The objective of this experiment was to compare the nutritional properties of potato protein concentrate, a by-product of the starch industry produced entirely in Europe, with that of soybean meal (SBM), for growing cattle. The experiment was conducted on double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls, fitted with rumen, duodenal and ileal cannulas, according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. They were fed three different iso-N and iso-net energy diets formulated according to the Dutch feed evaluation system, differing in the nature of the main protein source, which was either SBM (‘SBM’ treatment), potato protein concentrate (PPC, ‘PPC’ treatment) or an iso-N mixture of these two protein sources (‘mixed’ treatment). A fourth treatment consisted of ‘PPC’ supplemented by 9.5% digestible proteins supplied by duodenal perfusion of sodium caseinate (CAS, ‘PPC + CAS’ treatment). No significant difference was observed in the ruminal fluid pH, whereas both ‘PPC’ and ‘PPC + CAS’ had the effect of reducing the ruminal ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3) concentration. No significant difference was observed in the apparent intestinal digestibility of the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) or N. Outflows of non-NH3-N, microbial proteins and dietary proteins from the rumen were similar for ‘PPC’, ‘SBM’ and ‘mixed’, and increased with CAS infusion by 20%, 17% and 27%, respectively. On the basis of in vivo observations, the degradability of SBM and PPC proteins was estimated at 0.60 and 0.43, respectively, corresponding to the values quoted in the literature. The supply of digestible essential amino acids (EAA) was significantly greater with ‘PPC + CAS’ and did not differ among ‘SBM’, ‘mixed’ and ‘PPC’. This illustrates the difficulty of altering the amino acid (AA) pattern of digestible protein by the nature of the protein of dietary origin when an animal is fed a high nutritional value diet. N retention was not affected by replacing SBM with PPC, but increased by 10% with CAS infusion. On the basis of the plasma AA pattern, the supply of digestible Met was probably limiting with ‘SBM’, ‘mixed’ and ‘PPC’. The CAS perfusion supplemented all AA, including Met, leading to increased N retention. This improvement was limited, however, and N utilisation remained unchanged between treatments. In conclusion, despite a more favourable EAA pattern, PPC offered no advantage compared with SBM for growing bulls when diets were formulated according to the Dutch feed evaluation system.