To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
During the 2009 influenza pandemic, a rapid assessment of disease severity was a challenge as a significant proportion of cases did not seek medical care; care-seeking behaviour changed and the proportion asymptomatic was unknown. A random-digit-dialling telephone survey was undertaken during the 2011/12 winter season in England and Wales to address the feasibility of answering these questions. A proportional quota sampling strategy was employed based on gender, age group, geographical location, employment status and level of education. Households were recruited pre-season and re-contacted immediately following peak seasonal influenza activity. The pre-peak survey was undertaken in October 2011 with 1061 individuals recruited and the post-peak telephone survey in March 2012. Eight hundred and thirty-four of the 1061 (78.6%) participants were successfully re-contacted. Their demographic characteristics compared well to national census data. In total, 8.4% of participants self-reported an influenza-like illness (ILI) in the previous 2 weeks, with 3.2% conforming to the World Health Organization (WHO) ILI case definition. In total, 29.6% of the cases reported consulting their general practitioner. 54.1% of the 1061 participants agreed to be re-contacted about providing biological samples. A population-based cohort was successfully recruited and followed up. Longitudinal survey methodology provides a practical tool to assess disease severity during future pandemics.
This paper presents a rare case of oculostapedial synkinesis.
After partial resolution of an idiopathic facial palsy, a male patient presented with persistent distortion of hearing when blinking and closing his eye. Audiometry findings were unremarkable, and cross-sectional imaging of the facial nerve revealed no abnormalities apart from an incidental contralateral meningioma. Initial conservative management, with referral to a specialist physiotherapist, failed to resolve the symptoms. The patient subsequently opted for surgical intervention, and underwent a transmeatal tympanotomy and transection of the stapedial tendon. Following this, he had complete resolution of symptoms.
Oculostapedial synkinesis is a rare complication of facial palsy, but is recognised in the literature. Given its unusual presentation, it can be overlooked, especially by more junior team members. This case highlights the need to pay careful attention to patients' symptoms and listen out for the description of hearing distortion on facial movement.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
The ZZ Ceti stars form a class of variable white dwarfs: the hydrogen dominated atmosphere ones, which do pulsate in an instability strip in the effective temperature range 13000K-11500K. We know 22 such ZZ Ceti white dwarfs. Their variations are caused by nonradial g-mode pulsations with periods are in the range 100-1000 seconds.
A subsample of the ZZ Ceti stars shows amplitude variations on time scales of the order of one month. These variations could be driven by nonlinear phenomena.
Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation in these galaxies may be fuelled by recent inflow of metal-poor atomic gas. While this process is debated, it can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because gas cooling (necessary for star formation) is faster than the Hi-to-H2 conversion.
The current study investigated the coupling of groundwater and surface water nitrogen (N) dynamics over 3 years, and considered intensive agricultural land-management influences over this period where the risk of N loss to water was considered high. Groundwater N (as nitrate) was monitored monthly in different strata and zones in four hillslopes, two in each of two agricultural catchments of c. 10 km2, and stream water N flux was monitored sub-hourly in the catchment outlets. Field nutrient sources were connected to surface water via groundwater; the groundwater along hillslopes was seen to be influenced spatially and temporally by management, geology and weather as observed in the concentration variability of nitrate in groundwater. Based on spatio-temporal averages of nitrate-N concentration, groundwater status was considered good (at least below a maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 11·3 mg/l). However, zones coincident with land-use change (ploughing and reseeding, typical of a management event in intensive landscapes), showed high spatio-temporal variability in nitrate-N concentration, exceeding the MAC temporarily, before recovering. This spatio-temporal variability highlighted the need for insight into these differences when interpreting groundwater quality data from a limited number of basin-scale sampling points and occasions. In both catchments the 3-year mean nitrate-N concentration in stream water was similar to the spatio-temporal mean concentration in groundwater. The magnitude and variability of loads, however, were more related to changes in annual runoff rather than changes in annual groundwater nitrate-N status. In one wet year, nitrate-N loads exceeded 48 kg/ha from an Arable catchment and 45 kg/ha from a grassland catchment (close to double the loss in a dry year).
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
An analysis was undertaken to measure age-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2010/11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) and monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine (PIV) administered in 2009/2010. The test-negative case-control study design was employed based on patients consulting primary care. Overall TIV effectiveness, adjusted for age and month, against confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 infection was 56% (95% CI 42–66); age-specific adjusted VE was 87% (95% CI 45–97) in <5-year-olds and 84% (95% CI 27–97) in 5- to 14-year-olds. Adjusted VE for PIV was only 28% (95% CI −6 to 51) overall and 72% (95% CI 15–91) in <5-year-olds. For confirmed influenza B infection, TIV effectiveness was 57% (95% CI 42–68) and in 5- to 14-year-olds 75% (95% CI 32–91). TIV provided moderate protection against the main circulating strains in 2010/2011, with higher protection in children. PIV administered during the previous season provided residual protection after 1 year, particularly in the <5 years age group.
A search is reported for the relativistic e/3 quark among the cores of Extensive Air Showers initiated by primaries with energies greater than 1014 eV. The detector is a high-pressure cloud chamber filled with helium at 28 atmospheres, and is counter controlled. The experimental conditions avoid the criticisms levelled at the McCusker experiment and are such that the tracks of e/3 quarks cannot be simulated by singly charged shower particles either through statistical variations in primary ionisation or otherwise. The primary ionisation density, measured using a gap-counting technique on post-expansion electron and muon tracks, is compared with predictions from the theory of Budini et al. (1960). The agreement achieved shows that the theory is a reliable foundation for methods of identifying quark candidates, and measuring charges. The experiment has been running for 5000 hours. No quark candidates have been found. With an acceptance angle of 0·3 sr and an area of 140 cm2, this sets the upper limit of flux of e/3 quarks at 4 × 10−9 cm−2 sec−1 sr−1 with 95 per cent, confidence. The experiment is being continued.
A near infrared heating method is presented which directly heats metal substrates to very high temperatures within seconds. The technique is used to heat 1mm thick titanium and stainless steel metal coupons onto which 1 cm2 commercial TiO2 pastes have been deposited within 12-25 seconds giving assembled dye sensitized solar cell efficiencies which are equivalent to cells prepared using a convection oven for 1800 seconds. The near infrared method is applicable to different paste thicknesses and paste types as well as different metal substrates. Near infrared sintering for the shortest times 12.5 seconds yielded cells with the highest efficiency compared to convection oven prepared samples. This ultrafast heating seems to drive off binder very effectively and lead to rapid sintering. Ultrafast sintering allows peak metal temperatures of 500-800 °C to be achieved without the massive losses in cell efficiency observed with the conventional heat treatment at temperatures over 600 ◦C.
A nitric acid (2M) pre-treatment is shown to increase the efficiency of a standard dye sensitized solar cell mounted on a FTO glass substrate from 4.15% to 5.12%. The pre-treatment involves immersing an FTO glass electrode coated with commercial ethyl cellulose based TiO2 paste for 1-60 minutes prior to sintering at 450°C. The pre-treatment leads to agglomeration of the TiO2 creating a scattering layer which covers the acid treated surface on short term immersion (<30 mins) and penetrates the bulk layer upon long immersion. The scattering layer itself takes up less of the sensitizing (N719) dye but scatters photons in the rest of the film. The optimum immersion time under room temperature conditions was found to be ca 20 minutes since at much longer immersion times the bulk film particle agglomeration reduced efficiency. The choice of anion in the acid is critical with certain species, notably phosphate, resulting in blockage of dye absorption sites in the entire film resulting in reduced cell efficiency.
The UK was one of few European countries to document a substantial wave of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in summer 2009. The First Few Hundred (FF100) project ran from April–June 2009 gathering information on early laboratory-confirmed cases across the UK. In total, 392 confirmed cases were followed up. Children were predominantly affected (median age 15 years, IQR 10–27). Symptoms were mild and similar to seasonal influenza, with the exception of diarrhoea, which was reported by 27%. Eleven per cent of all cases had an underlying medical condition, similar to the general population. The majority (92%) were treated with antiviral drugs with 12% reporting adverse effects, mainly nausea and other gastrointestinal complaints. Duration of illness was significantly shorter when antivirals were given within 48 h of onset (median 5 vs. 9 days, P=0·01). No patients died, although 14 were hospitalized, of whom three required mechanical ventilation. The FF100 identified key clinical and epidemiological characteristics of infection with this novel virus in near real-time.
The numbers and serotypes of Clostridium perfringens present in the faeces of three groups of hospital patients and young healthy laboratory workers were examined in studies lasting between 10 and 13 weeks.
In one hospital some long-stay geriatric patients carried relatively high numbers of C. perfringens (> 107/g) most of the time and it was not unusual in any one week for the majority of these patients to carry the same serotype(s). However, the numbers of C. perfringens in the faeces of young long-stay patients in the same hospital were in the range of 103–104/g and carriage of common serotypes was not observed. These results were similar to the findings with the young laboratory workers.
This investigation indicates that two of the laboratory criteria often used in the investigation of C. perfringens food poisoning, i.e. faecal counts of ≥ 105C. perfringens/g and patients carrying the same serological type need to be interpreted with caution with suspected outbreaks involving some groups of geriatric long-stay hospital patients.
A collection of 50 bacteriocins was assembled and used to type 802 isolates of Clostridium perfringens from food poisoning outbreaks and a variety of other sources. It was found that strains of the same serotype within an outbreak showed similar patterns of susceptibility to bacteriocins, and the use of a ‘one difference’ rule is proposed for interpretation of the typing patterns of epidemiologically related strains. Isolates of different serotype or of the same serotype isolated from different sources produced many variations in bacteriocin susceptibility patterns.
Two computer programs were developed to assist in the interpretation of bacteriocin typing patterns. Their use showed that related and unrelated strains formed different clusters and enabled a range of the 20 most discriminatory bacteriocins to be selected.
Isolates of C. perfringens from a wide range of sources were screened for their ability to produce bacteriocins. A much greater proportion of the strains from food poisoning outbreaks was bacteriocinogenic than were isolates from human and animal infections, various foods and the environment. The relevance of these findings to the occurrence of C. perfringens food poisoning is discussed.
In 1988, there were two outbreaks of legionellosis in Bolton Health District. Altogether 37 cases of Legionnaires' disease and 23 cases of non-pneumonic legionellosis were identified. Twenty-five patients with Legionnaires' disease were associated with an engineering plant, 4 with Bolton town centre, and 8 with both the plant and town centre. Twenty-two people with non-pneumonic legionellosis were linked with the engineering plant and one with the plant and the town centre. A case-control study carried out among 37 employees with legionellosis and 109 control subjects at the plant showed that infection was associated with one of the 15 cooling towers on the site. Legionella pneumophila indistinguishable by serological and genetic typing methods was isolated from this cooling tower and from sputum samples from two patients. In the town centre, no one tower was linked with infection and L. pneumophila was not cultured from any of the nine towers identified. Control measures were implemented and to date there have been no further cases of legionellosis associated with Bolton Health District.
Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) carry several zoonotic pathogens and because rats and humans live in close proximity in urban environments, there exists potential for transmission. To identify zoonotic agents carried by rats in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, we live-trapped 201 rats during 2005–2006 and screened them for a panel of viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Antibodies against Seoul virus (57·7%), hepatitis E virus (HEV, 73·5%), Leptospira interrogans (65·3%), Bartonella elizabethae (34·1%), and Rickettsia typhi (7·0%) were detected in Norway rats. Endoparasites, including Calodium hepatica (87·9%) and Hymenolepis sp. (34·4%), and ectoparasites (13·9%, primarily Laelaps echidninus) also were present. The risk of human exposure to these pathogens is a significant public health concern. Because these pathogens cause non-specific and often self-limiting symptoms in humans, infection in human populations is probably underdiagnosed.
Data containing many variables are often collected in weed science research, but until recently few weed scientists have used multivariate statistical methods to examine such data. Multivariate analysis can be used for both descriptive and predictive modeling. This paper provides an intuitive geometric introduction to the more commonly used and relevant multivariate methods in weed science research, including ordination, discriminant analysis, and canonical analysis. These methods are illustrated using a simple artificial data set consisting of abundance measures of six weed species and two soil variables over 12 sample plots.
The ABA-1 protein of Ascaris lumbricoides (of humans) and Ascaris suum (of pigs) is abundant in the pseudocoelomic fluid
of the parasites and also appears to be released by the tissue-parasitic larvae and the adult stages. The genes encoding the
polyprotein precursor of ABA-1 (aba-1) were found to be arranged similarly in the two taxa, comprising tandemly
repeating units encoding a large polyprotein which is cleaved to yield polypeptides of approximately 15 kDa which fall
into 2 distinct classes, types A and B. The polyprotein possibly comprises only 10 units. The aba-1 gene of A. lumbricoides
is polymorphic, and the majority of substitutions observed occur in or near predicted loop regions in the encoded proteins.
mRNA for ABA-1 is present in infective larvae within the egg, and in all parasitic stages, but was not detectable in
unembryonated eggs. ABA-1 mRNA was confined to the gut of adult parasites, and not in body wall or reproductive
tissues. Recombinant protein representing a single A-type unit for the A. lumbricoides aba-1 gene was produced and found
to bind retinol (Vitamin A) and a range of fatty acids, including the pharmacologically active lipids lysophosphatidic acid,
lysoplatelet activating factor, and there was also evidence of binding to leukotrienes. It failed to bind to any of the
anthelmintics screened. Differential Scanning Calorimetry showed that the recombinant protein was highly stable, and
unfolded in a single transition at 90·4 °C. Analysis of the transition indicated that the protein occurs as a dimer and that
the dimer dissociates simultaneously with the unfolding of the monomer units.