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The internal dynamics of multiple stellar populations in Globular Clusters (GCs) provides unique constraints on the physical processes responsible for their formation. Specifically, the present-day kinematics of cluster stars, such as rotation and velocity dispersion, seems to be related to the initial configuration of the system. In recent work (Milone et al. 2018), we analyzed for the first time the kinematics of the different stellar populations in NGC 0104 (47 Tucanae) over a large field of view, exploiting the Gaia Data Release 2 proper motions combined with multi-band ground-based photometry. In this paper, based on the work by Cordoni et al. (2019), we extend this analysis to six GCs, namely NGC 0288, NGC 5904 (M 5), NGC 6121 (M 4), NGC 6752, NGC 6838 (M 71) and further explore NGC 0104. Among the analyzed clusters only NGC 0104 and NGC 5904 show significant rotation on the plane of the sky. Interestingly, multiple stellar populations in NGC 5904 exhibit different rotation curves.
We report the fatty acid profile of raw milk and of the corresponding digested milk from different sources (human milk, formula milk and donkey, bovine, ovine and caprine milk) to gain information on the nutritional quality of different milk sources in infant nutrition.
Short chain fatty acids (SC-FA) were higher in bovine and caprine milk, intermediate in ovine and donkey and lower in human and formula milk. Medium chain fatty acids (MC-FA) showed the highest values for bovine and caprine milk and the lowest for donkey and formula milk, whereas long chain fatty acids (LC-FA) were the highest in donkey and formula milk and intermediate in human milk.
The percentage distribution of fatty acids liberated after in vitro digestion did not reflect the patterns found in the corresponding milk sources. In particular, MC free fatty acids (MC-FFA) showed the highest and the lowest values in donkey and in formula milk, LC-FFA showed the highest value in human milk. The total FFA was highest in human milk, lowest in formula milk and intermediate in donkey, bovine, ovine, and caprine milk.
In May 2016 a Norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis outbreak involved a high school class visiting a seaside resort near Taormina (Mascali, Sicily). Twenty-four students and a teacher were affected and 17 of them showed symptoms on the second day of the journey, while the others got ill within the following 2 days. Symptoms included vomiting, diarrhoea and fever, and 12 students required hospitalisation. Stool samples tested positive for NoV genome by Real-Time polymerase chain reaction assay in all 25 symptomatic subjects. The GII.P2/GII.2 NoV genotype was linked to the outbreak by ORF1/ORF2 sequence analysis. The epidemiological features of the outbreak were consistent with food/waterborne followed by person-to-person and/or vomit transmission. Food consumed at a shared lunch on the first day of the trip was associated to illness and drinking un-bottled tap water was also considered as a risk factor. The analysis of water samples revealed the presence of bacterial indicators of faecal contamination in the water used in the resort as well as in other areas of the municipal water network, linking the NoV gastroenteritis outbreak to tap water pollution from sewage leakage. From a single water sample, an amplicon whose sequence corresponded to the capsid genotype recovered from patients could be obtained.
Observations of five cepheids in Crux are described and annual epochs of maxima presented. The O–C diagram of S Crucis shows changes between two alternative periods. The observing method appears suited to sites with only a limited number of hours available.
Lower semi-continuity results for polyconvex functionals of the calculus of variations along sequences of maps u: Ω ⊂ ℝn → ℝm in W1,m, 2 ⩽ m⩽ n, weakly converging in W1,m-1, are established. In addition, for m = n + 1, we also consider the autonomous case for weakly converging maps in W1,n-1.
A contact investigation following a case of infectious tuberculosis (TB) reported in a call centre in Milan (Italy) led to the identification of three additional cases that had occurred in employees of the same workplace during the previous 5 years, one of whom was the probable source case. Thirty-three latent infections were also identified. At the time of diagnosis, the source case, because of fear of stigma related to TB, claimed to be unemployed and a contact investigation was not performed in the workplace. Cases were linked through genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB stigma has been described frequently, mainly in high-incidence settings, and is known to influence health-seeking behaviours and treatment adherence. The findings in this report highlight that TB-associated stigma may also lead to incomplete contact investigations. Little is known about the causes and impact of TB-related stigma in low-incidence countries and this warrants further exploration. Research is also needed to evaluate the effectiveness of specific interviewing techniques and training interventions for staff in reducing feelings of stigma in TB patients. Finally, the outbreak emphasizes the importance of integrating routine contact investigations with genotyping.
Thoraco-abdominal fusion of twins is a rare malformation (1/50.000 live births) known as “Thoracopagus sternopagus tetrabrachius”. Most of the therapeutic problems encountered concern the degree of cardiac and hepatic fusion involved and this may be assessed by performing echocardiography, angio-TC and angiocardiography together with the conventional radiology techniques.
Case report. Two month-old ‘conjoined twins’ (Alphonsine Al, and Stephany St) with thoraco-abdominal fusion were admitted to our hospital. Gastrointestinal tract contrastography failed to show any comunication between the twins. Echocardiography showed cardiac fusion at atrial and ventricular level. Al showed a well-formed heart with a small atrial septal defect and mild aortic stenosis, while St showed a common atrium, fused with the left atrium of Al, connected by a common atrioventricular valve with a discordant single ventricle of left type (ventricular L-loop). No evidence of pulmonary trunk was found. Computed tomography and angio-TC confirmed cardiac and hepatic fusion showing a common arterial hepatic circulation. Cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography of Al confirmed a mild aortic stenosis and showed a severe aortic coarctation with the lower part of the body served by artero-arterial anastomoses of St, whose ventriculography showed pulmonary atresia and pulmonary hypovascularity. Arterial oxygenation of both circulations was provided by Al via atrial and ventricular fusion, while peripheral perfusion was mainly due to the systemic circulation of St. In conclusion, echocardiography, angio-TC, and angiography integrate the conventional radiographic techniques and are useful diagnostic tools to clarify the anatomy and/or physiology of thoracopagus twins, and to evaluate the feasibility of their surgical separation.
Functional hemodynamic response was studied in a new Verbal Fluency Task (VFT) that demanded the production of geographical words while fMRI data was obtained. Participants completed 7 trials with a total duration of 2 min. 20 s. Four simple arithmetic subtraction trials were alternated with 3 geographical naming trials. Each trial had a duration of 20 s. Brain activity was contrasted between both conditions and significant differences (p < .05, Family Wise Error correction) were observed in the prefrontal medial gyrus, typically associated with word retrieval and phonological awareness, and in the parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex and lingual gyrus, areas related to spatial cognition. These results indicate that geographic VFT could be incorporated into a browser of cognitive processes using VFT considering its specific relationship with spatial cognition. Further investigations are proposed, taking special interest in the gender variable and eliminating phonological restrictions, because the evoked Argentinean cities and towns ended in a consonant letter.
Photometry of the short-period (P ∼0.285 d) low-mass (M1 ∼0.67, M2 ∼0.48 M⊙) W UMa-type eclipsing binary RW Dor, mainly involving a good series of observations in 1987–88, using standard B and V filters at the Auckland Observatory, is examined. Analysis via light curve fittings alone permits both transit (near main sequence) and occultation (W-type contact binary) solutions. Consideration of proximity or other effects on the relatively small number of measured radial velocities gives rise to a more detailed review of the alternatives, though the (W-type) configuration determined by Hilditch, Hill & Bell (1992) is still confirmed. Further implications of this configuration are examined, given an apparent general trend to period decrease (Δ P/P ∼6 × 10−11), and some light curve asymmetry. This is consistent with the initially low-mass companion, Case-B scenario of Budding (1984). The evidence does suggest irregularity of the period variation however, and further detailed surveillance, including more spectroscopy, is desirable.
The stellar system ω Centauri (ω Cen) is well known for the large range in elemental abundances among its member stars. Recent work has indicated that the globular cluster M22 (NGC 6656) also possesses an internal abundance range, albeit substantially smallerthan that in ω Cen. Here we compare, as a function of [Fe/H], element-to-iron ratios in the two systems for a number of different elements using data from abundance analyses of red giant branch stars. It appears that the nucleosynthetic enrichment processes were very similar in these two systems despite the substantial difference in total mass.
This study was undertaken to assess the effect of milk replacer (MR) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and a mix of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum on lamb immune response and on lamb meat quality. A 6-week-trial was conducted on 40 male Comisana lambs, divided into four groups, fed maternal milk (MM), MR, MR with L. acidophilus supplementation (MRL) and MR with a mix (1 : 1) of B. animalis subsp. lactis and B. longum subsp. longum supplementations (MRB). Lambs fed MR containing a mix of bifidobacteria showed the highest in vivo cellular immune response to phytohemagglutinin, whereas MM and MRB showed the highest antibody response to ovalbumin. At day 11 of the trial, MRL displayed the highest value of Interleukin-10; differences disappeared among groups subsequently. Blood cholesterol levels in lambs fed MR containing L. acidophilus was almost halved compared with that found in MM and MR groups. Meat from artificially reared lambs was characterized by trans-11 18:1 and total conjugated 18:2n-6, whereas meat from the dam-suckled lambs was characterized by 14:0, cis-9 14:1 and 16:0. Polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio was higher in meat of MR, MRL and MRB than in MM lambs. Meat from artificially reared lamb fed MR containing probiotics showed an improved fatty acid profile for human diet.
We derive abundances of Fe, Na, O, α and s-elements from GIRAFFE@VLT spectra for more than 200 red giant stars in the Milky Way satellite ω Centauri. Our preliminary results are that: (i) we confirm that ω Centauri exhibits large star-to-star metallicity variation (~1.4 dex); (ii) the metallicity distribution reveals the presence of at least five stellar populations with different [Fe/H]; (iii) a distinct Na-O anticorrelation is clearly observed for the metal-poor and metal-intermediate stellar populations while apparently the anticorrelation disappears for the most metal rich populations. Interestingly the Na level grows with iron.
We present an abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra of red-giant-branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular clusters NGC 6121 (M4) and NGC 6656 (M22). Our aim was to study their stellar population in the context of the multipopulation phenomenon recently discovered to affect some globular clusters. Analysis was performed for the following elements: O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Fe, Y, and Ba. Spectroscopic data were completed by high-precision wide-field U BV IC ground-based photometry and HST/ACS observations. For M4, we find a well-defined Na–O anticorrelation composed of two distinct groups of stars with significantly different Na and O content. The two groups of Na-rich and Na-poor stars populate two different regions along the RGB. As regards M22, Na and O follow the well-known anticorrelation found in many other GCs. However, at odds with M4, it appears to be continuous without any hint of clumpiness. On the other hand, we identified two clearly separated groups of stars with significantly different abundances of the s-process elements Y, Zr and Ba. The relative numbers of the members of both groups are very similar to the ratio of the stars in the two subgiant branches of M22 recently found by Piotto (2009). The s-element-rich stars are also richer in iron and have higher Ca abundances. This makes M22 the second cluster after ω Centauri where an intrinsic spread in Fe was found. Both spectroscopic and photometric results imply the presence of two stellar populations in M4 and M22, even if both clusters have completely different characteristics.
We present UV data of a small sample of shell galaxies. For the majority of them (namely, NGC 2865 and NGC 7135), the NUV matches the optical emission, while the FUV is present in the innermost regions alone.
Background and objective: Acute renal failure is a serious complication of cardiac surgery. We studied the long-term survival and quality of life of patients requiring renal replacement therapy after cardiac surgery, since they represent a heavy burden on hospital resources and their outcome has never been adequately evaluated. Methods: Out of 7846 consecutive cardiac surgical patients, 126 (1.6%) required postoperative renal replacement therapy: their preoperative status and hospital course was compared with patients who had no need of postoperative renal replacement therapy. A multivariate analysis identified predictors of renal replacement therapy. Long-term survival and quality of life was collected in patients who had renal replacement therapy and in case-matched controls. Results: Hospital mortality in the study group was 84/126 (66.7%) vs. 118/7720 (1.5%) in the control population (P < 0.001). Patients who underwent renal replacement therapy and were discharged from the hospital (42 patients) had a reasonable long-term outcome: at 42 ± 23 months, 30 out of 42 patients were alive, with only 3 patients complaining of limitations in daily activities. Predictors of in-hospital renal replacement therapy were: emergency surgery, preoperative renal impairment, intra-aortic balloon pumping, reoperation for bleeding, previous cardiac surgery, female gender, low ejection fraction, bleeding >1000 mL, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and age. Conclusions: This study confirms that the in-hospital mortality of patients requiring renal replacement therapy is high and shows a low long-term mortality with reasonable quality of life in patients discharged from hospital alive.