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This paper describes a method to analyze open or closed elliptical structures with constant axial ratio by a Body-of-Revolution (BoR) Finite Element Method (FEM). The method is based on Transformation Optics, a coordinate transformation that maps the elliptical shape to a circular shape, for which BoR-FEM represents a greatly efficient tool for the analysis.
Irrigation according to reliable estimates of crop water requirements (CWR) is one of the key strategies to ensure long-term sustainability of irrigated agriculture. In southern Mediterranean regions, during the irrigation season, CWR is almost totally controlled by the potential evapotranspiration of the irrigated crop. An innovative system for forecasting crop potential evapotranspiration (ETp) has been implemented recently in the Campania region (southern Italy). The system produces ETp forecasts with a lead time of up to 5 days, by coupling the visible and near-infrared crop imagery with numerical weather prediction outputs of a limited area model. The forecasts are delivered to farmers with a simple and intuitive web app interface, which makes daily real-time ETp maps accessible from desktop computers, tablets and smartphones. Forecast performances were evaluated for maize fields of two farms in two irrigation seasons (2014–2015). The mean absolute bias of the forecasted ETp was <0.3 mm/day and the RMSE was <0.6 mm/day, both for lead times up to 5 days.
A high-fat diet is known to induce atherosclerosis in animal models. Dietary factors and timing of atherogenic food delivery may affect plasma lipoprotein content composition and its potential atherogenic effect. Increasingly often, humans spend periods/days eating in a completely unregulated way, ingesting excessive amounts of food rich in oils and fats, alternating with periods/days when food intake is more or less correct. We investigate the effect on lipid homeostasis of a high-fat diet administered either continuously or intermittently. We investigated control pigs receiving standard diet (C, n=7), pigs receiving a high-fat diet every day for 10 weeks (CHF, n=5), and pigs receiving a high-fat diet every other week for 10 weeks (IHF, n=7). IHF animals were shown to have a different lipid profile compared with CHF animals, with a significant increase in high-density lipoproteins (HDL) levels with respect to C and CHF groups. CHF also showed significantly higher values of TC/HDL cholesterol compared with C and IHF. Hepatic expression analysis of genes involved in lipid homeostasis showed an increasing trend of nuclear receptor LXRα along with its target genes in the CHF group and in the IHF group, whereas SREBP2 and LDLr were significantly inhibited. A significant correlation was found between ABCA1 expression and circulating levels of HDL-C. Periodic withdrawals of a high-fat atherogenic diet compared with a regular administration results in a different adaptive response of lipoprotein metabolism, which leads to a significantly higher plasma level of HDL-C and lower TC/HDL-C.
The influence of the substrate on composition and CuPt-type spontaneous order of MOVPE lattice matched InGaP/GaAs layers was studied. The study was carried out by microRaman and microphotoluminescence. The order was determined by the band gap, while the Raman parameters were also contributed by the surface topography that was also related to the type of substrate. The spontaneous order increases with Si- doping of the substrates. Doping the layers with Zn randomises the alloy.
By studying InP epitaxies it has been found that optimum growth conditions are not achieved under low growth rate regimes, which, on the contrary, yield a defect density nearly as high as under high growth rate conditions, due to the creation of a very high density of point defects from which dislocation loops originate. Such loops are generated not only at the substrate-epilayer interface but also throughout the layer and depend on the supersaturation of the feeding phases. Under conditions yielding high dislocation density both layer and hillock growth mainly occur by spiral growth.
Two regimes of defect generation have been found in MOVPE GaAs/Ge layers upon changing the V/III ratio between 1.3 and 11.8. For low V/III ratio the layers contained misfit dislocations along with stacking faults that had been generated by dissociation of the misfit dislocations. The stacking fault density increased with decreasing V/III ratio. This might be explained by an enhanced mobility of the dissociated partials due the reduced unintentional doping of the layer caused by reduced Ge outdiffusion from the substrate when V/III is small. The secon regime corresponds to high V/III ratios and is characterized by the absence of misfit dislocations and the presence of a high density of planar defects. This means that breakdown of the 2D layer-by-layer growth occurred and 3D island growth prevailed.
Patients whose symptoms are ‘unexplained by disease’ often have a poor symptomatic outcome after specialist consultation, but we know little about which patient factors predict this. We therefore aimed to determine predictors of poor subjective outcome for new neurology out-patients with symptoms unexplained by disease 1 year after the initial consultation.
The Scottish Neurological Symptom Study was a 1-year prospective cohort study of patients referred to secondary care National Health Service neurology clinics in Scotland (UK). Patients were included if the neurologist rated their symptoms as ‘not at all’ or only ‘somewhat explained’ by organic disease. Patient-rated change in health was rated on a five-point Clinical Global Improvement (CGI) scale (‘much better’ to ‘much worse’) 1 year later.
The 12-month outcome data were available on 716 of 1144 patients (63%). Poor outcome on the CGI (‘unchanged’, ‘worse’ or ‘much worse’) was reported by 482 (67%) out of 716 patients. The only strong independent baseline predictors were patients' beliefs [expectation of non-recovery (odds ratio [OR] 2.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40–2.96), non-attribution of symptoms to psychological factors (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.51–3.26)] and the receipt of illness-related financial benefits (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.37–3.86). Together, these factors predicted 13% of the variance in outcome.
Of the patients, two-thirds had a poor outcome at 1 year. Illness beliefs and financial benefits are more useful in predicting poor outcome than the number of symptoms, disability and distress.
Due to the typical high atmospheric noise and low transparency,
submillimeter observations can be carried out only from sites
with very high atmospheric stability and very low precipitable
water vapour content. The Antarctic Plateau is important because
of its remarkable atmospheric transparency and
stability. Logistical difficulties have limited till now the
exploitation of the unprecendented potential of Antarctica as a
site for submillimeter observations. The opening of Concordia
Station at Dome C is now offering to the international
astronomical community a unique opportunity to perform
ground-breaking astronomical science. The proposal from our
multi-national group represents a first step toward the
realization of an international Antarctic Submillimeter Observatory (ASO) based on a telescope with a large collecting area
(12 m diameter) to carry out both continuum
and spectral line observations, particularly in the 200 and 225 μm
atmospheric windows and possibly also in the Mid InfraRed
at wavelengths ≳40 μm.
Different GaAs-matched epitaxial structures based on InGaP and
InGaAlP layers were prepared by LP MOVPE. The suitable p- and n-type
sequence of these layers will be used as active elements in high
efficiency solar cells. The layers were grown on (001) GaAs substrates
oriented 2° off towards (110) using trimethylgallium (TMG),
(TMA), trimethylindium (TMI), arsine (AsH3) and phosphine (PH3) as main
reagents and dimethylzinc (DMZ) and silane (SiH4) as p- and n-type
doping reagents, respectively.
The layers have been analyzed as regards their compositional homogeneity,
interface abruptness and doping concentration by different techniques such as
SIMS, TEM and AFM.
The combined analysis of SIMS and TEM has been of great usefulness in order to define the abruptness of composition change. Moreover an analysis of autodoping effects is reported as regards the arsenic diffusion in InGaP matrix and the analysis of different samples is reported.
GaInP layers were grown on GaAs substrates by MOVPE at low pressure in the
temperature range between 525 and 600 °C. A detailed analysis of
the optical properties of these samples was performed by means of
Photoluminescence, Cathodoluminescence and microRaman spectroscopies, aiming
to understand the contributions of composition fluctuations, strain, Cu-Pt
type ordering, etc., to the properties of the layers. The composition
gradients due to the horizontal flow reactor were specifically evaluated by
Photoluminescence mapping. The luminescence parameters were analysed in terms
of composition, order and strain by Cathodoluminescence imaging. On the other
hand, ordering was observed to depend on the growth rate.
This study was designed to determine the intra-operative incidence of right-sided ventricular ischaemia and any association with left ventricular ischaemia. In 60 patients, undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, a right-sided precordial lead V5R was used. ST segment deviation of more than 1 mm in V5R was considered significant for myocardial ischaemia. Right ventricular ischaemia occurred in 14 patients(23.3%) but was not associated with left ventricular inferior wall ischaemia. In 4 patients (6.6%) presenting with right ventricular ischaemia, ischaemia of the left inferior wall also developed but in all cases was transient and disappeared by the end of surgery. No myocardial infarction was detected in the post-operative period. The present study showed that the use of a right-sided lead may improve intra-operative electrocardiographic monitoring, by revealing ischaemia in those patients in whom ECG abnormalities were not detected by conventional leads. The transient right ventricular ischaemia recorded in this study was probably related to a reduced hypothermic protection of the right ventricle during aortic cross clamping.