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To determine whether increased physiological arousal immediately after trauma or at emergency admission can predict post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors with physical injuries.
We included 119 MVA survivors with physical injuries. In this prospective cohort study, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were assessed during ambulance transport (T1) and at hospital admission (T2). One and four months after the accident, we assessed patients for PTSD (Davidson trauma scale, confirmed with the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders). Multivariate logistic regression models assessed the relationship between HR or BP and PTSD.
PTSD was diagnosed in 54 (45.4%) patients at 1 month and in 39 (32.8%) at 4 months. In the multivariate analysis, HR at T1 or at T2 predicted PTSD at 1 month (OR=1.156, 95% CI [1.094;1.221] p < 0.0001). Only HR at T1 (not at T2) predicted PTSD at 4 months (OR=1.059, 95% CI [1.013; 1.108] p = 0.012). Injury severity predicted PTSD at 4 months (OR=1.207, 95% CI [1.085; 1.342] p = 0.001). A cut-off of 84 beats per minute yielded a sensitivity of 62.5% and a specificity of 75.0% for PTSD.
HR measured at the scene of MVA and severity of injury predicted PTSD 4 months later.
Several studies suggest that severe mental illness is associated with tobacco smoking.
In this study, we measure the frequency of tobacco smokers in a sample of 149 severe mental illness inpatients. We compare the tobacco smoking rate with the general population one and with other studies rates.
65 (43%) of the 149 patients were female and 84 (57%) male. The main diagnoses of the studied population was schizophrenia (80%).The main finding was that according to other studies, the percentage of smokers in our hospital 65 (43%) was consistently high and greater than in general population. Only 9 (13%) of the smokers group were women.
Tobacco smoking rate is higher in psychiatric inpatients than in general population.
The aim of this study was to asses the impact of different psychological and/or biological effects in the recovery from surgery.
The sample was composed of 42 patients waiting for a surgical intervention. Patients with cognitive impairment were removed from the sample. Prior to surgical intervention (48 to 72 hours), patients were administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (Millon, 1986) and salivary cortisol were measured 24 hours before surgery. Following surgical intervention, recovery was coded as good or poor accordingly to Moix et als criteria (1995). Dietary intake, resting and sleeping hours, as well as the existence of fever, perceived pain and related surgery complications were daily registered and controlled for.
The cortisol values were increased in patients with high score in Histrionic Scale (t = 2.10, p = 0.043). There was a significant relation between personality, cortisol and recovery. the patients with low score in Dependent Scale (t = 2.33, p = 0.029), Histrionic Scale ( t = 2.51, p = 0.020), Alcohol Dependence Scale (t = 2.01, p = 0.049), Drug Dependence Scale (t = 2.08, p = 0.050) and cortisol show better recovery from surgery.
The results of this study indicate that psychological factors and levels of cortisol may have a critical rol in post-operatory recovery. Taking these data into account, it seems necessary to assess psychopathology on a regular basis in all the patients waiting for surgically interventions.
There is an excess of death from natural causes among people with major psychiatric disorders. Several reasons have been argued to explain this excess of death (Antipsychotic Agents, high nicotine dependence…).
Our objective was to examine and compare mortality rates in a historical cohort study of 166 psychiatric inpatients along one year.
Mortality rates were examined in our cohort of patients from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003.
11(6.62%) patients died along the year studied. Only 2 (18%) of the died patient were women. The main cause of mortality in our cohort of patients was cardiovascular diseases.
Inpatients with major psychiatric disorders appear to be at greater risk for cardiovascular mortality than those in the general population.
Data is progressively and robustly accumulating regarding the biological basis of autism. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are currently considered a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with onset very early in life and a complex, heterogeneous, multifactorial aetiology. A comprehensive search of the last five years of the Medline database was conducted in order to summarize recent evidence on the neurobiological bases of autism. The main findings on genetic influence, neuropathology, neurostructure and brain networks are summarized. In addition, findings from peripheral samples of subjects with autism and animal models, which show immune, oxidative, mitochondrial dysregulations, are reported. Then, other biomarkers from very different systems associated with autism are reported. Finally, an attempt is made to try and integrate the available evidence, which points to a oligogenetic, multifactorial aetiology that converges in an aberrant micro-organization of the cortex, with abnormal functioning of the synapses and abnormalities in very general physiological pathways (such as inflammatory, immune and redox systems).
The side effects of the various antidepressant drugs on the sexual field (with very few exceptions) are well known, and they affect the quality of life in important manners. The incidence rate, communicated spontaneously by the patient, has been estimated around 10–15%, and can reach amounts of 50–60% with SSRIs when studied specifically. It has been suggested that these effects compromise treatment adherence.
To estimate the incidence and intensity of the side effects on the sexual field with different antidepressants, as well as its relationship with treatment adherence.
Transversal study on 50 patients assisted in medical consultation. Collection of data in office (October 2014–October 2015).
Administration of survey PRSexDQ-SALSEX. In order to research the relationship with treatment adherence, one question surveyed the patient whether he/she had thought about finishing treatment for this reason.
Twenty-nine patients (58% of the sample) presented some degree of sexual dysfunction. Five individuals (17.2%) communicated it spontaneously. Nine individuals (31%) responded that they did not accept positively the changes in their sexual field, and they had thought about withdrawing treatment for this reason. They were given the test of self-compliance statement (Haynes-Sackett), with a result of four non-compliant (44.4%). The most frequently involved drugs were fluoxetine (n = 5, 10% of the sample total) and paroxetine (n = 4, 8%).
The high impact of sexual side effects with a low rate of spontaneous communication coincides with previous existent studies.
Limitation when estimating adhesion due to methodological difficulties in the design of the study. However, high impression by using the selected method of determination.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The use of drugs to improve cognitive performance (pharmacological enhancement) is a practice that increases in frequency, especially in individuals with a high degree of academic education, university students, and workforce with high responsibilities. Legal substances such as alcohol and caffeine, prescription drugs such as modafinil or methylphenidate and some illegal drugs such as amphetamines or cannabis are utilized to improve cognitive performance, maintain wakefulness, or induce sleep. Perception of risk is low in many cases. Internet has facilitated the illicit access to prescription drugs with astonishing ease.
Objective and methods
We want to exemplify through a clinical case, how the access to some of these substances through internet is very easy, and how, in this case, the use of Modafinil (drug indicated for narcolepsy) with the objective of maintaining academic performance aggravates symptoms of anxiety in a 22-year universitary patient.
Exposition of clinical case in the poster.
The use of substances (“smart drugs”) presents risks for both physical and psychological health that sometimes are not perceived by the user. It is surprising that a highly educated individual has taken Modafinil without researching for a deep understanding of the side effects of the drug.
Internet access of regulated substances that should only be prescribed by a physician to be used on very concrete symptoms is extremely easy. In the case of the Modafinil, it is possible to access its purchase by simply searching the words “purchase/buy Modafinil” in any internet browser.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
Life in the terrestrial and marine subsurface has adapted and evolved mechanisms to survive under extremes of energy limitation, temperature, pressure, radiation, and/or water availability. New developments in nucleic acid sequencing, high-pressure biochemistry, and high-pressure biophysics have expanded our understanding of the mechanisms used by deep life. This chapter synthesizes these new developments and highlights remaining gaps in understanding.
Four Beauveria bassiana and three Metarhizium brunneum isolates were evaluated, as soil drenches, against Spodoptera littoralis prepupae. Treatment efficacy was determined by assessing total mortality during development from prepupae through to pupae and adults; mortality and sub-lethal effects on reproduction were also quantified for adults emerging from surviving prepupae/pupae. All isolates were pathogenic but overall mortality varied between 31.7 and 83.3% (0% for control); average survival time was 7.5–10.5 days (14.0 days for control). From 1.7–15.0% of adults emerging from surviving prepupae/pupae were deformed (0% in control). Contact with fungal suspensions as prepupae/pupae caused a significant reduction in fecundity of emerging adult females (15–58.9%), and a significant reduction in egg viability (6.8–28.4%) compared with controls. Two isolates were selected for virulence evaluation against S. littoralis prepupae. The LC50s were 1.7 × 107 and 1.8 × 107 conidia ml−1 and the median survival times were 7 and 6 days for isolates EAMa 01/58-Su and EAMb 09/01-Su, respectively. Destruxin A was present in pupae developing from prepupae treated with isolates EAMa 01/58-Su (0.010 ± 0.002 µg pupae−1) and EAMb 09/01-Su (0.015 ± 0.003 µg pupae−1). The use of entomopathogenic fungi as soil drenches could be a key component of S. littoralis IPM strategies due to direct reductions in the number of soil-dwelling life stages and, also, the significant reduction in reproductive potential of surviving adults.
Since ancient times, lubricants have been used to reduce friction and wear problems of mechanical systems. However, nowadays, there is a constant effort to improve their performance through additives so that they can accomplish properly in this modern world. In that sense, in this study, it was proposed the use of Poly(ε-Caprolactone) (PCL) as a biodegradable additive in Castor oil. The effect that this additive has on the tribological properties of AISI 4140 steel/Al2O3 tribosystem was analyzed. For this purpose, PCL was dissolved in Castor oil at 65 °C for 15 minutes. Later, once the lubricant formulations got into room temperature, friction tests were conducted with a ball-on-disk configuration. Several experiments were systematically carried out in order to study the factors that could influence the performance of the tribological system, for instance: additive concentration, velocity, temperature, and wear track radius. The kinetic friction coefficient was used to analyze the results as an output variable. The parameters in which the best friction behavior was observed were employed again to compare the efficiency of the polymeric additive by profoundly analyzing and comparing the wear response of the system. The PCL additive showed great results by decreasing friction up to 30% compared to the neat Castor oil. Nevertheless, as the opposite effect, this additive increased the steel wear to almost half an order of magnitude. Given the above, this investigation showed that, with further studies, Poly(ε-Caprolactone) could be used as an additive in vegetable oil-based lubricants for the improvement of friction performance.
This work combines very detailed measurements from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), ground-based interferometry radar (GB-SAR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to diagnose current conditions and to analyse the recent evolution of the Monte Perdido Glacier in the Spanish Pyrenees from 2011 to 2017. Thus, this is currently one of the best monitored small glacier (<0.5 km2) worldwide. The evolution of the glacier surface was surveyed with a TLS evidencing an important decline of 6.1 ± 0.3 m on average, with ice losses mainly concentrated over 3 years (2012, 2015 and 2017). Ice loss is unevenly distributed throughout the study period, with 10–15 m thinning in some areas while unchanged areas in others. GB-SAR revealed that areas with higher ice losses are those that are currently with no or very low ice motion. In contrast, sectors located beneath the areas with less ice loss are those that still exhibit noticeable ice movement (average 2–4.5 cm d─1 in summer, and annual movement of 9.98 ma─1 from ablation stakes data). GPR informed that ice thickness was generally <30 m, though locally 30–50 m. Glacier thinning is still accelerating and will lead to extinction of the glacier over the next 50 years.
Orbital resonances in the Galactic halo have been studied using the Galactic mass model of Pichardo et al. (2003, 2004), including a Galactic bar. For the two moving groups of the Galactic halo, G18-39 and G21-22 (Silva et al. 2012), the majority of stars in both groups appear trapped in two resonances over the Galactic plane, generated by the bar. We have taken the rotation speed of the bar, Ωb, as 45-55 km s-1 kpc-1. So, these two moving groups are part of stellar supergroups which populate these two resonances. The position of these two groups in the Bottlinger diagram can be explained by the mean (U,V) field generated by these two resonances crossing the solar vicinity, in contrast with the alternate explanation of Silva et al. (2012), based on the simulations of Meza et al. (2005), that these two groups, seen as two peaks in the U Galactic velocity, have been created by the accretion of a dwarf galaxy by the Milky Way, such as that of Ω Centauri.
Few previous studies in Latin America (LA) have provided data on dietary intake composition with a standardized methodology. The present study aimed to characterize energy intake (EI) and to describe the main food sources of energy in representative samples of the urban population from eight LA countries from the Latin American Study in Nutrition and Health (ELANS).
Cross-sectional study. Usual dietary intake was assessed with two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls.
Urban areas from eight countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela), September 2014 to July 2015.
Adolescents and adults aged 15–65 years. Final sample comprised 9218 individuals, of whom 6648 (72·1 %) were considered plausible reporters.
Overall, mean EI was 8196 kJ/d (1959 kcal/d), with a balanced distribution of macronutrients (54 % carbohydrate, 30 % fat, 16 % protein). Main food sources of energy were grains, pasta and bread (28 %), followed by meat and eggs (19 %), oils and fats (10 %), non-alcoholic homemade beverages (6 %) and ready-to-drink beverages (6 %). More than 25 % of EI was provided from food sources rich in sugar and fat, like sugary drinks, pastries, chips and candies. Meanwhile, only 18 % of EI was from food sources rich in fibre and micronutrients, such as whole grains, roots, fruits, vegetables, beans, fish and nuts. No critical differences were observed by gender or age.
Public health efforts oriented to diminish consumption of refined carbohydrates, meats, oils and sugar and to increase nutrient dense-foods are a priority in the region to drive to a healthier diet.
The clinical and pathologic characterisation of two fatal cases of tick-borne rickettsiosis in rural (El Valle) and urban (City of Panama) Panama are described. Clinical and autopsy findings were non-specific, but the molecular analysis was used to identify Rickettsia rickettsii in both cases. No ticks were collected in El Valle, while in the urban case, R. rickettsii was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., representing the first molecular finding in this tick in Panama and Central America.