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In this research communication we address the hypothesis that a single intramammary infusion of casein hydrolyzate (CH) would have a similar effect to three intramammary infusions of CH for drying-off quarters with chronic mastitis (CM) during lactation. Sixty cows with CM were selected and randomly distributed into two treatment groups: (a) three intramammary CH infusions (100 mg, 50 ml per infusion, with 24-h intervals) or (b) single intramammary CH infusion (300 mg, 50 ml). Milk samples from the treated and untreated quarters were collected for microbiological culture and somatic cell count (SCC) before and after CH infusions. Milk yield was recorded and a manual pressure index measurement was used to evaluate cessation of lactation. Of the 60 quarters selected, 43 (71.67%) had positive microbiological culture. The quarters treated with three intramammary CH infusions had higher udder pressure index than those treated with single CH infusion. However, the average milk yield and composite SCC of three functional quarters were not different among treatments. Therefore, a single infusion of CH has the potential to be used as an alternative method for drying-off mammary quarters with CM during lactation.
Maternal nutrition is critical in mammalian development, influencing the epigenetic reprogramming of gametes, embryos, and fetal programming. We evaluated the effects of different levels of sulfur (S) and cobalt (Co) in the maternal diet throughout the pre- and periconceptional periods on the biochemical and reproductive parameters of the donors and the DNA methylome of the progeny in Bos indicus cattle. The low-S/Co group differed from the control with respect to homocysteine, folic acid, B12, insulin growth factor 1, and glucose. The oocyte yield was lower in heifers from the low S/Co group than that in the control heifers. Embryos from the low-S/Co group exhibited 2320 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) across the genome compared with the control embryos. We also characterized candidate DMRs linked to the DNMT1 and DNMT3B genes in the blood and sperm cells of the adult progeny. A DMR located in DNMT1 that was identified in embryos remained differentially methylated in the sperm of the progeny from the low-S/Co group. Therefore, we associated changes in specific compounds in the maternal diet with DNA methylation modifications in the progeny. Our results help to elucidate the impact of maternal nutrition on epigenetic reprogramming in livestock, opening new avenues of research to study the effect of disturbed epigenetic patterns in early life on health and fertility in adulthood. Considering that cattle are physiologically similar to humans with respect to gestational length, our study may serve as a model for studies related to the developmental origin of health and disease in humans.
Force feedback is often beneficial for robotic teleoperation, as it enhances the user’s remote perception. Over the years, many kinesthetic haptic displays (KHDs) have been proposed for this purpose, which have different types of interaction and feedback, depending on their kinematics and their interface with the operator, including, for example, grounded and wearable devices acting either at the joint or operational space (OS) level. Most KHDs in the literature are for the upper limb, with a majority acting at the shoulder/elbow level, and others focusing on hand movements. A minority exists which addresses wrist motions. In this paper, we present the Wearable Delta (W$ \Delta $), a proof-of-concept wearable wrist interface with hybrid parallel–serial kinematics acting in the OS, able to render a desired force directly to the hand involving just the forearm–hand subsystem. It has six degrees of freedom (DoFs), three of which are actuated, and is designed to reduce the obstruction of the range of the user’s wrist. Integrated with positions/inertial sensors at the elbow and upper arm, the W$ \Delta $ allows the remote control of a full articulated robotic arm. The paper covers the whole designing process, from the concept to the validation, as well as a multisubject experimental campaign that investigates its usability. Finally, it presents a section that, starting from the experimental results, aims to discuss and summarize the W$ \Delta $ advantages and limitations and look for possible future improvements and research directions.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in China. However, early identification of patients with COPD in the community is challenging. This study used a real-world survey of the Chinese urban adult population to estimate the prevalence of COPD diagnosis or COPD-risk, examine the health outcomes and healthcare resource use of these groups, and investigate the sociodemographic factors associated with these statuses.
Respondents to the 2017 National Health and Wellness Survey in China (n = 19,994) were classified into: COPD (diagnosed), COPD-risk (undiagnosed), and control (undiagnosed, not at-risk) using their self-reported diagnosis and Lung Function Questionnaire (LFQ) score. These groups were compared by healthcare resource use and health outcomes (EuroQol [EQ-5D] and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaires). Factors associated with being in these groups were investigated using pairwise comparisons (t-tests and chi-square tests) and multivariable logistic regression.
In total, 3,320 respondents (16.6%) had a suspected risk of COPD but did not report receiving a diagnosis. This was projected to 105.3 million people (16.9% of urban adults). Relative to the controls, COPD-risk and COPD-diagnosed respondents had higher healthcare resource use, lower productivity, and lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (p < 0.05). Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, weight, exercise, comorbidities, gender, education, employment, and air pollution were associated with increased odds of COPD-risk relative to the controls (p < 0.05).
A substantial group of individuals, undiagnosed, but with a risk of COPD, have impaired HRQoL, lower productivity, and elevated healthcare resource use. A range of sociodemographic factors are predictive of COPD risk, which may support targeted screening. Case-detection tools such as the LFQ may offer a convenient approach for identifying individuals for further definitive testing and appropriate treatment in China.
Environmental factors, size-related isotopic changes of the most abundant species and isotopic niche overlap were investigated using stable isotopes in order to evaluate spatial changes of fish trophic guilds in the Araruama Lagoon. Based on 440 muscle samples, 17 fish species were grouped into five trophic guilds. Mean salinity was above 40 at both sites sampled and a significant spatial difference was observed. The highest δ13C mean value was observed for an omnivorous species, whereas the lowest carbon signatures were found for the three fish species belonging to the planktivorous guild. Analysis of the carbon signature of fish species in lower trophic levels showed influence of salinity variation, whilst size appeared to play a role for others. A narrow δ15N difference was observed, but the piscivorous fish species showed the highest δ15N values. The Standard Ellipses Analysis (SEA) detected spatial differences and varying degrees of isotopic niche overlap among trophic guilds, but the percentages of most overlaps (<60%) suggest that, to some extent, the guilds had a unique isotopic niche space. These results are in agreement with data previously reported for the Araruama Lagoon, that found the same prey items with varying relative importance among the most abundant species. Further studies are necessary to understand how the interaction between salinity and other factors, such as migration patterns, changes in prey availability, changes in contribution of primary sources and changes in baseline isotopic signatures could affect the stable isotope signatures shown here.
Sarcopenic obesity is characterised by the double burden of diminished skeletal muscle mass and the presence of excess adiposity. From a mechanistic perspective, both obesity and sarcopenia are associated with sub-acute, chronic pro-inflammatory states that impede metabolic processes, disrupting adipose and skeletal functionality, which may potentiate disease. Recent evidence suggests that there is an important cross-talk between metabolism and inflammation, which has shifted focus upon metabolic-inflammation as a key emerging biological interaction. Dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status are important environmental factors that may modulate metabolic-inflammation. This paradigm will be discussed within the context of sarcopenic obesity risk. There is a paucity of data in relation to the nature and the extent to which nutritional status affects metabolic-inflammation in sarcopenic obesity. Research suggests that there may be scope for the modulation of sarcopenic obesity with alterations in diet. The potential impact of increasing protein consumption and reconfiguration of dietary fat composition in human dietary interventions are evaluated. This review will explore emerging data with respect to if and how different dietary components may modulate metabolic-inflammation, particularly with respect to adiposity, within the context of sarcopenic obesity.
In the American continent, the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (F.) is the main pest in sugarcane producing areas. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of crop residue management on damage by D. saccharalis, its egg parasitoids and the ants associated with sugarcane. The study was carried out during 2011–2012, 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 crop cycles, in three commercial fields located in different regions of Tucumán state, Argentina. Two types of crop residue management (= treatments) were compared: conservation of trash at the soil surface (CT) and trash burning (TB). In ‘trash conservation’ treatment, crop residue was allowed to remain over the soil surface during the whole sugarcane growing season, while the second treatment consisted of complete burning of trash blanket approximately 2 weeks after harvest. The injury level was measured by recording the number of stalks bored and internodes bored. Parasitism was estimated by counting the total number of eggs and number of black eggs (which indicates the occurrence of egg parasitoids). Ants (Formicidae) richness was calculated by two estimators; abundance-based coverage estimator and incidence-based coverage estimator, using the non-parametric richness estimators: Chao 2 and Jackknife. Finally, the indicator value was estimated through the measurement of specificity and fidelity. In all the parameters studied no significant difference was found between TB and CT treatments.
Since clinical practice suggests that panic disorder may not be a homogeneous condition, a study was carried out to test the possible existence of different groups or subgroups of panic patients.
Subjects and methods
Thirty-two panic patients (DSM-III-R) underwent lactate challenge in our laboratory and were assessed for heart rate, blood pressure, sweating and Acute Panic Inventory.
During the lactate challenge, patients complaining mainly of ‘cardiorespiratory’ symptoms (N = 12) showed tachycardia and localized sweating. Conversely, patients complaining mainly of ‘pseudoneurological’ symptoms (N = 16) showed bradycardia and generalized sweating. In both groups, Acute Panic Inventory scores were significantly higher during than before the panic attack, but the distribution of the scores was markedly different.
Discussion and Conclusion
The results suggest that panic disorder may be a heterogeneous condition. Implications of these results to other phobic disorders, to Klein’s false suffocation alarm theory and to the ‘extended amygdala model’ are discussed.
To assess weight gain in adolescents treated with antipsychotic drugs for early onset schizophrenia (EOS).
One-year follow-up of 13 consecutive adolescents (10 male, 3 females, age range: 11-16) treated with atypical antipsychotics for early onset schizophrenia (according to DSM-IV criterias). The main outcome measure is sex- and age-adjusted Z scores of Body Mass Index (BMI).
BMI, sex- and age-adjusted BMI percentiles and BMI Z scores are significantly increased in schizophrenic adolescents after prescription of atypical antipsychotics (p= 0.025).
Despite the limited number of children included, this pilot study confirms a significant link between prescription of risperidone in early onset schizophrenia and increase of adjusted BMIZ scores. Clinicians and caregivers are to be aware of potential metabolic adverse effects of these medications. These findings suggest a regular health monitoring in adolescents treated with atypical antipsychotics, before and along the prescription.
Psychedelic drugs were used extensively in psychotherapy in the 1950s to lower psychological defences and facilitate emotional insight. Thousands of research participants were administered hallucinogens in the context of basic clinical research or therapeutic clinical research, resulting in hundreds of publications. Results across studies were ultimately inconclusive due to such variations in methods and a lack of modern controls and experimental rigour. The growing controversy and sensationalism resulted in increasing restrictions on access to hallucinogens throughout the 1960s (ultimately resulting in the placement of the most popular hallucinogens into Schedule I of the 1970 Controlled Substances Act in the United States).
Renewed human administration research began in the 1990s. Recent clinical studies have administered hallucinogens to evaluate their safety and efficacy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: specifically, anxiety related to advanced-stage cancer (Grob, 2005), obsessive-compulsive disorder (Moreno, et al., 2006), heroin dependence (Krupitsky, et al., 2007), personal meaning and spiritual significance (Griffiths, et al., 2008), and a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of LSD for alcoholism (Krebs,et al., 2012).
Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy utilizes the acute psychological effects of psychedelic drugs to enhance the normal mechanisms of psychotherapy. The effects of psychedelic psychotherapy are often very pronounced within several days or weeks after a treatment session, but then these effects quickly decline. This phenomenon was termed a “psychedelic afterglow”.
Fhurther research, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, methodology should explore the efficacy of hallucinogens.
S100B is a calcium-binding protein produced by the astrocytes that has been used as a biomarker of brain inflammation. S100B has been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology, being considered a marker of state and prognosis.
Studying the relationship between serum S100B levels and psychopathology in first-episode psychosis (FEP).
At admission and discharge, serum S100B levels were measured in 20 never-medicated FEP in-patients and 20 healthy controls. Psychopathology was assessed with the PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale). The total, positive, negative and general psychopathology scores were assessed. Results are presented as mean±sd. and S100B levels in pg./ml.
At admission, patients had significantly higher serum S100B concentrations than healthy subjects (39.2±6.4 vs. 33.3±0.98, p<0.02). S100B levels increased from admission to discharge (39.2±6.4 vs. 40.0±6.8, p=0.285) but they do not reach statistical significance. There were no correlations between PANSS (total, positive, negative and general) scores and S100B at admission and discharge. Individual item by item PANSS correlations with S100B elicited a positive correlation with P5 (grandiosity) (r=0.486, p=0.030) and G5 (mannerisms/posturing) (r=0.514; p=0.02) at discharge. There also was a positive trend with G7 (motor retardation) (r=0.409; p=0.073) at discharge.
FEP in-patients have significantly increased serum levels of S100B proteins, suggesting an activation of glial cells that may be associated with a neurodegenerative/inflammatory process. Apart from the study of total scale scores, the analysis of individual item is also recommended. The long-term treatment effect (one year or more) may be relevant to see their relationship to S100B levels.
Bipolar patients are at higher risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than their counterparts in the general population. In a recent in vitro study, Asenapine, a new antipsychotic for the treatment of mania/mixed mania, was found to keep physiological endothelial function by activation of eNOS-related NO release and to protect endothelial cells against peroxidation by interference with mitochondria, apoptosis and cell survival.
To examine the cardiac protective effects elicited by Asenapine against peroxidation and on the Ca2+ movements.
In HL-1 that had undergone oxidative stress by 20 min hydrogen peroxide the effects of 30 min pre-treatment with Asenapine on survival and proliferation will be examined. In Fura-2AM loaded HL-1 we will next analyze the effects of Asenapine on Ca2+ movements and the related involvement of cAMP/PKA and PLC pathways, CaMKII, L and T type Ca2+ channels and 5HT1A receptors. The role of ‘capacitative” Ca2+ entry, plasma-membrane Ca2+ pump inhibitor (PMCA) and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger will be analyzed. Changes of membrane potential caused by interference with K+ channels will be examined, as well.
We expect to find a proliferative and anti-peroxidative effect of Asenapine in HL-1 cells. Asenapine could also affect Ca2+ movements through cAMP/PKA and PLC-dependent signalling and the involvement of 5HT1A receptors. The effects of Asenapine could also be related to changes of plasma membrane by interference with K+ channels and the modulation of PMCA activity and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger.
We expect to further confirm the protective effect of Asenapine against peroxidative injuries. Implications will be discussed
Although asthma has been one of the most investigated topics in psychosomatics, studies and papers on psychopathology in asthma are fairly scarce and of diverse meaning. Furthermore, psychopathology acoording to sex in asthma is not a common research topic.
Aim This study aims at analyzing psychopathology sex differences in asthmatics.
The psychopathology profile in a sample of 84 adult asthmatics in a hospital outpatient facility, mean age 34.62 (s.d.12.78), 36 male / 48 female, is studied. The Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) Self-Report Questionnaire was administered.
The symptomatic profile is characterized by higher scores in women, with a main elevation in the dimensions of Somatization (1.92), Depression (1.66), Obsession-Compulsion (1.62) and Anxiety (1.44) whereas lower scores are recorded in men, with a profile dominated by Hostility (1.70), Anxiety (1.68), Interpersonal Sensitivity (1.58) and Depression (1.44). These scores mainly contribute to the psychopathology pattern according to sex.
The possible clinical implications of the observed psychopathology sex differences should be taken into account in the management of these patients.
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a genetic inherited disease characterized by hamartomatous growths in several organs as brain, skin, kidneys, hearth and eyes. The estimated incidence is approximately 1:6000 live births. The diagnosis is made clinically. Seizures are present in 87% of patients. Psychiatric comorbidity has been reported.
We report the clinical course of two patients with previous diagnosis of TSC. Psychiatric symptoms start in the adulthood without seizures history and absence of Subependimal Giant Cells Tumor (SGCT). The evolution and clinical features are described.
Married 33-years-old woman with two children affected with TSC. She was diagnosed after headache presentation in 2011. Initial MRI showed periventricular glioneuronal hamartomas. In January 2013 start with self-injurious (swallowing of objects) and autistic behaviours as well as several hospital urgency room visits. In addition, the patient presented with dull mood, emotional indifference and intellectual impairment, with no response to medication.
Married 43-years-old woman with a daughter affected with TSC. Diagnosis was made in 1999 and psychotic symptoms (delusional beliefs and auditory hallucinations) started in 2011 without previous psychiatric history. The MRI in 2013 shown subependymal nodules. Treatment with risperidone was effective.
Psychiatric symptoms are very often associated to the physical findings on TSC, even in adulthood diagnoses.
Psychiatric comorbidities are well described in literature. about 10-20% adult patients with TSC present clinically significant behavioral problems as self-injuries, frequently associated with SGCT. The European Expert Panel recommended regular assessment of cognitive development and behaviour and symptomatic treatment.
Resilience is commonly defined as positive adaptation to adverse events or as the ability to maintain or regain mental health after exposure to difficulties. According to the bio-psycho-social model, resilience is influenced by self-esteem, coping strategies and personality traits. In schizophrenic patients, resilience seems to affect real-life functioning, while in mood disorders, resilience influences the longitudinal course of the disorder, reducing the frequency of relapses and improving drugs response.
The aim of this study is to asses levels of resilience and self-esteem, coping strategies, perceived quality of life and temperament characteristics in a sample composed by patients with major depressive disorder and patients affected by schizophrenia.
We collected a sample composed by 40 patients with major depressive disorder and 40 patients affected by schizophrenia patients recruited at the “Maggiore della Carità” Hospital in Novara, Italy. The assessment protocol included: Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory–Brief (BRIEF–COPE), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), Paykel List Of Stressful Events, Temperamental and Character Inventory (TCI) and Short form 36 (SF-36). Comparison of qualitative data was performed by means of the χ2, a t-test was performed for continuous normal-distribution variables otherwise a non-parametric Mann–Whitney test was performed. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05.
In patients with major depressive disorder resilience were associated with a good self-perception of physical and mental health, higher self-esteem levels and problem-focused/emotion focused coping strategies. In schizophrenic patients, sample there was no positive correlation between resilience and perceived quality of life. Further implications will be discussed.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Several studies show that the first period after discharge has an higher suicide risk.
Following up psychiatric inpatients after discharge may be important in order to better understand the risk and the protective factors of suicide.
The aim of our follow-up study is to evaluate the predictive factors of suicide in a sample of psychiatric inpatients after discharge.
We analyzed the temperament and the levels of hopelessness, depression, suicide risk in a sample of 87 (54% males) inpatients at time T0 (during the hospitalization), T1 (12 months after discharge) and T2 (8 months after T1). We administered the following scales: BHS, MINI, TEMPS, GMDS, CGI.
A statistically significant difference on the risk of suicide with substance abuse was found among patients who were followed up and who refused to participate, respectively at T1 (χ24 = 2.61; P < 0.05) and T2 (χ24 = 1.57; P = 0.05). At T1, 4 patients attempted suicide and 18 showed suicidal ideation. In the second follow-up, 1 patient successful committed suicide, 1 subject attempted suicide and 10 patients showed suicidal ideation. Patients with suicidal ideation at T1 showed higher levels of hopelessness and a diagnosis of bipolar disorder type I (χ24 = 10.28; P = 0.05). Sixty-seven percent of subjects with suicidal ideation showed higher scores in the BHS at T1. Significant differences were found on the anxious temperament at T2 between two groups.
The follow-up could represent a significant strategy to prevent suicide in psychiatric patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The role of mental illness in the pathway leading to suicide is widely discussed in the literature. Nonetheless, the debate about this issue is open, both from a clinical and philosophical point of view.
The purpose of the present study was to compare suicide attempters with and without a history of psychiatric disorder, in order to highlight the possible differences between the two groups, with a specific focus on intent to die and methods of the attempt.
Data from all ER referrals undergoing a psychiatric consultation in the period 2008–2015 at the Maggiore della Carità Hospital, Novara, Italy, were gathered. Comparison of qualitative data was performed by means of the Chi2 test. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05.
We have already gathered data from more than 2000 ER psychiatric consultations, including 495 suicide attempters. Preliminary results suggest that these kinds of behaviours are more common in subjects without psychiatric disorders but with clinical history of previous contact with mental health services and in psychopharmacological therapy. Reasons for self-harming are associated with relational problems rather than psychiatric symptoms. Among Axis II diagnoses, almost half of cases are affected by histrionic personality disorder.
The results described above should be considered as preliminary, as data collection and statistical analyses are still ongoing. Anyway, the observed correlation between previous contact with mental health services, socio-relational issues and suicide attempt, and the significant frequency of attempts in histrionic personality disorders seem to be particularly interesting. Implications will be discussed.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In this work, we study the optical properties of 58 CSS/GPS radio sources selected from the literature in order to determine the impact of the radio-jet in the circumnuclear environment of these objects. We obtained optical spectra for all sources from SDSS-DR12 and performed a stellar population synthesis using the Starlight code. Our results indicate that the sample is dominated by intermediate to old stellar populations and there is no strong correlation between optical and radio properties of these sources.
The stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) and total mercury concentrations (THg) of the three marine catfish species Aspistor luniscutis, Bagre bagre and Genidens genidens were evaluated to understand their trophic relationship in northern Rio de Janeiro state, south-eastern Brazil. The δ13C was similar among the three marine catfishes, whereas δ15N was similar in A. luniscutis and B. bagre and lower in G. genidens. THg was higher in G. genidens and lower in B. bagre. The greater assimilation of Sciaenidae fishes and squids by A. luniscutis and B. bagre resulted in smaller isotopic niche areas and trophic diversity but higher isotopic niche overlap, trophic redundancy and evenness. For G. genidens, the similar assimilation of all prey items resulted in the broadest isotopic niche among the marine catfishes. The higher mercury content in G. genidens is consistent with an increased important contribution of prey with a higher Hg burden. The bioaccumulation process was indicated by significant correlations of δ15N and THg with total length and total mass. Additionally, a significant correlation between THg and δ15N reflected the biomagnification process through the food web.