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As self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB) remain a pressing public health concern, research continues to focus on risk factors, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Network analysis provides a novel approach to examining the PTSD-SITB relationship. This study utilized the network approach to elucidate how individual PTSD symptoms may drive and maintain SITB.
We estimated cross-sectional networks in two samples of trauma-exposed adults (Sample 1: N = 349 adults; Sample 2: N = 1307 Veterans) to identify PTSD symptoms that may act as bridges to SITB. Additionally, we conducted a cross-lagged panel network in Sample 2 to further clarify the temporal relationship between PTSD symptoms and SITB during a 2-year follow-up. Finally, in both samples, we conducted logistic regressions to examine the utility of PTSD symptoms in prospectively predicting SITB, over a 15-day period (Sample 1) and over a 2-year period (Sample 2), allowing us to examine both short- and long-term prediction.
Two PTSD symptoms (i.e. negative beliefs and risky behaviors) emerged as highly influential on SITB in both cross-sectional networks. In the cross-lagged panel network, distorted blame emerged as highly influential on SITB over time. Finally, risky behaviors, unwanted memories, and psychological distress served as the strongest predictors of SITB across the two samples.
Overall, our results suggest that treatments targeting negative beliefs and risky behaviors may prevent SITB in community and Veteran populations, whereas treatments targeting distorted blame and unwanted memories may help reduce SITB for individuals with a history of combat trauma.
In a number of studies, it has been shown that subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show deficits in executive functioning, i.e. in cognitive functions that subserve planning, monitoring and control of goal-directed behaviour (Martinussen et al., 2005; Willcutt et al., 2005), as well as in emotion regulation (Berlin et al., 2004; Desman et al., 2006). However, no study exists so far examining the interaction between cognition and emotion regulation in subjects with ADHD. In our study, we aimed to examine to what extend arousing emotional picture stimuli may account for differential effects in performance quality in subjects with and without ADHD. Thirty-nine males and females with ADHD aged 18 to 40 years and 40 matched healthy controls performed a working memory n-back task (1-back, 2-back). The task was performed with and without neutral and negative background pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) which varied in arousal (low, medium, high). Irrespective of ADHD diagnosis, all subjects were slower and demonstrated lower performance accuracy in the 2-back condition compared with the 1-back condition, and all subjects deteriorated with increasing picture arousal. In comparison to healthy controls, subjects with ADHD displayed a deficit in working memory performance in terms of prolonged reaction times and decreased performance accuracy. Beyond this, we found that whereas healthy controls did not display performance deficits until they were presented with high-arousal background pictures, subjects with ADHD were already impaired when presented with medium-arousal background pictures. The implications of these and further findings will be discussed.
Fatty acids (FA) - mainly polyunsaturated of omega 3 or omega 6 typus- may influence a wide range of psychic processes. in major depression, deficiencies of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) have already been reported. Though the prevalence of depression in elderly persons ranges up to 18%, especially serum FA profiles of seniors have not yet been investigated.
The present study aims to compare FA profiles of geriatric patients with depression and without clinical manifestation of neurodegenerative disorders on the one hand, and of mentally healthy elderly controls on the other hand.
Serum FA compositions were determined in 37 mentally healthy individuals (13 men, 24 women; 68.08 ± 4.94 years old) and in 36 patients with geriatric depression (8 men, 28 women; 72.67 ± 6.48 years old). the Body-mass index (BMI) was calculated for all study participants. Geriatric depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria for unipolar major depression (HAM depression score of patients was 18.13 ± 6.56).
Geriatric depressive patients had lower total Fas (p < .01), mainly lower eicosapentaenoic acid (p < .01) but higher proportions of oleic acid (p < .01) in serum than control persons. BMI did not differ between both groups.
In geriatric depression besides a lowering of total FAs, a decrease of eicosapentaenoic acid (omega 3) and an excess of oleic acid (monounsaturated) were detected. in further studies should be investigated, if these shifts observed in FA composition could be a useful instrument in distinguishing between geriatric depression and brain degenerative diseases.
Modern baleen whales (Mysticeti), the largest animals on Earth, arose from small ancestors around 36.4 million years ago (Ma). True gigantism is thought to have arisen late in mysticete history, with species exceeding 10 m unknown prior to 8 Ma. This view is challenged by new fossils from Seymour Island (Isla Marambio), Antarctica, which suggest that enormous whales once roamed the Southern Ocean during the Late Eocene (c. 34 Ma). The new material hints at an unknown species of the archaic mysticete Llanocetus with a total body length of up to 12 m. The latter is comparable to that of extant Omura's whales (Balaenoptera omurai Wada et al. 2003), and suggests that gigantism has been a re-occurring feature of mysticetes since their very origin. Functional analysis including sharpness and dental wear implies an at least partly raptorial feeding strategy, starkly contrasting with the filtering habit of living whales. The new material markedly expands the size range of archaic mysticetes, and demonstrates that whales achieved considerable disparity shortly after their origin.
This paper reviews a purposive sample of 23 doctoral dissertations in second language (L2) education, completed between 2009 and 2013 and published in Germany. From amongst all (approx. 70) relevant dissertations from this period, the following three broad thematic strands can be identified, for which a selection of exemplary dissertations was chosen to review: (1) Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL); (2) learning and teaching about culture in the language classroom; and (3) language teacher education. Categorization of themes was guided by a bottom-up approach, clustering thematically (rather than methodologically) similar works. We identify relevant topics and link these with trends in research methodology (qualitative/quantitative/mixed-methods). We also discuss the depth and breadth of these dissertations and situate their scholarly contributions within German and international research on language education.
The histories of chronicles composed in England during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and onwards, with a focus on texts belonging to or engaging with the Prose Brut tradition, are thefocus of this volume. The contributors examine the composition, dissemination and reception of historical texts written in Anglo-Norman, Latin and English, including the Prose Brut chronicle (c. 1300 and later), Castleford's Chronicle (c. 1327), and Nicholas Trevet's Les Cronicles (c. 1334), looking at questions of the processes of writing, rewriting, printing and editing history. They cross traditional boundaries of subject and period, taking multi-disciplinary approaches to their studies in order to underscore the (shifting) historical, social and political contexts inwhich medieval English chronicles were used and read from the fourteenth century through to the present day. As such, the volume honours the pioneering work of the late Professor Lister M. Matheson, whose research in this area demonstrated that a full understanding of medieval historical literature demands attention to both the content of the works in question and to the material circumstances of producing those works.
Jaclyn Rajsic is a Lecturer in Medieval Literature in the School of English and Drama at Queen Mary University of London; Erik Kooper taught Old and Middle English at Utrecht University; until his retirement in 2007; Dominique Hoche is an Associate Professor at West Liberty University in West Virginia.
Contributors: Elizabeth J. Bryan, Caroline D. Eckhardt, A.S.G. Edwards, Dan Embree, Alexander L. Kaufman, Edward Donald Kennedy, Erik Kooper, Julia Marvin, William Marx, Krista A. Murchison, Heather Pagan, Jaclyn Rajsic, Christine M. Rose, NeilWeijer
The terminal lake systems of central Australia are key sites for the reconstruction of late Quaternary paleoenvironments. Paleoshoreline deposits around these lakes reflect repeated lake filling episodes and such landforms have enabled the establishment of a luminescence-based chronology for filling events in previous studies. Here we present a detailed documentation of the morphology and chemistry of soils developed in four well-preserved beach ridges of late Pleistocene and mid-to-late Holocene age at Lake Callabonna to assess changes in dominant pedogenic processes. All soil profiles contain evidence for the incorporation of eolian-derived material, likely via the formation of desert pavements and vesicular horizons, and limited illuviation due to generally shallow wetting fronts. Even though soil properties in the four studied profiles also provide examples of parent material influence or site-specific processes related to the geomorphic setting, there is an overall trend of increasing enrichment of eolian-derived material since at least ~ 33 ka. Compared to the Holocene profiles, the derived average accumulation rates for the late Pleistocene profiles are significantly lower and may suggest that soils record important regional changes in paleoenvironments and dust dynamics related to shifts in the Southern Hemisphere westerlies.