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f(n, k) sera l'entier maximum t tel qu'il existe un graphe G ayant les propriétés suivantes:
(a) G possède n sommets;
(b) le nombre chromatique de G est égal à k;
(c) Gest minimal par rapport à la propriété (b); c'est-à-dire, la suppression ede n'importe quelle arête rend G(k – 1)-colorable;
(d) il existe t sommets indépendants de G, c'est-à-dire dont nulle paire ne se joigne par une arête.
Un graphe sera k-minimal s'il possède les propriétés (b) et (c). Puisque les graphes 3-minimaux sont tous des polygones impairs, il s'ensuit que f(n, 3) = [n/2] (n = 3, 5, 7, …), Il y a quelque temps T. Gallai a posé la conjecture:
M. Simonovits a réfuté l'inégalité stricte dans (1.1) en prouvant que
This work is part of the interlaboratory collaboration to study the stability of organic solar cells containing PCDTBT polymer as a donor material. The varieties of the OPV devices with different device architectures, electrode materials, encapsulation, and device dimensions were prepared by seven research laboratories. Sets of identical devices were aged according to four different protocols: shelf lifetime, laboratory weathering under simulated illumination at ambient temperature, laboratory weathering under simulated illumination, and elevated temperature (65 °C) and daylight outdoor weathering under sunlight. The results generated in this study allow us to outline several general conclusions related to PCDTBT-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The results herein reported can be considered as practical guidance for the realization of stabilization approaches in BHJ solar cells containing PCDTBT.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Insufficient endogenous expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) with subsequent over-activation of its target, the transcription factor STAT3, has been associated with tumorigenesis and cancer development in the lung and other organs. We have observed that a “backup” source of SOCS3 in the lung, namely that secreted in microvesicles (MVs) by alveolar macrophages, is reduced in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of KRAS mutant mice harboring lung tumors. Here we sought to evaluate levels of SOCS3 in BALF of a cohort of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and to test the effects of vesicular SOCS3 administration on tumor cell transformation and function as potential therapeutic strategy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In total, 22 BALF samples were obtained from healthy volunteers (n=11) as well as patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopies for suspected lung cancer (n=11). SOCS3 levels in the BALF were determined by ELISA after brief sonication to disrupt vesicles. In vitro experiments utilized the human adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) or human G12V mutant KRAS-expressing rat lung epithelial cells (RLE-G12V). Proliferation, Fas ligand (FasL)-induced apoptosis, and chemical transformation with N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or cigarette smoke extract (CSE) were assessed by CyQuant assay, annexin V staining, and soft agar assay, respectively. For SOCS3 rescue, epithelial cells were treated with natural alveolar macrophages-derived MVs (isolated via ultracentrifugation) or synthetic unilamellar liposomes containing human recombinant SOCS3 for at least 1 hour before assay. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: SOCS3 levels were significantly reduced in BALF samples of patients determined to have NSCLC as compared with healthy volunteers (186.6±26.74 vs. 395.6±74.31 pg/mL, p=0.015, n=11). Addition of exogenous SOCS3-containing liposomes had the capacity to significantly inhibit MNNG and cigarette smoke extract-induced transformation and colony formation in soft agar. Exogenous SOCS3 provided in liposomes or in natural MVs significantly induced apoptosis (both in the presence and absence of FasL) and inhibited basal proliferation of A549 cells. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These data identified a novel dysregulation of immune surveillance in the form of decreased SOCS3 secretion in the tumor-bearing lung that may contribute to tumorigenesis via sustained STAT3 activation. Future studies will focus on the mechanism underlying this defect and whether rescuing SOCS3 secretion can inhibit cancer progression in vivo.
The submarine channel-fill system of the Cambrian Spurs Formation exhibits unique metre-scale cycles of breccia and diamictite. The studied sections, Eureka Spurs, are located at the Mariner Glacier in the central-eastern part of northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. A facies analysis of the channel-fill deposit has led to the recognition of four main lithofacies: breccia, diamictite, thin-bedded sandstone and mudstone. The channel-fill deposit consists of two architectural elements: hollow-fill (HF) and sheet-like (SL) elements. The SL has wide convex-up geometry and consists solely of a very thick bed of diamictite, and is interpreted as a submarine channel lobe. The HF has a concave-up erosional base and flat upper surface. The HF consists of nine cyclic alternations of underlying breccia (cohesionless debris flow) and overlying diamictite (cohesive debris flow). The deposition of breccia is interpreted to have been controlled by repeated allogenic processes such as earthquakes. In contrast, the abrupt vertical transition from breccia to diamictite in each cycle is interpreted to have resulted from an autogenic, slope instability-related process. The interaction of the allogenic and autogenic factors recorded in the metre-scale unique cyclic deposits provides new criteria to interpret cycles of submarine debris flow.
The newborn lamb lacks circulating antibodies and relies on an early and adequate intake of colostrum for passive protection against disease and for energy (Black, Francis and Nicholls, 1985; Mellor, 1990). However, lambs may receive less colostrum than they require because of sibling competition, maternal undernutrition or udder disease. Colostrum insufficiency accounts for about 25% of perinatal lamb deaths world wide (Khalaf, Doxey and Baxter, 1979).
Powdered colostrum substitutes may be used to supplement ‘at risk’ lambs but, because the products are manufactured outside the United Kingdom (UK), mainly from bovine sources, their relevance to UK sheep enterprises is uncertain. Further, their available energy content is low because the main constituent, protein, is not catabolized by newborn lambs (Mellor and Cockburn, 1986). The present work measured the ability of one substitute derived from bovine whey (based on ProLAM, Fisons Animal Health Ltd), with or without supplementary glucose; to prevent disease and promote growth to 3 months in lambs reared in typical UK farm conditions.
Hydrated halloysite was discovered in books, a morphology previously associated exclusively with kaolinite. From ∼1.5 to ∼1500 μm in length, the books showed significantly greater mean Fe contents (Fe2O3 = 5.2 wt.%) than tubes (Fe2O3 = 3.2 wt.%), and expanded rapidly with formamide. They occurred, along with halloysite tubes, spheroids and plates, in highly porous yet poorly permeable, silt-dominated, Si-rich, pumiceous rhyolitic tephra deposits aged ∼0.93 Ma (Te Puna tephra) and ∼0.27 Ma (Te Ranga tephra) at three sites ∼10–20 m stratigraphically below the modern landsurface in the Tauranga area, eastern North Island, New Zealand. The book-bearing tephras were at or near saturation, but have experienced intermittent partial drying, favouring the proposed changes: solubilized volcanic glass + plagioclase→halloysite spheroids→halloysite tubes→halloysite plates→ halloysite books. Unlike parallel studies elsewhere involving both halloysite and kaolinite, kaolinite has not formed in Tauranga presumably because the low permeability ensures that the sites largely remain locally wet so that the halloysite books are metastable. An implication of the discovery is that some halloysite books in similar settings may have been misidentified previously as kaolinite.
Valid comparison between hospitals for benchmarking or pay-for-performance incentives requires accurate correction for underlying disease severity (case-mix). However, existing models are either very simplistic or require extensive manual data collection.
To develop a disease severity prediction model based solely on data routinely available in electronic health records for risk-adjustment in mechanically ventilated patients.
Retrospective cohort study.
Mechanically ventilated patients from a single tertiary medical center (2006–2012).
Predictors were extracted from electronic data repositories (demographic characteristics, laboratory tests, medications, microbiology results, procedure codes, and comorbidities) and assessed for feasibility and generalizability of data collection. Models for in-hospital mortality of increasing complexity were built using logistic regression. Estimated disease severity from these models was linked to rates of ventilator-associated events.
A total of 20,028 patients were initiated on mechanical ventilation, of whom 3,027 deceased in hospital. For models of incremental complexity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve ranged from 0.83 to 0.88. A simple model including demographic characteristics, type of intensive care unit, time to intubation, blood culture sampling, 8 common laboratory tests, and surgical status achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.86–0.88) with adequate calibration. The estimated disease severity was associated with occurrence of ventilator-associated events.
Accurate estimation of disease severity in ventilated patients using electronic, routine care data was feasible using simple models. These estimates may be useful for risk-adjustment in ventilated patients. Additional research is necessary to validate and refine these models.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(7):807–815
Manual surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is cumbersome and vulnerable to subjective interpretation. Automated systems are under development to improve efficiency and reliability of surveillance, for example by selecting high-risk patients requiring manual chart review. In this study, we aimed to validate a previously developed multivariable prediction modeling approach for detecting drain-related meningitis (DRM) in neurosurgical patients and to assess its merits compared to conventional methods of automated surveillance.
Prospective cohort study in 3 hospitals assessing the accuracy and efficiency of 2 automated surveillance methods for detecting DRM, the multivariable prediction model and a classification algorithm, using manual chart review as the reference standard. All 3 methods of surveillance were performed independently. Patients receiving cerebrospinal fluid drains were included (2012–2013), except children, and patients deceased within 24 hours or with pre-existing meningitis. Data required by automated surveillance methods were extracted from routine care clinical data warehouses.
In total, DRM occurred in 37 of 366 external cerebrospinal fluid drainage episodes (12.3/1000 drain days at risk). The multivariable prediction model had good discriminatory power (area under the ROC curve 0.91–1.00 by hospital), had adequate overall calibration, and could identify high-risk patients requiring manual confirmation with 97.3% sensitivity and 52.2% positive predictive value, decreasing the workload for manual surveillance by 81%. The multivariable approach was more efficient than classification algorithms in 2 of 3 hospitals.
Automated surveillance of DRM using a multivariable prediction model in multiple hospitals considerably reduced the burden for manual chart review at near-perfect sensitivity.
After an outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1) virus, we had previously reported the emergence of a recombinant canine influenza virus (CIV) between the pH1N1 virus and the classic H3N2 CIV. Our ongoing routine surveillance isolated another reassortant H3N2 CIV carrying the matrix gene of the pH1N1 virus from 2012. The infection dynamics of this H3N2 CIV variant (CIV/H3N2mv) were investigated in dogs and ferrets via experimental infection and transmission. The CIV/H3N2mv-infected dogs and ferrets produced typical symptoms of respiratory disease, virus shedding, seroconversion, and direct-contact transmissions. Although indirect exposure was not presented for ferrets, CIV/H3N2mv presented higher viral replication in MDCK cells and more efficient transmission was observed in ferrets compared to classic CIV H3N2. This study demonstrates the effect of reassortment of the M gene of pH1N1 in CIV H3N2.
We consider the dynamics of actively entraining turbulent density currents on a conical sloping surface in a rotating fluid. A theoretical plume model is developed to describe both axisymmetric flow and single-stream currents of finite angular extent. An analytical solution is derived for flow dominated by the initial buoyancy flux and with a constant entrainment ratio, which serves as an attractor for solutions with alternative initial conditions where the initial fluxes of mass and momentum are non-negligible. The solutions indicate that the downslope propagation of the current halts at a critical level where there is purely azimuthal flow, and the boundary layer approximation breaks down. Observations from a set of laboratory experiments are consistent with the dynamics predicted by the model, with the flow approaching a critical level. Interpretation in terms of the theory yields an entrainment coefficient
$E\propto 1/\Omega $
where the rotation rate is
. We also derive a corresponding theory for density currents from a line source of buoyancy on a planar slope. Our theoretical models provide a framework for designing and interpreting laboratory studies of turbulent entrainment in rotating dense flows on slopes and understanding their implications in geophysical flows.
In order to improve the charge/discharge cycling performance of the LiMn2O4 cathode, the spinel LiMn2O4 is coated on the structurally stable SiO2 nanosphere cores, LiMn2O4@SiO2. The core-shell LiMn2O4@SiO2 nanosphere cathodes are prepared by the MnCO3 precipitation on the silica surface and the following solid state reaction of MnCO3@SiO2 with a lithium salt. The charge/discharge cycle stability has improved by the nanostructural characteristics of the LiMn2O4@ shell on the SiO2 core. The cathode composed of LiMn2O4@SiO2 nanospheres exhibits higher capacity retention of 97% than that of LiMn2O4 nanoparticles of 89%, after 100 battery cycles at a 10C rate.
Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is labor intensive and complex. Discharge coding is an accessible source of information that may support detection of cases. For drain-related meningitis, however, discharge coding data had low sensitivity (32%) and positive predictive value (35%) and could neither replace nor improve existing complex surveillance systems.
We present the results of near-infrared (NIR) imaging and spectroscopic observations of the Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). Applying the method of Principal Component Analysis to our broadband NIR spectra, we identify a total of 61 NIR emission knots of Cas A and classify them into three groups of distinct spectral characteristics: Helium-rich, Sulfur-rich, and Iron-rich groups. The first and second groups are of the circumstellar and supernova ejecta origin, respectively. The third group, which has enhanced iron emission, is of particular interests since it shows intermediate characteristics between the former two groups. We suggest that the Iron-rich group is knots of swept-up circumstellar medium around the contact discontinuity in Cas A and/or supernova ejecta from deep layers of its progenitor star which have recently encountered a reverse shock in the remnant.
Fe-sulicides were formed by annealing MBE-deposited thin 57Fe layers with thicknesses between 20 Å and 60 Å on (7x7) reconstructed Si(111) substrates. During the growth the substrate was held at room temperature. The silicide formation upon annealing in the temperature range of 200°C to 900°C was studied in-situ with RH-EED. Samples were studied with in-situ CEMS (Conversion Electron Mossbauer Spectroscopy) as well as with ex-situ CEMS after covering with Ag to prevent oxidation. RBS/Channeling was used to study the epitaxial quality and the structure of these layers.
Using the 57Fe nuclear probe, it is shown that silicide formation occurs at the interface already at room temperature. Metastable silicides with cubic structure are observed in the low temperature annealing range, and characterized by their Mossbauer parameters. At higher temperatures stable ε-FeSi and β-FeSi2 are formed.
Highly mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by an aero-sol-gel process in this approach. By varying the mass fraction of inorganic templates, the formation of mesoporous TiO2 NPs with optimized surface area and pore volume distributions was examined. Then, the photovoltaic properties of the resulting mesoporous TiO2 NPs were systematically investigated by applying them into the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The mesoporous TiO2 NP-based DSSCs fabricated in this study showed an improved short circuit current density and power conversion efficiency compared with solid TiO2 NP-based DSSCs due to the increase of the amount of inorganic dye (N719) adsorption in the mesoporous TiO2 NPs. These mesoporous TiO2 NPs fabricated have a strong potential as an effective dye supporting and electron transfer medium to improve the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs.
Hierarchically porous silica monoliths were introduced into liquid phase chromatography at the beginning of the last decade. The high surface area, high void volume and bicontinuous nature of the porosity of the materials are significant advantages over existing chromatographic supports and have resulted in rapid acceptance of these materials into the chromatography market.
We report here on the synthesis of 3-D porous silver, cobalt oxide and zinc oxide monoliths, their materials characterization, fabrication as liquid chromatographic columns and initial chromatographic characterization. The, as prepared, columns gave very low back pressure, consistent with the bicontinuous nature of the columns. Cobalt oxide and zinc oxide both demonstrated retention of a number of nitrogen heterocycles, providing the basis for molecular separation.