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In this paper, we give lower bounds for the fundamental tone of open sets in minimal submanifolds immersed into warped product spaces of type Nn ×f Qq, where f ∈ C∞(N). This setting allows us to deal, among other things, with minimal submanifolds bounded by cylinders, cones, spheres and pseudo-hyperbolic spaces where most of these examples are not covered in the literature. Applications also include the study of the essential spectrum of hyperbolic graphs over compact regions of the boundary at infinity.
We observe that Cheng's Eigenvalue Comparison Theorem for normal geodesic balls  is still valid if we impose bounds on the mean curvature of the distance spheres instead of bounds on the sectional and Ricci curvatures. In this version, there is a weak form of rigidity in case of equality of the eigenvalues. Namely, equality of the eigenvalues implies that the distance spheres of the same radius on each ball has the same mean curvature. On the other hand, we construct smooth metrics , non-isometric to the standard metric canκ of constant sectional curvature κ, such that the geodesic balls have the same first eigenvalue, the same volume and the distance spheres and, have the same mean curvatures. In the end, we apply this version of Cheng's Eigenvalue Comparison Theorem to construct examples of Riemannian manifolds M with arbitrary topology with positive fundamental tone λ*(M)>0 extending Veeravalli's examples,
We give an interpretation of the Chern–Heinz inequalities for graphs in order to extend them to transversally oriented codimension one C2-foliations of Riemannian manifolds. It contains Salavessa's work on mean curvature of graphs and fully generalizes results of Barbosa–Kenmotsu–Oshikiri  and Barbosa–Gomes–Silveira  about foliations of 3-dimensional Riemannian manifolds by constant mean curvature surfaces. This point of view of the Chern–Heinz inequalities can be applied to prove a Haymann–Makai–Osserman inequality (lower bounds of the fundamental tones of bounded open subsets Ω ⊂ ℝ2 in terms of its inradius) for embedded tubular neighbourhoods of simple curves of ℝn.
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