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We present observations, which are part of an ongoing investigation, of the CO (J=1–0) emission in the spiral galaxy M51. The spectra were obtained in a beamswitched on-on mode with the Onsala 20 m antenna (beam size ~33″), equipped with a cooled mixer and a 512 ×1 MHz multichannel receiver, and are shown in Figure 1. The inset diagram shows the observed positions superposed on the optical outline of the galaxy. With the present signal-to-noise ratio there is no evidence for an arm-interarm intensity contrast. This is even more apparent in integrated intensity. This result agrees with the lower resolution findings of Rickard et al. (1981). We have observed 13CO in one position (22″ south of the center). The 13CO to 12CO ratio, ∼0.1, agrees with Bell results from observations with a 1:7 beam (Encrenaz et al. 1979).
M51, M101 and IC342 were all observed in the CO(1-0) line with the Onsala 20 m antenna. “The average pointing error for a 20 minute run is less than 5”, usually considerably less, and the receivers are stable. The error lobe is considerable with an efficiency of about 40%. With a width of about 20′ it is of little importance compared to an emission region of 2′ to 3′ however. Of more concern is an upper and a lower sidelobe with a combined efficiency of about 14%.
We have mapped the central ≈8'×5' of the spiral galaxy M101 with full beam width spacing (30″) in the CO(J=1−0) line using the Onsala 20m telescope. In total, observations were performed towards 153 positions, and 120 were definitely detected. We discuss briefly the distribution and kinematics of the CO gas.
There are still substantial uncertainties over best practice in delirium care. The European Delirium Association (EDA) conducted a survey of its members and other interested parties on various aspects of delirium care.
The invitation to participate in the online survey was distributed among the EDA membership. The survey covered assessment, treatment of hyperactive and hypoactive delirium, and organizational management.
A total of 200 responses were collected (United Kingdom 28.6%, Netherlands 25.3%, Italy 15%, Switzerland 9.7%, Germany 7.1%, Spain 3.8%, Portugal 2.5%, Ireland 2.5%, Sweden 0.6%, Denmark 0.6%, Austria 0.6%, and others 3.2%). Most of the responders were doctors (80%), working in geriatrics (45%) or internal medicine (14%). Ninety-two per cent of the responders assessed patients for delirium daily. The most commonly used assessment tools were the Confusion Assessment Method (52%) and the Delirium Observation Screening Scale (30%). The first-line choice in the management of hyperactive delirium was a combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches (61%). Conversely, non-pharmacological management was the first-line choice in hypoactive delirium (67%). Delirium awareness (34%), knowledge (33%), and lack of education (13%) were the most commonly reported barriers to improving the detection of delirium. Interestingly, 63% of the responders referred patients after an episode of delirium to a follow-up clinic.
This is the first systematic survey involving an international group of specialists in delirium. Several areas of lack of consensus were found. These results emphasise the importance of further research to improve care of this major unmet medical need.
SPIRE, the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver, is Herschel's submillimetre camera and spectrometer. It comprises a three-band imaging photometer operating at 250, 350 and 500 μm, and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) covering 194–672 μm. The design of SPIRE is described, and the expected scientific performance is summarised, based on modelling and flight instrument test results.
We present ISOCAM observations (5-18 μm) of illuminated surfaces of molecular clouds. The emission properties of the transiently heated small particles, which
dominate the emission observed by ISOCAM, are analysed in relation with the spatial structure of the material. Striking spatial variations of the infrared colour
(5-8.5 μm/12-18 μm) are detected. Spectroscopic observations show that they are due to variations of the intensity of the aromatic features
(especially at 7.7 μm) relatively to the continuum emission increasing towards long wavelengths. Compared to the intensity of the continuum emission,
the intensity of the aromatic features are significantly fainter at the illuminated surfaces of dense structures than in low density regions surrounding these dense
structures. This effect could be the signature of photo-chemical evolution, size segregation
due to grain dynamics in uni-directional radiation fields, or abundance variations of very small particles.