 663–671) and Benjamin (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 295, 1995, pp. 337–356), we have rigorously proved that realistic steady free-surface flows with a positive wave resistance exist only if the upstream flow is subcritical, i.e. the Froude number
. For all solutions with downstream waves obtained by a perturbation of a supercritical upstream uniform flow the wave resistance is negative. Applying a numerical technique, we have calculated accurate values of the wave resistance depending on the wavelength, amplitude and mean depth.
The number of experiments on-board Lomonosov spacecraft are preparing now at SINP MSU in
co-operation with other organisations. The main idea of Lomonosov mission is to study
extreme astrophysical phenomena, such as cosmic gamma-ray bursts and ultra-high energy
cosmic rays. These phenomena connect with processes occurred in very distant astrophysical
objects of the Early Universe and give us information about first stages of Universe
evolution. Thus, the Lomonosov mission scientific equipment includes several instruments
for gamma-ray burst observation in optics, ultra-violet, X-rays and gamma-rays and the
wide aperture telescope for ultra-high energy particle study by detection of ionisation
light along its tracks in the atmosphere. The main parameters and a brief description of
these instruments are presented.
Within the Cold Dark Matter scenario the hierarchical merging paradigm is the natural result to form massive galactic halos by the minor mergers of sub-halos and, by this, inherently their stellar halo. Although this must be also invoked for the Milky Way, the context of chemical and kinematic coherence of halo stars and dwarf spheroidal galaxies is yet unsolved a focus of present-day research. To examine this issue we model the chemo-dynamical evolution of the system of satellites selected from the cosmological Via Lactea II simulations to be similar for the Milky Way environment but at an early epoch.
We have investigated the mechanical behavior of the following single-phase polycrystalline alloys with the MoSi2 body-center tetragonal structure: MoSi2 alloyed with ∼2.5 at.% Re, MoSi2 alloyed with 2 at.% Al, MoSi2 alloyed with 1 at.% Nb, and MoSi2 alloyed with 1 at.% Re and 2 at.% Al. Several anomalies in the mechanical behavior of alloyed materials were observed. For example, (i) addition of only ∼2.5 at. % Re results in an order of magnitude increase in compressive strength at 1600 °C, (ii) additions of Nb and Al cause solution softening at near-ambient temperatures, and (iii) quaternary MoSi2-Re-Al alloys show strengthening at elevated temperatures and reduction in flow stress with enhanced plasticity at near-ambient temperatures in compression. The mechanisms of anomalous solution hardening and softening are discussed.
Copper is becoming the metal of choice for interconnect applications in integrated circuits due to its lower electrical resistivity and higher electromigration (EM) resistance. The effects of grain size, preferred orientation, and interfacial layers, on electromigration in Cu lines are, however, not yet well understood. In this paper, we compare the EM characteristics of epitaxial Cu(111) lines with that of polycrystalline lines with a (111) texture. We also investigate the effects of Ta, TaN and TiN interfacial underlayers and Cu crystal quality on the EM response of epitaxial Cu(001) lines. EM tests were carried out on 2-μm-wide Cu lines at a constant current density between 0.02 and 3.5 MA/cm2 in an Ar ambient at 300 °C. Our results indicate that EM resistance of both (111) and (001) epitaxial lines have a higher mean time to failure (MTTF) than polycrystalline Cu lines. The presence of a TiN or TaN interfacial layer increases the MTTF in Cu(001) films, while a Ta underlayer degrades EM resistance. X-ray diffractograms indicating a smaller full-width-at-half-maximum of Cu(001) films on nitride underlayers suggest that lower defect densities in these Cu films is the likely reason for improved EM resistance. Both (111) and (100) orientations fail by formation of faceted voids.
Microlaminated composites of Nb3Al-Nb and Cr2Nb-Nb(Cr) were synthesized by high rate magnetron sputtering. Both composites were stable at elevated temperatures. A Cr2Nb-Nb(Cr) composite with 2 µm metal and intermetallic layers had room temperature tensile fracture strength over 725 MPa and a fracture toughness of about 20 MPa√m. Composites with 2 µm and 6 µm thick refractory metal and intermetallic laminations were compared and it was found that layer thickness did not affect fracture toughness. Microlaminates with the thicker 6 µm laminations had lower fracture strength, however. Good fracture strength and high fracture toughness indicated that microlaminated high temperature composites synthesized by vapor phase deposition exhibit the properties predicted by ductile toughening models.