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In the 2015 review paper ‘Petawatt Class Lasers Worldwide’ a comprehensive overview of the current status of high-power facilities of
was presented. This was largely based on facility specifications, with some description of their uses, for instance in fundamental ultra-high-intensity interactions, secondary source generation, and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded to Professors Donna Strickland and Gerard Mourou for the development of the technique of chirped pulse amplification (CPA), which made these lasers possible, we celebrate by providing a comprehensive update of the current status of ultra-high-power lasers and demonstrate how the technology has developed. We are now in the era of multi-petawatt facilities coming online, with 100 PW lasers being proposed and even under construction. In addition to this there is a pull towards development of industrial and multi-disciplinary applications, which demands much higher repetition rates, delivering high-average powers with higher efficiencies and the use of alternative wavelengths: mid-IR facilities. So apart from a comprehensive update of the current global status, we want to look at what technologies are to be deployed to get to these new regimes, and some of the critical issues facing their development.
Radio frequency (RF) waves are routinely used in tokamak fusion plasmas for plasma heating, current control, as well as in diagnostics. These waves are excited by antenna structures placed near the tokamak’s wall and they have to propagate through a turbulent layer known as the scrape-off layer, before reaching the core plasma (which is their target). This layer exhibits coherent density fluctuations in the form of filaments and blobs. The scattering processes of RF plane waves by a single filament is studied with the assumption that the filament has a cylindrical shape and infinite length. Furthermore, besides the major toroidal component of the externally imposed magnetic field, there is also a small poloidal magnetic field component. Considering also that the cylindrical filament’s axis is not necessarily aligned with the toroidal direction, the total magnetic field is in general neither aligned with the axis of the cylinder nor with the toroidal direction. The investigation concerns the case of electron cyclotron (EC) waves (of frequency
) for tokamak applications. The study covers a variety of density contrasts between the filament and the ambient plasma, different magnetic field inclinations with respect to the cylinder axis (for the same magnitude of magnetic induction
) and a wide range of filament radii.
Introduction: Resource allocation planning (RAP) for emergency medical services (EMS) systems determines optimal resources for patient needs in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. The British Columbia Emergency Health Services developed a new RAP using an evidenced informed methodology, statistical analysis of outcomes and with further clinical input from EMS physicians, paramedics and allied EMS providers. The revised RAP was implemented on a pan provincial basis in fall of 2013. It is unknown how the modifications will affect outcomes of EMS cases. Population-based analysis was used to determine the effect of a comprehensive RAP changes by comparing 24-hour mortality before and after province-wide implementation of the revised RAP. Methods: The primary outcome, 24-hour mortality, was obtained through linked provincial health administrative data. All adult cases with evaluable outcome data were included in the analysis. A pre and post methodology was used to evaluate the effect of post-RAP revision (post-RAP-revision) on 24-hour mortality compared to pre-RAP revision (pre-RAP-revision). Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for variations in other significant factors associated with 24-hour mortality. The interrupted time series (ITS) estimated any immediate changes in the level or trend of outcome after the start of the revised RAP implementation (fall of 2013), while simultaneously controlling for pre-existing trends. Results: The cohort is comprised of 562,546 cases (April 2012 March 2015). In the multivariate model, adjusted for age, sex, urban/metro region, season, day hour, and MPDS determinant, the probability of dying within 24 hours of EMS call was 7% lower in the post-RAP-revision cohort (OR=0.936; 95% CI: 0.886 - 0.989; P=0.018). A sub-group analysis of immediately life-threatening cases demonstrated similar effect (OR=0.890; 95% CI: 0.808 - 0.981; P=0.019) Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that a comprehensive, evidence informed reconstruction of a provincial EMS RAP is feasible. Despite considerable change in crew level response and resource allocation, there was significant decrease in 24 hour mortality in a large pan-provincial population based patient cohort.
Our current knowledge of star formation and accretion luminosity at high redshift (z > 3–4), as well as the possible connections between them, relies mostly on observations in the rest-frame ultraviolet, which are strongly affected by dust obscuration. Due to the lack of sensitivity of past and current infrared instrumentation, so far it has not been possible to get a glimpse into the early phases of the dust-obscured Universe. Among the next generation of infrared observatories, SPICA, observing in the 12–350 µm range, will be the only facility that can enable us to trace the evolution of the obscured star-formation rate and black-hole accretion rate densities over cosmic time, from the peak of their activity back to the reionisation epoch (i.e., 3 < z ≲ 6–7), where its predecessors had severe limitations. Here, we discuss the potential of photometric surveys performed with the SPICA mid-infrared instrument, enabled by the very low level of impact of dust obscuration in a band centred at 34 µm. These unique unbiased photometric surveys that SPICA will perform will fully characterise the evolution of AGNs and star-forming galaxies after reionisation.
The objective of the Apollon 10 PW project is the generation of 10 PW peak power pulses of 15 fs at
. In this paper a brief update on the current status of the Apollon project is presented, followed by a more detailed presentation of our experimental and theoretical investigations of the temporal characteristics of the laser. More specifically the design considerations as well as the technological and physical limitations to achieve the intended pulse duration and contrast are discussed.
The objective of the Apollon project is the generation of 10 PW peak power pulses of 15 fs at 1 shot/minute. In this paper the Apollon facility design, the technological challenges and the current progress of the project will be presented.
We have numerically investigated the development of strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) and associated electron acceleration at different angles of incidence of ordinary (O) mode pump waves. For angles of incidence within the Spitze cone, the turbulence initially develops within the first maximum of the Airy pattern near the plasma resonance altitude. After a few milliseconds, the turbulent layer shifts downwards by about 1 km. For injections outside the Spitze region, the turning point of the pump wave is at lower altitudes. Yet, an Airy-like pattern forms here, and the turbulence development is quite similar to that for injections within the Spitze. SLT leads to the acceleration of 10–20 eV electrons that ionize the neutral gas thereby creating artificial ionospheric layers. Our numerical modeling shows that most efficient electron acceleration and ionization occur at angles between the magnetic and geographic zenith, where SLT dominates over weak turbulence. Possible effects of the focusing of the electromagnetic beam on magnetic field-aligned density irregularities and the finite heating beam width at the magnetic zenith are also discussed. The results have relevance to ionospheric heating experiments using ground-based, high-power radio transmitters to heat the overhead plasma, where recent observations of artificial ionization layers have been made.
Control of rigid–flexible multi-body systems in space, during cooperative manipulation tasks, is studied in this paper. During such tasks, flexible members such as solar panels may vibrate. These vibrations in turn can lead to oscillatory disturbing forces on other subsystems, and consequently may produce significant errors in the position of operating end-effectors of cooperative arms. Therefore, to design and implement efficient model-based controllers for such complicated nonlinear systems, deriving an accurate dynamics model is required. On the other hand, due to practical limitations and real-time implementation, such models should demand fairly low computational complexity. In this paper, a precise dynamics model is derived by virtually partitioning the system into two rigid and flexible portions. These two portions will be assembled together to generate a proper model for controller design. Then, an adaptive hybrid suppression control (AHSC) algorithm is developed based on an appropriate variation rule of a virtual damping parameter. Finally, as a practical case study a space free-flying robot (SFFR) with flexible appendages is considered to move an object along a desired path through accurate force exertion by several cooperative end-effectors. This system includes a main rigid body equipped with thrusters, two solar panels, and two cooperative manipulators. The system also includes a third and fourth arm that act as a communication antenna and a photo capturing camera, respectively. The maneuver is deliberately planned such that flexible modes of solar panels get stimulated due to arms motion, while obtained results reveal the merits of proposed controller as will be discussed.
We study the action of the elements of the mapping class group of a surface of finite type on the Teichmüller space of that surface equipped with Thurston's asymmetric metric. We classify such actions as elliptic, parabolic, hyperbolic and pseudo-hyperbolic, depending on whether the translation distance of such an element is zero or positive and whether the value of this translation distance is attained or not, and we relate these four types to Thurston's classification of mapping class elements. The study is parallel to the one made by Bers in the setting of Teichmüller space equipped with Teichmüller's metric, and to the one made by Daskalopoulos and Wentworth in the setting of Teichmüller space equipped with the Weil–Petersson metric.
In this work we have examined different types of synthetic graphites (SFG and KS types) that have different morphology and particle sizes. In our analysis we examined the incremental capacity (dC/dV), which shows a series of peaks that correspond to potential plateaus. This approach enable us to identify the processes involved (formation of SEI, Li+ intercalation or de-intercalation, etc.). Our analysis was mainly concentrated on the first lithiation, in an attempt to specify the origin of the capacity loss related to each type of synthetic graphite.
Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a traditional crop of north-western Macedonia, Greece, where two landraces (plaki Prespas and Chrisoupoli) in particular are grown. The aim of this study was to test whether the grain carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) and ash content (ASH) are related to grain yield (GY), protein content (PC) and mean grain weight (MGW) in dry bean. As a part of a honeycomb selection programme, 21 genotypes (19 lines derived via intra-landrace honeycomb selection for single plant yield at low density plus the two original populations) were grown at two densities, 1·2 and 4·8 plants/m2 under non-limiting water conditions in a glasshouse and in the field. Genotypes differed significantly for Δ, ASH and PC under the low density. In the dense stand, genotypes differed significantly only for ASH and PC. The environment (glasshouse or field conditions) affected all the traits significantly. Neither Δ nor ASH showed strong or consistent relationships with GY and thus, they cannot serve as reliable, indirect selection criteria for GY. Strong, negative relationships between Δ and PC were found especially in the dense stand, confirming analogous results in C3 cereals. Inconsistent genotypic ranking for grain physiological traits under the different densities and environments was indicative of large genotype×environment interaction. Genotypes performed consistently for GY and MGW under both densities, showing the strong stability of these traits.
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of two lactation sow feeds, differing in n-6:n-3 ratio, given to sows before parturition on body condition and feed intake, periparturient metabolism (leptin, insulin, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)), inflammatory parameters (TNFα, IL-6, serum amyloid A (SAA)) and on piglet performance (birth weight, survivability). The feed contained either a low (supplemented with fish oil; f groups) or high (supplemented with sunflower-seed oil; s groups) n-6:n-3 ratio and was administered from 8 d (f8, s8) or 3 d (f3, s3) before parturition until weaning. The level of inclusion of the oil sources was 2 %. Seventy-two sows were randomly allocated 8 d before expected farrowing into four groups: f3, f8, s3, s8. Type of feed had a significant influence on the sows' feed intake during the first 2 d of lactation (s < f), leptin on days 4, 3 and 2 before parturition (f < s), insulin on day 1 after parturition (f < s), T4 on the day before parturition (s < f) and rectal temperature on the day after parturition (f < s). Onset of administration of the feed (3 v. 8 d) had significant effects on leptin on day 2 before parturition (8 < 3), insulin on day 4 before parturition (3 < 8), T3 on day 4 before parturition and on the day after parturition (3 < 8), SAA on day 3 after parturition (8 < 3) and piglet weight during the first days postpartum (3 < 8). In conclusion, under the present conditions, a lactation feed low in n-6:n-3 ratio administered from 8 d before farrowing ensures improved feed intake during the first days postpartum and was associated with a better metabolic change and inflammatory profile in sows in the periparturient period.
The aim of this study was to describe the effects of two diets differing in n-6:n-3 ratio and prepartal feeding regime on gene expression of PPARγ1a/1b, PPARγ1c/1d, PPARγ2, PPARγ coactivator 1A (PPARGC1A), GLUT4, TNFα, adiponectin, leptin, leptin receptor (LEPR), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in sows' white adipose tissue on the first day of lactation. The relationship between mRNA expression of these genes and circulating insulin, leptin and thyroid hormones was also considered. Diets contained a low (supplemented with fish oil; f group) or a high (supplemented with sunflower oil; s group) n-6:n-3 ratio and were provided from 8 (f8, s8) or 3 d (f3, s3) before parturition (onset day 8 or 3). A low n-6:n-3 ratio reduced the 1 d postpartum expression of PPARγ2 and PPARGC1A but only when applied from 3 d before parturition. Circulating leptin was negatively correlated with mRNA expression of adiponectin, LEPR and LPL, whereas thyroxine was positively correlated with levels of PPARGC1A. In conclusion, the effect of dietary treatments, e.g. altering the n-6:n-3 ratio, around parturition on the expression of crucial genes in nutrient metabolism can be modulated by the duration of application before parturition.
This paper presents a new approach to vectoring jet thrust using a miniature fluidic actuator that provided spatially distributed mass addition. The fluidic actuators used had no moving parts and produced oscillatory flow with a square wave form at frequencies up to 1·6kHz. A subsonic jet with an exit diameter of 3·81cm was controlled using single and dual fluidic actuators, each with an equivalent circular diameter of 1·06mm. The fluidic nozzle was operated at pressures between 20·68 and 165·47kPa. The objectives of the present work included documentation of the actuation characteristics of fluidic devices, assessment of the effectiveness of fluidic devices for jet thrust vectoring, and evaluation of mass flow requirements for vectoring under various conditions. Measurements were made in the flow field using a pitot probe for the vectored and unvectored cases. Some acoustic measurements were made using microphones in the near-field and for selected cases particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were made. Thrust vectoring was obtained in low speed jets by momentum effects with fluidic device mass flow rates of only 2 × 10–4kg/sec (0·6% of main jet mass flow per fluidic oscillator). Although a single fluidic device produced vectoring of the primary jet, the dual fluidic device configuration (with two fluidic devices on either side of the jet exit) produced mass flux enhancement of 28% with no vectoring. Our results indicate that fluidic actuators have the potential for use in thrust vectoring, flow mixing and industrial flow deflection applications.
Ascaris infection, when severe, may manifest with constitutional symptoms. The parasites penetrate the intestinal walls, reach the venules and lymphatics and, through the portal circulation, may affect the heart. To the best of our knowledge, involvement of the pericardium has yet to be reported. We describe here a case of severe pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade in a child with ascariasis.
The purpose of this prospective study was to identify the incidence of a distinct central anticholinergic syndrome following routine anaesthesia. For 2 months, all inpatients aged more than 15 years scheduled for elective procedures and cared for in the recovery room were investigated for symptoms of the syndrome. Patients with neuropsychiatric disease or other disorders that could alter consciousness were excluded. Prolonged action of anaesthetics or relaxants, respiratory depression and metabolic disorder were ruled out before making the diagnosis. Out of 962 patients (366 men, 596 women), 18 (4 men, 14 women) developed the syndrome. The difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Six out of 60 women developed the syndrome after a hysterectomy with or without adnectomy/oophorectomy, and this high incidence was significantly different from that observed after all other procedures in women (P = 0.003) or all other gynaecological procedures (P = 0.013). The reason for this is unknown. In six of the 18 cases, untreated prolonged somnolence lasted for more than 2 h. All patients woke up after an injection of physostigmine, but six of them relapsed into somnolence and needed a second, and in one case a third, injection. The findings of the study emorders phasize that, when there is delayed recovery from anaesthesia, the diagnosis of central anticholinergic syndrome should be considered if other accessible causes for that condition have been excluded.
In the present paper we study the number of occurrences of non-overlapping success runs of length in a sequence of (not necessarily identical) Bernoulli trials arranged on a circle. An exact formula is given for the probability function, along with some sharp bounds which turn out to be very useful in establishing limiting (Poisson convergence) results. Certain applications to statistical run tests and reliability theory are also discussed.