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Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is a core competency for emergency physicians (EP) that is commonly practiced.1–4 PSA entails suppressing a patient’s level of consciousness with sedative or dissociative agents to alleviate pain, anxiety, and suffering to enhance medical procedure performance and patient experience (Table 22.1).1,5
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Near IR total eclipse measurements have provided clear evidence during both 2nd and 3rd contacts for a limb extension of about 125 km for wavelengths in the range containing the CO fundamental vibration-rotation bands between 4.3 and 5.5 μm, when compared to the limb at nearby shorter wavelengths. This is interpreted as a “flash” spectrum in the CO lines, with the above extension representing the outer level of the CO emission layer. This height can be compared to the τCO = 1.0 level incorporated into recent representative atmospheric models (Ayres and Wiedemann, 1989) which is 90 km above the visible limb for a semi-empirical “hot chromosphere” model (Avrett, 1985) and 220 km for a “cool” radiative equilibrium model based upon work by Anderson (1989).
A two-beam Martin-Puplett polarizing interferometer has been used in the rapid-scan mode on the 15 meter JCMT in conjunction with the facility detector, UKT14, to survey the solar sub-millimeter and millimeter spectrum in the four wavebands at 7-11, 11-15, 21-24 and 27-30 cm–1 to a spectral resolution of 0.01 cm–1 and at spatial resolutions of 19″, 16″, 7″ and 6″, respectively. Overall atmospheric transmission through these windows has been evaluated by comparison with synthetic spectra generated with FASCOD/HITRAN. A search has been made for contributions to these spectra from high-n transitions of H and heavier elements by several methods, including the comparison of solar with lunar and limb with disk center spectra.
Atmospheric gas samples (0.1m3) were collected at ground level during January/February 1984 in Las Vegas, Nevada for 14C/13C accelerator mass spectrometry and total abundance measurements of CO and CH4. During winter months in this locale, CO concentrations can occur at 10 to 100 times background, occasionally exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Methane concentrations show a slight enhancement (∼24%) above the background (non-urban troposphere) level. A comparison of CO and CH4 concentrations shows a good linear correlation which may indicate a common source. Preliminary 14C/13C results of the two species suggest that fossil emissions are the predominant source of excess CO and CH4 in the samples taken. Estimates of anthropogenic CO and CH4 are important for source apportionment of combustion emissions. In addition, this information is valuable for understanding the global CO and CH4 cycles and, therefore, human impact on climate and the stratospheric ozone layer.
We present optical and IR observations of the dwarf nova OY Car during the May 1985 superoutburst. From them we find that the superhump has a temperature of ~8000K and an area of order half the size of the red dwarf or accretion disk. We also compare the behaviour during two simultaneous optical/IR observations. Whilst the light curves in the two pass bands are similar during one observation, in the other observation they show marked differences that may be due to a cool region in the outer disk.
Dicke and Goldenberg (1967a) measured the solar oblateness to be σ= (5±0.7) × 10-5 and subsequently interpreted this measurement as evidence that the solar interior rotates with a period of 1.d8. With this interpretation, they then showed that the observed oblateness causes an 8% discrepancy in the Einstein prediction of the perihelion advance of Mercury. The stability analysis of Goldreich and Schubert (1967) seems to preclude such a fast rotation of the solar interior although magnetic field effects could alter their conclusions (Dicke, 1967). More recently Goldreich and Schubert (1968) and Fricke (1969) have calculated upper bounds to the solar oblateness essentially by finding the steepest distribution of angular velocity that is consistent with secular stability at each point in the equatorial plane of the sun. Fricke’s result of σmax=1.4 × 10-5 is based on a stronger stability criterion than that of Goldreich and Schubert who found σmax=1.4 × 10-4; Fricke, however, suggests that this may be in error and should actually be σmax=3.4 × 10-5. In their calculations of σmax the above authors assumed that the outer convective layers of the sun are rotating uniformly and that the angular velocity in the interior is a function of the radial distance from the center of the sun only. We note that while these assumptions are reasonable, neither of them is supported by the observed solar rotation.
IP Peg is a U Gem-type dwarf nova with a very high orbital inclination such that the secondary star eclipses the white dwarf primary, accretion disc and hot spot in each orbit. An observing project was set up by ‘The Astronomer’ (TA) magazine and the British Astronomical Association Variable Star Section to make visual and CCD eclipse observations of IP Peg during outbursts in the 1994/95 season.
We present ultraviolet and X-ray observations of the eclipsing SU UMa dwarf nova OY Car early in the decline from a superoutburst. From the UV emission line spectrum and lack of X-ray eclipse, we deduce the presence of an extended coronal region.
The use of underground geological repositories, such as in radioactive waste disposal (RWD) and in carbon capture (widely known as Carbon Capture and Storage; CCS), constitutes a key environmental priority for the 21st century. Based on the identification of key scientific questions relating to the geophysics, geochemistry and geobiology of geodisposal of wastes, this paper describes the possibility of technology transfer from high-technology areas of the space exploration sector, including astrobiology, planetary sciences, astronomy, and also particle and nuclear physics, into geodisposal. Synergies exist between high technology used in the space sector and in the characterization of underground environments such as repositories, because of common objectives with respect to instrument miniaturization, low power requirements, durability under extreme conditions (in temperature and mechanical loads) and operation in remote or otherwise difficult to access environments.
The Magellanic System represents one of the best places to study the formation and evolution of galaxies. Photometric surveys of various depths, areas and wavelengths have had a significant impact on our understanding of the system; however, a complete picture is still lacking. VMC (the VISTA near-infrared YJKs survey of the Magellanic System) will provide new data to derive the spatially resolved star formation history and to construct a three-dimensional map of the system. These data combined with those from other ongoing and planned surveys will give us an absolutely unique view of the system opening up the doors to truly new science!
Herbicides are the primary method used to control exotic, invasive plants. This study evaluated restoration efforts applied to grasslands dominated by an invasive plant, sulfur cinquefoil, 6 yr after treatments. Of the five herbicides we evaluated, picloram continued to provide the best control of sulfur cinquefoil over 6 yr. We found the timing of picloram applications to be important to the native forb community. Plots with picloram applied in the fall had greater native forb cover. However, without the addition of native perennial grass seeds, the sites became dominated by exotic grasses. Seeding resulted in a 20% decrease in exotic grass cover. Successful establishment of native perennial grasses was not apparent until 6 yr after seeding. Our study found integrating herbicide application and the addition of native grass seed to be an effective grassland restoration strategy, at least in the case where livestock are excluded.
A new experimental technique for the characterisation of the thermal-morphological properties of materials has been developed at Daresbury. Many thermal events, for example melting endotherms, are signals of changes in morphology covering size scales from the atomic to the microscopic, that is Å to μm. There are obvious advantages in collecting both the wide angle (1-20Å) and small angle (20-1000Å) patterns simultaneously to unambiguously characterise such thermal events. The new apparatus comprises a Linkam hot-stage capable of controlled heating and cooling mounted in a combined SAXS/WAXS camera. The camera is equipped with a multiwire quadrant detector (SAXS) located 3.5 m from the sample position and a curved knifeedge detector (WAXS) that covers 120° of arc at a radius of 0.4 m. SAXSIWAXS is possible with a time resolution of 0.1 seconds and heating/cooling rates up to 120 °C min-1.
Water vapour is the principle source of opacity at infrared wavelengths in the earth's atmosphere. Measurements of atmospheric water vapour serve two primary purposes when considering operation of an observatory: long-term monitoring of precipital water vapour (PWV) is useful for characterizing potential observatory sites, and real-time monitoring of PWV is useful for optimizing use, in particular for mid-IR observations.
Tamarisk species are shrubs or small trees considered by some to be among the most aggressively invasive and potentially detrimental exotic plants in the United States. Although extensively studied in the southern and interior west, northwestern (Oregon, Washington, and Idaho) distribution and habitat information for tamarisk is either limited or lacking. We obtained distribution data for the northwest, developed a habitat suitability map, and projected changes in habitat due to climate change in a smaller case study area using downscaled climate data. Results show extensive populations of tamarisk east of the Cascade Mountains. Despite the perceived novelty of tamarisk in the region, naturalized populations were present by the 1920s. Major population centers are limited to the warmest and driest environments in the central Snake River Plain, Columbia Plateau, and Northern Basin and Range. Habitat suitability model results indicate that 21% of the region supports suitable tamarisk habitat. Less than 1% of these areas are occupied by tamarisk; the remainder is highly vulnerable to invasion. Although considerable uncertainty exists regarding future climate change, we project a 2- to 10-fold increase in highly suitable tamarisk habitat by the end of the century. Our habitat suitability maps can be used in “what if” exercises as part of planning, detection, restoration, management, and eradication purposes.
1. Antibodies to the flagellar antigens of salmonellae are frequently present in the urine of Egyptians.
2. In many individuals, who are not urinary carriers but have schistosomiasis and have received T.A.B. vaccine, these urinary antibodies are derived from the plasma due to exudation or bleeding into the urinary tract.
3. In urinary enteric carriers, the urinary antibodies are due, at least in part, to the local production or release of antibodies within the urinary tract, as shown by the ratios of urine titre to serum titre with different H suspensions.
4. The production of antibodies within the urinary tract is considered to be an example of production or liberation of antibody by cells at, or close to, the site of infection.
This technique for the cultural examination of urine provides, within 24 hours, using a single Petri dish, the colonial appearance of any bacteria present on MacConkey agar and on blood agar, a rough colony count of the bacteria present, their sensitivity to four chemotherapeutic agents, isolated colonies from which further sensitivity tests can be done if necessary and the opportunity to scrutinize contaminating organisms that, even thought present in only small numbers, may be of help in diagnostic problems.
1. Five anto-horse sera which did not contain antibodies for horse-serum crystalbumin have been shown by absorption experiments to contain horse-serum crystalbumin.
2. All five sera precipitated when mixes with other anti-horse sera containing anti-crystalbumin, precipitation being due to the presence of horse-serum crystalbumin in one antiserum and of anti-crystalbumin in the other.
3. Antigen and its homologous antibody were never found together in the serum of an animal, and contradictory results in other experiments are probably due to impure multiple antigens.
4. It is concluded that anti-horse sera may contain some of the antigenic components of injected horse serum together with antibodies to other antigens of the horse serum, but not homologous antigen and antibody. Consequently, the ‘mutual’ precipitation of anti-horse sera is due to the presence of a number of antigens in horse serum, one or more of which, present in one anti-horse serum, in the absence of its homologous antibody, may precipitate when mixed with another anti-horse serum which contains the homologous antibody.
5. The use in these experiments of a single α-procedure optimum as the indicator of an antigen-antibody reaction illustrates a method enabling the investigation of problems involving single antigen-antibody reactions, even though the available reagents consist of mistures of antigens and mixtures of antibodies.
The dip-slide, consisting of a glass microscope slide coated with nutrient medium and inoculated by dipping in freshly voided urine, provides a simple measure of the bacterial concentration in fresh urine. This is a useful supplement to the usual microscopy and culture of urine in the diagnosis of urinary tract infections in general practice, when specimens cannot be delivered to a laboratory within several hours of collection, particularly when urine specimens have to travel by post. Dip-slides are also useful as the sole test in screening for symptomless bacteriuria.