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Powder X-ray diffraction patterns for three forms of MIL-53(Al), a metal organic framework (MOF) compound with breathing characteristics, were investigated using the Rietveld refinement method. These three samples are referred to as the MIL-53(Al)as-syn (the as synthesized sample), orthorhombic, Pnma, a = 17.064(2) Å, b = 6.6069(9) Å, c = 12.1636(13) Å, V = 1371.3(2) Å3, Z = 4), MIL-53(Al)LT-H (low-temperature hydrated phase, monoclinic P21/c, a = 19.4993(8) Å, b = 15.2347(6) Å, c = 6.5687(3) Å, β = 104.219(4) °, V = 1891.55(10) Å3, Z = 8), and MIL-53(Al)HT-D (high-temperature dehydrated phase, Imma, a = 6.6324(5) Å, b = 16.736(2) Å, c = 12.840(2), V = 1425.2(2) Å3, Z = 4). The crystal structures of the “as-syn” sample and the HT-D sample are confirmed to be the commonly adopted ones. However, the structure of the MIL-53(Al)LT-H phase is confirmed to be monoclinic with a space group of P21/c instead of the commonly accepted space group Cc, resulting in a cell volume double in size. The structure has two slightly different types of channel. The pore volumes and pore surface area were estimated to be 0.11766 (8) cm3/g and 1461.3(10) m2/g for MIL-53(Al)HT-D (high-temperature dehydrated phase), and 0.08628 (5) cm3/g and 1401.6 (10) m2/g for MIL-53(Al)as-syn phases, respectively. The powder patterns for the MIL-53(Al)as-syn and MIL-53(Al)HT-D phases are reported in this paper.
Background: SMA is characterized by reduced levels of survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein from deletions and/or mutations of the SMN1 gene. While SMN1 produces full-length SMN protein, a second gene, SMN2, produces low levels of functional SMN protein. Risdiplam (RG7916/RO7034067) is an investigational, orally administered, centrally and peripherally distributed small molecule that modulates pre-mRNA splicing of SMN2 to increase SMN protein levels. Methods: FIREFISH (NCT02913482) is an ongoing, multicenter, open-label operationally seamless study of risdiplam in infants aged 1–7 months with Type 1 SMA and two SMN2 gene copies. Exploratory Part 1 (n=21) assesses the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of different risdiplam dose levels. Confirmatory Part 2 (n=40) is assessing the safety and efficacy of risdiplam. Results: In a Part 1 interim analysis (data-cut 09/07/18), 93% (13/14) of babies had ≥4-point improvement in CHOP-INTEND total score from baseline at Day 245, with a median change of 16 points. The number of infants meeting HINE-2 motor milestones (baseline to Day 245) increased. To date (data-cut 09/07/18), no drug-related safety findings have led to patient withdrawal. No significant ophthalmological findings have been observed. Conclusions: In FIREFISH Part 1, risdiplam improved motor function in infants with Type 1 SMA.
This work is based on a recent theoretical study of how the hydrostatic pressure and core/shell sizes affect the optical properties associated with the transition from the ground state to first excited state (1s–1p), of an exciton confined in spherical core/shell quantum dots (SCSQDs). We have computed under an effective mass framework, linear, third-order nonlinear, and total absorption coefficients (AC) and refractive index (RI) as functions of photon energy for different sizes of SCSQDs with varying hydrostatic pressure. Our results show that the optical absorption is deeply dependent on the incident light intensity. Both AC and RI significantly influenced by the confinement and pressure effects.
Prenatal sex steroid exposure plays an important role in determining child development. Yet, measurement of prenatal hormonal exposure has been limited by the paucity of newborn/infant data and the invasiveness of fetal hormonal sampling. Here we provide descriptive data from the MIREC-ID study (n=173 girls; 162 boys) on a range of minimally invasive physical indices thought to reflect prenatal exposure to androgens [anogenital distances (AGDs); penile length/width, scrotal/vulvar pigmentation], to estrogens [vaginal maturation index (VMI) – the degree of maturation of vaginal wall cells] or to both androgens/estrogens [2nd-to-4th digit ratio (2D:4D); areolar pigmentation, triceps/sub-scapular skinfold thickness, arm circumference]. VMI was found to be associated with triceps skinfold thickness (β=0.265, P=0.005), suggesting that this marker may be sensitive to estrogen levels produced by adipose tissue in girls. Both estrogenic and androgenic markers (VMI: β=0.338, P=0.031; 2D:4D – right: β=−0.207, P=0.040; left: β=−0.276, P=0.006; AGD-fourchette − β=0.253, P=0.036) were associated with areolar pigmentation in girls, supporting a role for the latter as an index of both androgen and estrogen exposure. We also found AGD-penis (distance from the anus to the penis) to be associated with scrotal pigmentation (β=0.290, P=0.048), as well as right arm circumference (β=0.462, P<0.0001), supporting the notion that these indices may be used together as markers of androgen exposure in boys. In sum, these findings support the use of several physical indices at birth to convey a more comprehensive picture of prenatal exposure to sex hormones.
We evaluated the impact of the Epic antimicrobial stewardship module (EAM) on the number of interventions, antimicrobial usage, and clinical outcomes. Use of the EAM allowed us to significantly increase the number of ASP antimicrobial reviews and interventions while maintaining a sustained impact on antimicrobial utilization.
Two new species of Oreocharis, O. tribracteata and O. rufescens, are described and a key to the species in Vietnam is provided. The new species have distinct features not previously, or rarely, observed in the genus, both showing the partial fusion of the calyx lobes into a tube, and the presence of three bracts in Oreocharis tribracteata.
When a drop impacts on a deep pool at moderate velocity it forms a hemispheric crater which subsequently rebounds to the original free-surface level, often forming Worthington jets, which rise vertically out of the crater centre. Under certain impact conditions the crater collapse forms a dimple at its bottom, which pinches off a bubble and is also known to be associated with the formation of a very fast thin jet. Herein we use two ultra-high-speed video cameras to observe simultaneously the dimple collapse and the speed of the resulting jet. The fastest fine jets are observed at speeds of approximately
and emerge when the dimple forms a cylinder which retracts without pinching off a bubble. We also identify what appears to be micro-bubbles at the bottom of this cylinder, which we propose are caused by local cavitation from extensional stress in the flow entering the jet. The radial collapse of the dimple does not follow capillary-inertial power laws nor is its bottom driven by a curvature singularity, as has been proposed in some earlier studies. The fastest jets are produced by pure inertial focusing and emerge at finite dimple size, bypassing the pinch-off singularity. These jets emerge from the liquid contained originally in the drop. Finally, we measure directly the compression of the central bubble following the pinch-off and the subsequent large volume oscillation, which occurs at frequencies slightly above the audible range at approximately 23 kHz.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) recurrence ranges from 16% to 43% and presents significant challenges to clinicians, patients, and families. This comparative effectiveness research study aims to disseminate, implement and evaluate whether an existing intervention, consisting of decolonization and decontamination procedures, which has been determined to be effective in hospital intensive care unit settings, can be implemented by Community Health Workers (CHWs) or “promotoras” conducting home visits prevent recurrence of CA-MRSA and transmission within their households for patients presenting to primary care with SSTIs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In partnership with 3 Community Health Centers and 4 community hospitals in NYC, this study will recruit patients (n=278) with confirmed MRSA SSTIs and their household members. Participants are randomized to receive either a CHW/Promotora-delivered decolonization-decontamination intervention or usual care, which includes hygiene education. The highly engaged stakeholder team meets monthly to review interim results, identify areas for refinement and new research questions, and develop and implement strategies to improve participant engagement and retention. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: MRSA and MSSA were found in 19% and 21.1% of wound cultures, respectively. 59.5% with MRSA+ wound culture had one or more MRSA+ surveillance culture; 67.8% with MSSA+ wound culture had one or more MSSA+ surveillance culture. The “warm handoff” approach, developed and implemented by the stakeholder team to engage patients from their initial consent to return of lab results and scheduling of the home visits, helped improve completion of baseline home visits by 14%, from 45% to 59% of eligible participants. Home visits have demonstrated that 60% of households had at least one surface contaminated with S. aureus. Of the surfaces that tested positive in the households, nearly 20% were MRSA and 81% were MSSA; 32.5% of household members had at least one surveillance culture positive for S. aureus (MRSA: 7.7%, MSSA: 92.3%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study aims to understand the systems-level, patient-level, and environmental-level factors associated with SSTI recurrence and household transmission, and to examine the interactions between bacterial genotypic and clinical/phenotypic factors on decontamination, decolonization, SSTI recurrence and household transmission. This study will evaluate the barriers and facilitators of implementation of home visits by CHWs in underserved populations, and aims to strengthen the weak evidence base for implementation of strategies to reduce SSTI recurrence and household transmission.
The root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne daklakensis n. sp. was discovered on the roots of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner) in Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. This species is characterized by the females having rounded or oval perineal patterns, smooth, regular, continuous striae, and reduced lateral lines. The dorsal arch is low, rounded and encloses a quite distinct vulva and tail tip. The stylet is normally straight with well-developed and posteriorly sloped knobs. The males have a rounded cap that extends posteriorly into the lip region. The procorpus is outlined distinctly, and is three times longer than the metacorpus. The metacorpus is ovoid, with a strong valve apparatus. The species closely resembles M. marylandi, M. naasi, M. ovalis, M. panyuensis, M. lopezi, M. mali and M. baetica in the perineal pattern of the females, and the morphology of the males and the second-stage juveniles. Nonetheless, it can be differentiated from other species by a combination of morphometric, morphological and molecular characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 28S rDNA as well as the region between the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome c oxidase II (COII) mitochondrial genes. Herein, this nematode is described, illustrated, and designated as a new species, Meloidogyne daklakensis sp. n., based on morphometric, morphological and molecular analyses.
Synchronisation of the received Pseudorandom (PRN) code and its locally generated replica is fundamental when estimating user position in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. It has been observed through experiments that user position accuracy decreases if sampling frequency is an integer multiple of the nominal code rate. This paper provides an accuracy analysis based on the number of samples and the residual code phase of each code chip. The outcomes reveal that the distribution of residual code phases in the code phase range [0, 1/ns), where ns is the number of samples per code chip, is the root cause of accuracy degradation, rather than the ratio between sampling frequency and nominal code rate. Doppler frequencies, coherent integration periods, front-end filter bandwidths and received Carrier to Noise ratios (C/N0) also influence receiver accuracy. Also provided are a sampling frequency selection guideline and new proposed estimates of the correlation output and the Delay Locked Loop (DLL) tracking error, which can be applied to precisely model GNSS receiver baseband signal processing.
Central nervous system infections (CNSI) are a leading cause of death and long-term disability in children. Using ICD-10 data from 2005 to 2015 from three central hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we exploited generalized additive mixed models (GAMM) to examine the spatial-temporal distribution and spatial and climatic risk factors of paediatric CNSI, excluding tuberculous meningitis, in this setting. From 2005 to 2015, there were 9469 cases of paediatric CNSI; 33% were ⩽1 year old at admission and were mainly diagnosed with presumed bacterial CNSI (BI) (79%), the remainder were >1 year old and mainly diagnosed with presumed non-bacterial CNSI (non-BI) (59%). The urban districts of HCMC in proximity to the hospitals as well as some outer districts had the highest incidences of BI and non-BI; BI incidence was higher in the dry season. Monthly BI incidence exhibited a significant decreasing trend over the study. Both BI and non-BI were significantly associated with lags in monthly average temperature, rainfall, and river water level. Our findings add new insights into this important group of infections in Vietnam, and highlight where resources for the prevention and control of paediatric CNSI should be allocated.
Radiation environment of near-Earth space is one of the most important factors of space weather. Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University provides operational monitor and forecast of radiation conditions both at Geostationary Orbits (GEO) and at Low Earths Orbits (LEO) of the near-Earth space using data of recent space missions (Vernov, CORONAS series) and current (Lomonosov, Meteor-M, Electro-L) ones. Internet portal of Space Monitoring Data Center of Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU - [swx.sinp.msu.ru]) provides possibilities to monitor and analyze the space radiation conditions in the real time mode together with the geomagnetic and solar activity including hard X-ray and gamma-emission of solar flares.
Background: With the advent of the 2016 WHO classification of tumours, prognostically distinct subclasses of glioma have been revealed. A subset of gliomas which harbor the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation have a survival advantage. 2-Hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) is a byproduct of faulty IDH metabolism in IDH mutants making it an ideal tumour biomarker. Since pre-operative detection of this metabolite using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may yield valuable information for the neurosurgeon, we undertook the first Canadian utility study to detect 2-HG via MRS. Methods: We will recruit 150 patients presenting with a newly suspected glioma. All patients will undergo MRS scans for 2-HG pre-operatively and the neuropathologist will determine IDH status post-operatively based on immunohistochemistry and DNA sequencing. Pre-operative detection of 2-HG will be compared to post-operative IDH status. Results: To date, of 34 eligible subjects, 29 have glioma determined by pathology. Seven of these were IDH-mutant positive by pathology, of which 3 were detected by MRS. One glioma positive for 2-HG on MRS turned out to be IDH mutant negative on pathology. Conclusions: Prospective detection of 2-HG via MRS is feasible in the clinical setting. Additional subjects as well as refinement of our MRS protocol may yield higher sensitivity and specificity of this novel and clinically relevant diagnostic tool.
Introduction: Intra-articular steroid injection (IASI) is commonly used in the emergency department for management of osteoarthritis (OA) symptoms. Hip IASI carries risks, such as avascular necrosis, and there is currently no reliable way to predict long-term response of a patient’s OA to IASI. Ultrasound (US) conveniently assesses for active arthropathy by detecting effusion-synovitis, and x-ray (XR) is useful for visualizing bone-related changes. We investigated the extent that a response to hip IASI could be predicted from baseline OA patient clinical and physical features alongside US and XR imaging features. Methods: 97 consenting patients with symptomatic hip OA presenting for hip IASI were evaluated at baseline (XR and US) and again 8-weeks after IASI (US only). Self-reported pain (WOMAC), hip range of motion (ROM) were measured at baseline and follow up. On US images we quantified joint effusion and synovial thickening, i.e., “effusion-synovitis”, by the bone-capsule distance (BCD) at the apex of the femoral head from outer femoral cortex to outer synovium. On XR, we measured minimum joint space width (cm) and Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) Grade for osteophytes and sclerotic changes. Results: In our 97 patients (43 female) aged 28-87 years (mean 59+/-13 years, K-L grades averaged 2.5+/-1.5, and US BCD averaged 5.9+/-2.0 mm. We performed multiple linear regression using age, sex, BMI, ROM of hip flexion, US BCD, radiographic joint space width and K-L grade against the dependent variable, change in WOMAC pain subscore (R=0.587, P=0.002). We compared the response predicted by this model to the actual change in WOMAC pain. At a threshold value of -20% for minimal clinically important difference, 35/97 patients were responders, and a 2x2 table gave 67% overall model predictive accuracy, 61% sensitivity, and 71% specificity. Likelihood ratio for a positive response (LR+) was 2.13. Conclusion: Combining radiographic information on structural damage, US information on active arthropathy, and demographics correctly predicted about two-thirds of the patients that would benefit from IASI after 8 weeks. A patient with hip OA that met our model criteria was more than twice as likely to respond to IASI. With further model refinement, effective, personalized evidence-based management of symptomatic hip OA is possible using XR and hip US, which could both be performed during an ER visit.
Aortopulmonary window is a rare cardiac developmental anomaly characterised by a communication between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery. Aortopulmonary window may be isolated or associated with cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, interrupted aortic arch, and tetralogy of Fallot. We report a case of aortopulmonary window associated with aberrant subclavian artery based on fetal two-dimensional echocardiogram. The mother was referred for fetal echocardiography because of multiple fetal anomalies. Prenatal echocardiography at 30 weeks of gestation revealed a defect between the main and right pulmonary arteries and the ascending aorta (type III). The patient was born at 38 weeks of gestation via caesarean delivery, and was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit because of respiratory failure and multiple congenital anomalies. Postnatal echocardiogram and cardiac MRI confirmed the prenatal findings. In addition, this patient had severe Dandy–Walker malformation and renal anomalies with poor prognosis. The family decided to withdraw respiratory care support on day of life 4, and the neonate passed away shortly after.
Lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries have the potential to provide higher energy storage density at lower cost than conventional lithium ion batteries. A key challenge for Li–S batteries is the loss of sulfur to the electrolyte during cycling. This loss can be mitigated by sequestering the sulfur in nanostructured carbon–sulfur composites. The nanoscale characterization of the sulfur distribution within these complex nanostructured electrodes is normally performed by electron microscopy, but sulfur sublimates and redistributes in the high-vacuum conditions of conventional electron microscopes. The resulting sublimation artifacts render characterization of sulfur in conventional electron microscopes problematic and unreliable. Here, we demonstrate two techniques, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning electron microscopy in air (airSEM), that enable the reliable characterization of sulfur across multiple length scales by suppressing sulfur sublimation. We use cryo-TEM and airSEM to examine carbon–sulfur composites synthesized for use as Li–S battery cathodes, noting several cases where the commonly employed sulfur melt infusion method is highly inefficient at infiltrating sulfur into porous carbon hosts.