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Four experiments examine how lack of awareness of inequality affect behaviour towards the rich and poor. In Experiment 1, participants who became aware that wealthy individuals donated a smaller percentage of their income switched from rewarding the wealthy to rewarding the poor. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants who played a public goods game – and were assigned incomes reflective of the US income distribution either at random or on merit – punished the poor (for small absolute contributions) and rewarded the rich (for large absolute contributions) when incomes were unknown; when incomes were revealed, participants punished the rich (for their low percentage of income contributed) and rewarded the poor (for their high percentage of income contributed). In Experiment 4, participants provided with public education contributions for five New York school districts levied additional taxes on mostly poorer school districts when incomes were unknown, but targeted wealthier districts when incomes were revealed. These results shed light on how income transparency shapes preferences for equity and redistribution. We discuss implications for policy-makers.
There are nearly one million Holstein hull calves born in the Northeast each year. This is a sizeable resource that should be evaluated for fed beef production to determine if it is a potentially viable alternative enterprise for Northeast farms. Previous research at Cornell has presented several beef production systems that would be practical in the Northeast (Knoblauch et al., Woodell). An additional system would be the rearing of the steer calves with the replacement heifers on dairy farms. Many dairymen have expressed a desire to expand their operation without increasing the milking herd, because of labor, management, facilities limitation or personal desires. Raising the Holstein steer calves produced on dairy farms is an alternative for expanding the farm operation and a means of marketing surplus forages. The purpose of this paper is to outline feeding and management strategies for raising the steers with the replacement heifers and marketing them either as feeder cattle or fed beef. The objectives are to use home-grown forages for as much of the feeding period as possible, maintain efficient growth and produce a quality feeder or slaughter weight steer.
We have recently identified a young, very red (J − Ks = 2.47 mag) late L-type companion at 8.06” ± 0.03” (~102 AU) from a previously unrecognized M dwarf. We determined the parallactic distance of the system to be 12.7±1.0 pc. Non-detection of lithium and the kinematics of the primary allowed us to constrain the age of the system in the range of 150–300 Myr. By comparison with theoretical evolutionary models we derived a mass of 73+20−15MJup for the primary, at around the substellar mass regime and 11.2+9.7−1.8MJup for the secondary, near the deuterium burning mass limit.
Over the past two decades Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has appeared as a major public health threat. We performed a retrospective study based on the records of patients hospitalized for CDI at the University Hospital in Krakow, Poland, between 2008 and 2014. In the study period, CDI occurred in 1009 individuals. There were 790 (78%) individuals who developed infection only once, whereas 219 (22%) developed infection more than once. The percentage of deaths within 14 days of CDI confirmation was 2·4%, with a mean age of 74·2 ± 15·9 years. Crude mortality was 12·9% in medical wards, 5·6% for surgical wards and 27·7% in the ICU setting. The time span between diagnosis and death was 5·1 days on average. Between 2008 and 2012 a 6·5-fold increase of CDI frequency with a posterior stabilization and even reduction in 2013 and 2014 was observed. According to the data analysed, 2/3 patients in our population developed CDI during their hospitalization even though they were admitted for different reasons. Medical wards pose a significantly higher risk of CDI than the surgical ones. Age is a risk factor for CDI recurrence. In the case of patients who died, death occurred shortly after diagnosis. The first CDI episode poses much higher risk of mortality than the consecutive ones.
GaN single crystals have been grown from Ga solution. The crystals grow in the form of platelets with their basal plane perpendicular to the c-axis. The two opposite crystal surfaces are not equivalent since one is N- and the other Ga-terminated. Atomic force microscopy has been applied to study surface morphology on both surfaces. It was found that one side is atomically flat. The other side consists of pyramid-like structures about 25 nm in size.
The influence of annealing in an NH3+H2 atmosphere in the temperature range from 600°C to 900°C was investigated. Depending on crystal face the results were drastically different. It was found that on the rough side, annealing yields an atomically flat surface with terraces of monolayer height. The size of the terraces depends on the temperature of the annealing. On the originally flat side the surface becomes rougher after annealing. The transformation of surface morphology begins at temperatures below 700°C. Preliminary results of annealing in a hydrogen atmosphere are also reported. These findings are crucial for the understanding and development of GaN homoepitaxy.
GaN epitaxial layers on GaN single crystals were grown using molecular beam epitaxy with an NH3 source. The deposited layers were examined by high resolution x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. We observed strong and extremely narrow (half-widths of 0.5 meV) lines related to the bound excitons. In the higher energy range we observed three strong lines. Two of them are commonly attributed to free exciton transitions A (3.4785 eV) and B (3.483 eV). Their energetic positions are characteristic of strain-free GaN material.
We used single crystals of GaN, obtained from high-pressure synthesis, as substrates for Metalorganics Vapor Phase Epitaxy growth of violet and UV laser diodes. The use of high-quality bulk GaN leads to the decrease of the dislocation density to the low level of 105 cm−2, i.e. two orders of magnitude better than typical for the Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth laser structures fabricated on sapphire. The low density and homogeneous distribution of defects in our structures enables the realization of broad stripe laser diodes. We demonstrate that our laser diodes, having 15 μm wide stripes, are able to emit 1.3-1.9 W per facet (50% reflectivity) in 30 ns long pulses. This result, which is among the best ever reported for nitride lasers, opens the path for the development of a new generation of high power laser diodes.
We used high-pressure grown GaN single crystal substrates to fabricate dislocation free optoelectronic devices like light emitting diodes and laser diodes structures. The latter ones demonstrated laser action under optical pumping condition with the threshold of about 200 kW/cm2 at room temperature. In the present paper we would focus on the specific aspects of the homoepitaxial growth by MOVPE method including epi-ready substrate preparation and surface polarity choice. We believe that our results demonstrate clearly the feasibility of device fabrication based on high-pressure grown GaN bulk crystals.
Photoluminescence (PL) of porous silicon after rapid thermal oxidation was studied using excitation energies of 5.0 and 6.4 eV. The emission spectra in both cases are dominated by a broad blue band centered at 430-450 nm and a much weaker red band positioned at 680-720 nm. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we have found a correlation between blue PL intensity and increase in feature size caused by progressive oxidation. The blue luminescence, found in porous Si only after oxidation, is identical, with respect to spectrum and fast decay, to that of thermally grown oxide on crystalline Si. Based on these findings, we conclude that the blue luminescence originates from SiO2 rather than from Si nanocrystals embedded in the oxide matrix. The red luminescence, on the contrary, has a different origin. The intensity of red band is a function of oxidation temperature and at RTP above 1050 °C, the red band is completely eliminated. The red luminescence characteristics are discussed in relation to the possible mechanism.
Ultrathin superconducting YBa2Cu3O7, films were grown on (100) YSZ (yttria-stabilized-zirconia) substrates by off-axis if magnetron sputtering at a relatively high deposition rate. The structure, orientation, and morphology of the films were examined by x-ray diffraction, reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction patterns of films deposited on YSZ substrates exhibited strong c-axis alignment with the YBa2Cu3O7 peaks sharpening as the film thickness was increased. The degree of epitaxy apparent in RHEED photographs was found to increase dramatically as the film thickness was increased from 12 nm to 108 nm. This behavior is attributed to a nucleation and growth process in which epitaxy develops as a result of a 3 stage progression from a random to an oriented film.
The films were in-situ superconducting, exhibiting superconducting transition temperatures, Tc(0)'s, of 80 K for a 12 nm film and 88 K for a 280 nm film. However, the relatively low critical current densities (Jc < 1 × 106 A/cm2) at 77 K are probably due to a lack of in-plane epitaxy.
Laser-induced chemical etching of Ti in phosphoric acid has been investigated using cw Nd:YAG (1.064 μιm) and Argon lasers (514 nm) operating in the fundamental Gaussian mode. Two different regions of etching were observed, which are separated by a characteristic threshold value of the laser power and ascribed to melting of the metal. Below the threshold an exponential dependence of etch rates on laser power suggest a thermally activated etching mechanism. Time-resolved measurements indicate in this region the dissolution of the passivation layer followed by surface etching of the metal grains. After laser illumination an immediate repassivation of the re-cooled surface stops the etch reaction.
There are no reported gold-rich alloys that are both readily glass forming
(RGF) upon rapid solidification processing (RSP) and, in the glassy state,
have crystallization temperatures Tc sufficiently high to insure
long metastable life times at room temperature. A representative of a new
family of ternary gold-based glasses is described that contain Cu and a rare
earth (RE) Metal (or Y), with total addition element concentrations as low
as 15 at. pet., and its crystallization characteristics are reported. Under
RSP processing by arc furnace hammer-and-anvil quenching, the alloy
Au0.80Cu0.10Y0.10 readily forms a
ductile glass, with Tc = 685 K, ΔHc = 1.25 kJ/g-Mole
and an activation energy of crystallization ΔE3 (cryst.) = 190
GaN single crystals are grown from the solution of atomic nitrogen in liquid Ga at N2 pressure up to 20 kbar. The crystals reaching dimensions of 1cm, with dislocation density of 103 - 105 cm-2 are currently obtained and successfully used for homoepitaxy by MOCVD and MBE.
The increase of the maximum size of GaN crystals with stable morphology requires the increase of the volume of the crucible. Beside the obvious geometric factors, the increase of the volume of the furnace and crucible allows to achieve much better control of supersaturation profiles in the solution and therefore better control of growth process. It helps to avoid morphological instabilities and leads to the growth of transparent, inclusion free crystals.
In the paper, the results of crystallization of substrate quality GaN crystals obtained with the use of large volume high pressure reactor will be presented. The crystals were characterized by High Resolution X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Force Microscopy. It will be shown that the quality of GaN crystals does not deteriorate with the increasing size and that epi-ready surfaces of GaN substrates can be obtained. Two-dimensional growth by propagation of monoatomic steps of GaN homoepitaxial layers will be presented as a verification of the quality of GaN substrates.
The recent progress in high pressure crystallization of GaN is reported. The results of the growth from the solutions of atomic nitrogen in pure Ga and in its alloys with Mg, Ca and Zn are discussed. It is shown that the growth mechanisms and the physical properties of the crystals depend on the type of dopant added into the solution. In particular, high resistivity (104-106Ωcm) GaN crystals of improved structural quality can be grown from solutions containing Mg. It was also observed that the addition of Mg, Ca and Zn suppress yellow photoluminescence commonly observed in GaN crystals grown without an intentional doping. The preparation of surfaces of GaN substrates for homoepitaxy by mechanical and mechanochemical polishing is discussed. It is shown that atomically flat, thermally stable surfaces are possible to obtain by the applied procedures.
Some most interesting results concerning homoepitaxial growth by MOCVD and MBE is shortly reviewed. In particular, it is shown that perfectly matched (strain free) GaN layers can be deposited on the highly resistive GaN:Mg substrates.
The domain state model for exchange bias consists of a ferromagnetic layer exchange coupled to an antiferromagnetic layer. In order to model a certain degree of disorder within the bulk of the antiferromagnet, the latter is diluted throughout its volume. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations of the model were performed in the past. Exchange bias is observed as a result of a domain state in the antiferromagnetic layer which develops during the initial field cooling, carrying a remanent domains state magnetization which is partly irreversible during hysteresis. A variety of typical effects associated with exchange bias like, e. g., its dependence on dilution, positive bias, temperature and time dependences as well as the dependence on the thickness of the antiferromagnetic layer can be explained within this model.
Thin polymer layers gain importance as interlevel dielectrics in microelectronic devices. One major drawback of this class of material is instability of mechanical properties under changing climatic condition. The paper deals with evaluation of the bulge test as complementary method for investigation of humidity induced alterations of mechanical properties. It describes measurement of intrinsic as well as humidity induced stress in polymer layers. The given results agree very well with those obtained by substrate bending. Furthermore, bulge testing proved the assumption of earlier work, that change of mechanical stress is due to a humidity induced swelling process that can be described phenomenologically by expansion coefficient and a biaxial Young's modulus independent from relative humidity. Results are given and discussed for two types of polyimide.
The review of structural and optical properties of homoepitaxial layers grown by MOVCD on single crystals GaN substrates is presented. The TEM technique is used to characterise the structural properties of epi-layers. It is found that the structural properties of GaN homoepitaxial layers are determined by the polarity of the substrate surface on which the growth takes place. It is shown that threading dislocations are present only in the layers grown on the  “smooth” surface. On the other hand the layers grown on the  “rough” surface are free from vertical defects. The characteristic feature of the growth on the “rough” surface are pinholes. The optical properties of homoepitaxial layers are predominantly determined by the growth polarity as well. It is shown also that the reflectivity measurement is the most precise way to determine the exciton energies and that emissions due to free excitons are strongly affected by polariton effects.
Amniotic fluid (AF) is important for the establishment of maternal behaviour in inexperienced ewes, but its role in experienced mothers remains to be studied. Here, the maintenance of post-partum maternal responsiveness and the establishment of exclusive bonding was investigated in multiparous ewes when AF was removed from the neonate or/and physical contact with the young was precluded for the first 4 h post partum. Maintenance of maternal responsiveness and establishment of exclusive bonding were measured by the proportion of mothers accepting their own lamb and alien lambs that had been either washed or not washed, and by comparing an acceptance score for each type of lamb. The acceptance score was computed by summing standardised variables of acceptance (low bleats, acceptance at udder, nursing and licking time) and subtracting standardised variables of rejection (high-pitched bleats, rejection at the udder and aggressive behaviour). Washing the neonate reduced its acceptance score, but the proportion of mothers rejecting their own lamb was reduced only when washing the neonate and prevention of physical contact for 4 h were combined (7/15 v. 0/10 in controls, P = 0.02). In addition, washing the neonate increased the acceptance score of the washed alien lamb, but not of the unwashed alien. However, washing and privation of physical contact did not increase significantly the proportion of mothers accepting an alien lamb at 4 h post partum. We conclude that AF is important in experienced ewes for the establishment of maternal responsiveness, as already found in primiparous mothers. In addition, our results indicate that AF also carries some chemosensory information facilitating exclusive bonding.
Searches for planets around massive stars are essential for developing general understanding of planet formation and evolution of planetary systems. The main objective of the PSU-TCfA Search for Planets around Evolved Stars is detection of planets around G-K subgiants and giants through highly accurate
radial velocity (RV) measurements using an iodine absorption cell on the HET HRS spectrograph. However, the long-period radial velocity variations of red giants may also have other causes than planets (e.g. non-radial pulsations or rotational modulation in the presence of starspots). In this work, for the second red giant with planets found in our survey, HD 102272, we present bisector analysis of cross-correlation functions (CCF) constructed from the spectra used for radial velocity determination but cleaned from the iodine lines.