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We use numerical simulations from the Community Coordinated Modeling Center to provide, for the first time, a coherent temporal description of the magnetic reconnection process of two dayside Electron Diffusion Regions (EDRs) identified in Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission data. The model places the MMS spacecraft near the separator line in these most intense and long-lived events. A listing of 31 dayside EDRs identified by the authors is provided to encourage collaboration in analysis of these unique encounters.
The objective of this study was to determine whether altered maternal energy supply during mid-gestation results in differences in muscle histology or genes regulating fetal adipose and muscle development. In total, 22 Angus cross-bred heifers (BW=527.73±8.3 kg) were assigned randomly to the three dietary treatments providing 146% (HIGH; n=7), 87% (INT; n=7) or 72% (LOW; n=8) of the energy requirements for heifers from day 85 to day 180 of gestation. Fetuses were removed via cesarean section at day 180 of gestation and longissimus muscle (LM) and subcutaneous fat were collected and prepared for analysis of gene expression. Samples from the LM and semitendinosus (ST) were evaluated for muscle fiber diameter, area and number. The right hind limb was dissected and analyzed to determine compositional analysis. Fetal growth and muscle histology characteristics of the LM and ST were similar among treatments. Preadipocyte factor-1 expression was up-regulated in fetal LM (P<0.05) of HIGH fetuses as compared with INT, whereas LOW fetuses showed increased CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β (C/EBP-β) expression in LM as compared with INT (P<0.05). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γand C/EBP-α did not differ as a result of dietary treatment in LM or subcutaneous fat samples. There was a tendency for increased expression of fatty acid synthase in LM of LOW fetuses as compared with INT (P<0.10). Myogenin was more highly expressed (P<0.05) in LM of the LOW fetuses, whereas μ-calpain expression was increased in the HIGH treatment compared with INT. A tendency for increased expression of IGF-II was observed for both LOW and HIGH fetuses compared with INT (P<0.10). Expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase, myoblast determination protein 1, myogenic factor 5, myogenic regulatory factor-4, m-calpain, calpastatin, IGF-I and myostatin was similar between treatments. Collectively, these results suggest that fetal growth characteristics are not affected by the level of maternal nutritional manipulation imposed in this study during mid-gestation. However, differences in expression of fetal genes regulating adipose and muscle tissue growth and development could lead to differences in postnatal composition and warrants further investigation.
The question of the title of Commission 24, obviously, offers a difficult problem as already mentioned in recent reports. Photographic Astrometry no longer describes the whole scope of the commission. This problem has continued during the last three years especially in view of the preparations for the astrometric tasks of the NASA Space Telescope and of the ESA satellite HIPPARCOS.
We have conducted a LABOCA 870 μm follow-up of ten massive lensing clusters of the Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS, Egami et al. 2010) aiming at unveiling the yet hidden part of dusty star formation in the distant Universe. Among these clusters, A2744 and AS1063 are part of the Frontier Fields HST program. We also obtained 2 mm bolometer observations of A2744 and A370 with the GISMO array at the IRAM 30 m. We detected sources that are undetected with Herschel (PACS and SPIRE) implying either a very high redshift (z > 4) or a very low dust temperature (T<25 K). Their flux also imply a low intrinsic luminosity, LFIR < 1012L⊙. Some of them are extended and could correspond to multiple sources or to multiple images of a lensed source. Substructures in the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect could also contribute this very red submm emission. An ALMA program is ongoing to unveil the nature of these sources.
Airbus and Boeing are cooperatively presenting this topic dealing with transport aircraft stalls. The paper will begin by defining a stall, followed by a review of requirements, predictive validation and flight testing. There are various ways of designing modern jet transports for the stall regime such as aerodynamic approaches, flight deck indications, and augmentation control laws to deal with the high angle-of-attack (α) arena. The goal of augmented control laws for high α is common – no full aerodynamic stall or loss of climb performance should occur in the operational flight envelope, in Normal flight control modes. The validation techniques employed in preparation for a flight test campaign will follow. These include flight characteristic predictions based on wind-tunnel data as well as pilot-in-the-loop simulation rehearsals. The preparation for flight testing will be reviewed from both the engineer and pilot viewpoints. This will be followed by a review of various flight testing that has been conducted. The paper will close with a brief foray into what the future of transport stalls could be – perhaps protection features in degraded flight control modes? What are the benefits as well as drawbacks to increased augmentation for high α?