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The six LIGO detections of merging black holes (BHs) allowed to infer slow spin values for the two pre-merging BHs. The three cases where the spins of the BHs can be determined in high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) show that those BHs have high spin values. We discuss here scenarios explaining these differences in spin properties in these two classes of object.
Our knowledge of the formation and early evolution of globular clusters (GCs) has been totally shaken with the discovery of the peculiar chemical properties of their long-lived host stars. Therefore, the interpretation of the observed Colour Magnitude Diagrams (CMD) and of the properties of the GC stellar populations requires the use of new stellar models computed with relevant chemical compositions. In this paper we use the grid of evolution models for low-mass stars computed by Chantereau et al. (2015) with the initial compositions of second-generation stars as predicted by the fast rotating massive stars scenario to build synthesis models of GCs. We discuss the implications of the assumed initial chemical distribution on 13 Gyr isochrones. We build population synthesis models to predict the fraction of stars born with various helium abundances in present day globular clusters (assuming an age of 13 Gyr). With the current assumptions, 61 % of stars on the main sequence are predicted to be born with a helium abundance in mass fraction, Yini, smaller than 0.3 and only 11 % have a Yini larger than 0.4. Along the horizontal branch, the fraction of stars with Yini inferior to 0.3 is similar to that obtained along the main sequence band (63 %), while the fraction of very He-enriched stars is significantly decreased (only 3 % with Yini larger than 0.38).
We discuss how the nuclear path of the CNO cycles in massive stars can be employed as a quality indicator for model atmosphere analyses and for the derivation of tight observational constraints for developing a better understanding of the evolution of rotating massive stars.
A few core collapse supernovae progenitors have been found to be yellow or blue supergiants. Weshall discuss possible scenarios involving single and close binary evolution allowing to explain this kind of corecollapse supernova progenitors. According to stellar models for both single and close binaries, blue supergiants, at theend of their nuclear lifetimes and thus progenitors of core collapse supernovae, present very different characteristicsfor what concerns their surface compositions, rotational surface velocities and pulsational properties with respect toblue supergiants in their core helium burning phase. We discuss how the small observed scatter of the flux-weightedgravity-luminosity (FWGL) relation of blue supergiants constrains the evolution of massive stars after the Main-Sequence phase and the nature of the progenitors of supernovae in the mass range between 12 and 40 solarmasses. The present day observed surface abundances of blue supergiants, of their pulsational properties, as well asthe small scatter of the FWGL relation provide strong constraints on both internal mixing and mass loss in massivestars and therefore on the end point of their evolution.
We present preliminary results of the determination of fundamental parameters of single O-type stars in the MiMeS survey. We present the sample and we focus on surface CNO abundances, showing how they change as stars evolve off the zero-age main sequence.
Globular clusters are among the oldest structures in the Universe and they host today low-mass stars and no gas. However, there has been a time when they formed as gaseous objects hosting a large number of short-lived, massive stars. Many details on this early epoch have been depicted recently through unprecedented dissection of low-mass globular cluster stars via spectroscopy and photometry. In particular, multiple populations have been identified, which bear the nucleosynthetic fingerprints of the massive hot stars disappeared a long time ago. Here we discuss how massive star archeology can be done through the lense of these multiple populations.
Very massive stars (in excess of ~ 100 M⊙) and massive stars in pre-SN phases at the end of their evolution are continuously approaching the Eddington limit. According to our theoretical predictions their high Eddington factors lead to a peculiar sub-photospheric structure and enhanced mass-loss. Their proximity to the Eddington limit is thus likely the reason why these objects appear as LBVs and WR stars. Here we discuss how our predictions relate to the characteristics of strange-mode pulsations, and how rotating massive stars at low metallicities can produce spectroscopic signatures that have recently been observed in a sample of star-forming galaxies at redshifts z ≈ 2 – 4.
The enigmatic oxygen sequence Wolf-Rayet (WO) stars represent a very late stage in massive star evolution, although their exact nature is still under debate. The spectra of most of the WO stars have never been analysed through detailed modelling with a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium expanding atmosphere code. Here we present preliminary results of the first homogeneous analysis of the (apparently) single WOs.
The B fields in OB stars (BOB) survey is an ESO large programme collecting spectropolarimetric observations for a large number of early-type stars in order to study the occurrence rate, properties, and ultimately the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. As of July 2014, a total of 98 objects were observed over 20 nights with FORS2 and HARPSpol. Our preliminary results indicate that the fraction of magnetic OB stars with an organised, detectable field is low. This conclusion, now independently reached by two different surveys, has profound implications for any theoretical model attempting to explain the field formation in these objects. We discuss in this contribution some important issues addressed by our observations (e.g., the lower bound of the field strength) and the discovery of some remarkable objects.
We produced a model grid of rotating main and post-main sequence stars with the Geneva Stellar Evolution Code (GENEC). The initial chemical composition is tailored to compare with observations of early OB type stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the grid covers stellar masses in the range of 7 ≤ M/M⊙ ≤ 15 and initial velocity between 0 km s−1 ≤ v sin(i) ≤ 300 km s−1. The model grid has been used to determine the changes in the surface Nitrogen abundances during the star evolution and the results have been compared with observations.
Stellar evolution models predict that rotation induces the mixing of chemical species, with the subsequent surface abundance anomalies relative to single non-rotating models, even during the main sequence (MS) evolution. The lack of measurable nitrogen surface enrichment in MS rotating stars, such as Be stars, has been interpreted as being in conflict with evolutionary models (e.g. Lennon et al. 2005; Hunter et al. 2008). In order to have an insight on the kind of ambient we do or we do not expect to find enriched rotating stars, we use our new population synthesis code, to produce synthetic intermediate-mass stellar populations fully accounting for stellar rotation effects, and study their evolution in time.
It is now well established that a fraction of the massive (M > 8 M⊙) star population hosts strong, organised magnetic fields, most likely of fossil origin. The details of the generation and evolution of these fields are still poorly understood. The BinaMIcS project takes an important step towards the understanding of the interplay between binarity and magnetism during the stellar formation and evolution, and in particular the genesis of fossil fields, by studying the magnetic properties of close binary systems. The components of such systems are most likely formed together, at the same time and in the same environment, and can therefore help us to disentangle the role of initial conditions on the magnetic properties of the massive stars from other competing effects such as age or rotation. We present here the main scientific objectives of the BinaMIcS project, as well as preliminary results from the first year of observations from the associated ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimetric surveys.
We present a spectroscopic and photometric study of the interacting binary and Double Period Variable HD 170582 based on the analysis of the ASAS V-band light curve and our high-resolution spectra mostly obtained with CHIRON spectrograph at the 1.5m CTIO telescope.
Massive evolved stars contribute to the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy. When they die as supernova but also through their mass loss during the several thousands of years of their red supergiant (RSG) phase. Unfortunately the mass loss mechanism remains poorly understood. Detailed study of the CSE and photosphere of nearby RSGs is required to constrain this scenario.
Betelgeuse is the closest RSG (197 pc) and therefore has a large apparent diameter (~ 42 mas) which makes it a very interesting target. For several years, our team has lead a multi-wavelength and multi-scale observing program to characterize its mass loss. We will review here our recent results in near-infrared interferometry.
Weak line emission originating in the photosphere is well known from O stars and widely used for luminosity classification. The physical origin of the line emission are NLTE effects, most often optical pumping by far-UV lines. Analogous lines in B stars of lower luminosity are identified in radially pulsating β Cephei stars. Their diagnostic value is shown for radially pulsating stars, as these lines probe a much larger range of the photosphere than absorption lines, and can be traced to regions where the pulsation amplitude is much lower than seen in the absorption lines.
Recent stellar evolution computations indicate that massive stars in the range ~ 20-30 M⊙ are located in the blue supergiant (BSG) region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram at two different stages of their life: immediately after the main sequence (MS, group 1) and during a blueward evolution after the red supergiant phase (group 2). From the observation of the pulsationnal properties of a subgroup of variable BSGs (α Cyg variables), one can deduce that these stars belongs to group 2. It is however difficult to simultaneously fit the observed surface abundances and gravity for these stars, and this allows to constrain the physical processes of chemical species transport in massive stars. We will show here that the surface abundances are extremely sensitive to the physics of convection, particularly the location of the intermediate convective shell that appears at the ignition of the hydrogen shell burning after the MS. Our results show that the use of the Ledoux criterion to determine the convective regions in the stellar models leads to a better fit of the surface abundances for α Cyg variables than the Schwarzschild one.
It has been proposed that the variability seen in absorption lines of the O6Ief star λ Cep is periodical and due to non-radial pulsations (NRP). We have obtained new spectra during six campaigns lasting between five and nine nights. In some datasets we find recurrent spectral variations which move redward in the absorption line profile, consistent with perturbations on the stellar surface of a rotating star. However the periods found are not stable between datasets, at odds with the NRP hypothesis. Moreover, even when no redward trend is found in a full dataset of an observing campaign, it can be present in a subset, suggesting that the phenomenon is short-lived, of the order of a few days, and possibly linked to transient magnetic loops.
Massive stars often experience fast rotation, which is known to induce turbulent mixing with a strong impact on the evolution of these stars. Local direct numerical simulations of turbulent transport in stellar radiative zones are a promising way to constrain phenomenological transport models currently used in many stellar evolution codes. We present here the results of such simulations of stably-stratified sheared turbulence taking notably into account the effects of thermal diffusion and chemical stratification. We also discuss the impact of theses results on stellar evolution theory.
It is shown that the diagnostics from an observed circularly polarized line in a rapidly rotating star are directly interpretable, not in terms of the observed Stokes V profiles, but in terms of its antiderivative with respect to wavelength (in velocity units if preferred). This also leads to a new mean-field diagnostic that is just as easily obtained as the standard “center of gravity” approach, and is less susceptible to cancellation if the line-of-sight field changes sign over the face of the star.
The aim of this study is to analyse and determine elemental abundances for a large sample of distant B stars in the outer Galactic disk in order to constrain the chemical distribution of the Galactic disk and models of chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Here, we present preliminary results on a few stars along with the adopted methodology based on securing simultaneous O and Si ionization equilibria with consistent NLTE model atmospheres.