The relationships between estimates of tsetse challenge and trypanosome prevalence in trypanotolerant and susceptible cattle were examined at sites of the African Trypanotolerant Livestock Network. Estimates of tsetse challenge were determined as the product of tsetse relative densities, their trypanosome infectionrates and the proportions of feeds taken by them from cattle. Trypanosome prevalence in both trypanotolerant and susceptible breeds of cattle was estimated from monthly examination of groups of ear-tagged cattle. Regression equations between estimates of trypanosome prevalence and tsetse challenge were fitted using an arcsin transformation of trypanosome prevalence and a log10 transformation of tsetse challenge. Highly significant relationships between estimates of tsetse challenge and trypanosome prevalence were found for sites with trypanotolerant cattle (P < 0.0001) and sites with susceptible cattle (P < 0.01). Mean trypanosome prevalence at a given level of tsetse challenge was at least twice as high in susceptible as in trypanotolerant cattle. The slopes of the regression lines for the two groups of cattle were significantly different (P < 0.05). The results confirm the superior ability of trypanotolerant cattle to withstand tsetse challenge in the field. The curves obtained for the two groups of cattle illustrate the necessity in tsetse control campaigns for a major reduction of tsetse populations to take place before significant decreases in trypanosome incidence in livestock can be achieved.