We investigated the atomic transport properties and electrical activation of boron in crystalline epitaxial silicon after ultra-low energy ion implantation (0.25–1 keV) and rapid thermal annealing (750–1100 °C). A wide range of implant doses was investigated (3×1012-1×105/cm2). A fast Transient Enhanced Diffusion (TED) pulse is observed involving the tail of the implanted Boron, the profile displacement being dependent on the implant dose. The excess of interstitials able to promote enhanced diffusion of implanted boron occurs, provided the implant dose is high enough to generate a significant total number of point defects. The Boron diffusion following the fast initial TED pulse can be described by the equilibrium diffusion equations.
The electrical activation of ultra-shallow implants is hard to achieve, due to the high concentration of dopant and point defects confined in a very shallow layer that significantly contributes to the formation of clusters and complex defects. Provided a correct combination of annealing temperatures and times for these ultra-shallow implants is chosen, however, a sheet resistance 500 Δ/square with a junction depth below 0.1μm can be obtained, which has a noteworthy technological relevance for the future generations of semiconductor devices.