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The in situ dry matter disappearance technique (Ørskov and McDonald, 1979) evaluates forages for their rate and extent of degradation in the rumen. However, this method does not allow the evaluation of a large number of samples at one and the same time and therefore which limits screening of treatments applied to forages. The in vitro gas production method is faster and allows handling of many samples per batch; therefore, gas production could be an alternative to the use of nylon bags if the response to treatments between the two methods is similar among treated forages. The objective of this experiment was to compare results obtained with both the gas production and the nylon bag techniques for forages treated with four levels of maceration and conserved as hay or silage.
The GRIG-2 geodetic VLBI experiment was conducted in 1985, linking for the first time South America, Europe and Africa. At the single frequency band of 1.66 GHz which was used, the monitoring of the ionosphere is a critical aspect and several predictions of Total Electron Content (TEC) were used. One of them is derived from dual band Doppler observations of TRANSIT satellites, which were simultaneously conducted. The influence of these models on the solution is presented, with comparisons with other VLBI solutions. Decimetric accuracy has been achieved.
A global array of 20 radio observatories was used to measure the three-dimensional position and velocity of the two meteorological balloons that were injected into the equatorial region of the Venus atmosphere by the VEGA spacecraft.
Measurements of oxygen isotope ratio , major anions and cations, insoluble dust and tritium were performed every 4-6 cm along the Hercules Névé (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) 22 m firn core. Concentration/depth profiles for H2O2, methane sulphonic acid and non-sea-salt sulphate (nssSO42-) were used to obtain a dating for the core by a multiparametric method involving a normalisation procedure and a linear combination of original profiles. This dating was compared with the and dust records to obtain a reliable identification of successive annual snow layers. The time-scale obtained from the seasonally varying signals was confirmed by an absolute date obtained from the 1965 thermonuclear atmospheric bomb test tritium peak. Around 70 years (1926-94) of annual accumulation rate data were obtained from the core. variations recorded along the core may be ascribed to seasonal variations of this parameter related to temperature variations.
Recent spectropolarimetric surveys of bright, hot stars have found that ~10% of OB-type stars contain strong (mostly dipolar) surface magnetic fields (~kG). The prominent paradigm describing the interaction between the stellar winds and the surface magnetic field is the magnetically confined wind shock (MCWS) model. In this model, the stellar wind plasma is forced to move along the closed field loops of the magnetic field, colliding at the magnetic equator, and creating a shock. As the shocked material cools radiatively it will emit X-rays. Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy is a key tool in detecting and characterizing the hot wind material confined by the magnetic fields of these stars. Some B-type stars are found to have very short rotational periods. The effects of the rapid rotation on the X-ray production within the magnetosphere have yet to be explored in detail. The added centrifugal force due to rapid rotation is predicted to cause faster wind outflows along the field lines, leading to higher shock temperatures and harder X-rays. However, this is not observed in all rapidly rotating magnetic B-type stars. In order to address this from a theoretical point of view, we use the X-ray Analytical Dynamical Magnetosphere (XADM) model, originally developed for slow rotators, with an implementation of new rapid rotational physics. Using X-ray spectroscopy from ESA’s XMM-Newton space telescope, we observed 5 rapidly rotating B-types stars to add to the previous list of observations. Comparing the observed X-ray luminosity and hardness ratio to that predicted by the XADM allows us to determine the role the added centrifugal force plays in the magnetospheric X-ray emission of these stars.
Much can be learned from terrestrial planets that appear to have had the potential to be habitable, but failed to realize that potential. Mars shows evidence of a once hospitable surface environment. The reasons for its current state, and in particular its thin atmosphere and dry surface, are of great interest for what they can tell us about habitable zone planet outcomes. A main goal of the MAVEN mission is to observe Mars’ atmosphere responses to solar and space weather influences, and in particular atmosphere escape related to space weather ‘storms’ caused by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Numerical experiments with a data-validated MHD model suggest how the effects of an observed moderately strong ICME compare to what happens during a more extreme event. The results suggest the kinds of solar and space weather conditions that can have evolutionary importance at a planet like Mars.
Recent observations of the magnetic field in pre-main sequence stars suggest that the magnetic field topology changes as a function of age. The presence of a tachocline could be an important factor in the development of magnetic field with higher multipolar modes. In this work we performed MHD simulations using the EULAG-MHD code to study the magnetic field generation and evolution in models that mimic stars at two evolutionary stages. The stratification for both stellar phases was computed by fitting stellar structure profiles obtained with the ATON stellar evolution code. The first stage is at 1.1Myr, when the star is completely convective. The second stage is at 14Myrs, when the star is partly convective, with a radiative core developed up to 30% of the stellar radius. In this proceedings we present a preliminary analysis of the resulting mean-flows and magnetic field. The mean-flow analysis shown that the star rotate almost rigidly on the fully convective phase, whereas at the partially convective phase there is differential rotation with conical contours of iso-rotation. As for the mean magnetic field both simulations show similarities with respect to the field evolution. However, the topology of the magnetic field is different.
The mechanism by which sunspots are generated at the surface of the sun remains unclear. In the current literature two types of explanations can be found. The first one is related to the buoyant emergence of toroidal magnetic fields generated at the tachocline. The second one states that active regions are formed, from initially diffused magnetic flux, by MHD instabilities that develop in the near-surface layers of the Sun. Using the anelastic MHD code EULAG we address the problem of sunspot formation by performing implicit large-eddy simulations of stratified magneto-convection in a domain that resembles the near-surface layers of the Sun. The development of magnetic structures is explored as well as their effect on the convection dynamics. By applying a homogeneous magnetic field over an initially stationary hydrodynamic convective state, we investigate the formation of self-organized magnetic structures in the range of the initial magnetic field strength, 0.01 < B0/Beq < 0.5, where Beq is the characteristic equipartition field strength.
The development of an absolute radiometer instrument is currently a effort at INPE for TSI measurements. In this work, we describe the development of black Ni-P coatings for TSI radiometers absorptive cavities. We present a study of the surface blackening process and the relationships between morphological structure, chemical composition and coating absorption. Ni-P deposits with different phosphorous content were obtained by electroless techniques on aluminum substrates with a thin zincate layer. Appropriate phosphorus composition and etching parameters process produce low reflectance black coatings.
The so-called Carrington Event on September 1, 1859, is clearly the solar outburst that brought the realization to the inhabitants of Earth that weather existed in space, and that space weather was important to the rapidly developing technological infrastructure on Earth. It is important to understand not only how space weather affects our technological systems, but like the case of atmospheric weather, the possible intensity of such weather, the frequency of extreme events, and how to predict them. This paper reviews what we know about one class of extreme space weather events, the superfast arrival events, how best to compare them given our limited diagnostics in past events and even at the current time, and suggests a direction for progress in this field.
Among the solar proxies, κ1 Cet, stands out as potentially having a mass very close to solar and a young age. We report magnetic field measurements and planetary habitability consequences around this star, a proxy of the young Sun when life arose on Earth. Magnetic strength was determined from spectropolarimetric observations and we reconstruct the large-scale surface magnetic field to derive the magnetic environment, stellar winds, and particle flux permeating the interplanetary medium around κ1 Cet. Our results show a closer magnetosphere and mass-loss rate 50 times larger than the current solar wind mass-loss rate when Life arose on Earth, resulting in a larger interaction via space weather disturbances between the stellar wind and a hypothetical young-Earth analogue, potentially affecting the habitability. Interaction of the wind from the young Sun with the planetary ancient magnetic field may have affected the young Earth and its life conditions.
The role of tachoclines, the thin shear layers that separate solid body from differential rotation in the interior of late-type stars, in stellar dynamos is still controversial. In this work we discuss their relevance in view of recent results from global dynamo simulations performed with the EULAG-MHD code. The models have solar-like stratification and different rotation rates (i.e., different Rossby number). Three arguments supporting the key role of tachoclines are presented: the solar dynamo cycle period, the origin of torsional oscillations and the scaling law of stellar magnetic fields as function of the Rossby number. This scaling shows a regime where the field strength increases with the rotation and a saturated regime for fast rotating stars. These properties are better reproduced by models that consider the convection zone and a fraction of the radiative core, naturally developing a tachocline, than by those that consider only the convection zone.
I review the evolution of low-mass stars with outer convective zones over timescales of millions-to-billions of years, from the pre-main sequence to solar-age, ~4.6 Gyr (Bahcall et al. 1995; Amelin et al. 2010), and beyond. I discuss the evolution of high-energy coronal and chromospheric emission, the links with stellar rotation and magnetism, and the emergence of the rotation-activity relation for stars within young clusters.
Zeeman-Doppler Imaging enables one to estimate the short term temporal evolution of surface brightness and magnetic structures, under the effect of differential rotation. We present here spectropolarimetric observations secured between 1998 and 2002 for two evolved active stars: the K1 subgiant of the RS CVn system HR 1099 and the single FK Com giant HD 199178. Differential rotation is detected both from brightness and magnetic images, indicating that the rotational shear, roughly solar in magnitude for the single star, is significantly weaker in the binary system. This result suggests that tidal forces, rather than stellar evolution, could be responsible for the lower rotational shear and thus the longer spot lifetime reported for binary systems.
The relative frequency stability and the accuracy of atomic time scales, like International Atomic Time TAI, is now of order 1 × 10-15 thanks to progresses in clock technology and in clock comparison techniques. Cold atom primary Cs standards have a stated accuracy of 1 × 10-15 and a stability in the 10-16 region. Other cold atom clocks provide even better prospects, as well as clocks based on trapped ions. Frequencies based on optical and microwave transitions can now be compared with a similar or even better uncertainty thanks to femtosecond comb technology. Clock comparison techniques based on GPS (see http://maia.usno.navy.mil/gpst.html), or on dedicated Two Way technology provide adequate performance when averaging data over one or a few days, and should be improved to accompany the progresses of clocks.
Since 1999, a number of organizations initiated a review on the future of the UTC system (insertion of leap seconds between TAI and UTC to keep |UT1 – UTC| < 0.9s). Several working groups have been initiated, notably by the International Telecommunications Union (Special Rapporteur Group (SRG) in the Working Party 7A), by the International Union of Radio Science, and by the IAU following Resolution B2(2000). No immediate conclusion may be foreseen but a consensus should be reached over the next triennium.
The CCTF (formerly named CCDS) held its 14th meeting on 20-22 April 1999. Following the discussions, seven Recommendations were adopted and submitted to the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM). The list is the following:
1. Recommendation S 1 (1999): Mise-en-pratique of the definition of the second.
2. Recommendation S 2 (1999): On stating uncertainty in comparisons involving primary frequency standards.
3. Recommendation S 3 (1999): On the comparison of primary frequency standards.
4. Recommendation S 4 (1999): On the use of multi-channel and multi-code GPS and GLONASS time receivers.
5. Recommendation S 5 (1999): Time and frequency comparisons using GPS phase and code measurements.
6. Recommendation S 6 (1999): Future global navigation satellite systems.
7. Recommendation S 7 (1999): On Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer
Additionally discussed were the present form of UTC and mostly the interest of preserving the leap second. The advantages and disadvantages of several options regarding the future use of leap seconds were compared. The CCTF, however, felt that it did not have the authority to propose any action. Then CCTF decided to ask the BIPM Director to write to the relating international bodies including IAU so as to draw their attentions to this issue while recommending the usage of TAI in case a time scale without discontinuity is needed. Also it was decided, in order to make more expedite the process, to ask the opinions of the various Commissions of the Scientific Unions.
the large field Lallemand electronographic camera has proved to be an ideal receptor for bidimensional photometry with the C.F.H. 3.6 m. Telescope. It permits to measure faint stars up to about B = 25. Plates of a large variety of objects have been obtained ; for example : crowded fields such as the nearby galaxy Messier 33 ; fields where one must recognize faint galaxies from stars; objects for which a high spatial resolution is needed, such as the optical jet of Messier 87 or gravitational lenses. It is possible to predict the limits of the receptor with a very large telescope.
Large aperture telescopes usually have an unavoidably long focal length so that stellar image diameters are often much larger than the resolution of the detector. The detection of extended sources can take advantage of a faster focal ratio and both stellar and extended monochromatic sources can be detected with great sensitivity by using interference filters and a focal reducer, without much loss in resolution. Extragalactic results obtained with the 6 meter telescope at focal ratio f/1 are given as examples.
Since early eighties, the introduction of new methods for distant time transfer has led to a major improvement in the precision, accuracy, and coverage of world-wide time metrology. All of these methods are based on the use of satellites. Communication between ground stations and satellites is effected through microwave or optical signals according to a one-way or two-way mode.