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The leapfrogging of coaxial vortex rings is a famous effect which has been noticed since the times of Helmholtz. Recent advances in ultra-cold atomic gases show that the effect can now be studied in quantum fluids. The strong confinement which characterises these systems motivates the study of leapfrogging of vortices within narrow channels. Using the two-dimensional point vortex model, we show that in the constrained geometry of a two-dimensional channel the dynamics is richer than in an unbounded domain: alongside the known regimes of standard leapfrogging and the absence of it, we identify new regimes of image-driven leapfrogging and periodic orbits. Moreover, by solving the Gross–Pitaevskii equation for a Bose–Einstein condensate, we show that all four regimes exist for quantum vortices too. Finally, we discuss the differences between classical and quantum vortex leapfrogging which appear when the quantum healing length becomes significant compared to the vortex separation or the channel size, and when, due to high velocity, compressibility effects in the condensate becomes significant.
Diogenes syndrome is a neurobehavioural syndrome characterised by domestic squalor, hoarding and lack of insight. It is an uncommon but high-mortality condition, often associated with dementia.
To describe the clinical features and treatment of Diogenes syndrome secondary to behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD).
We describe a case of bvFTD in a 77-year-old man presenting with Diogenes syndrome.
The patient's medical and psychiatric histories were unremarkable, but in recent years he had begun packing his flat with ‘art pieces’. Mental state examination revealed confabulation and more structured delusions. Neuropsychological evaluation outlined an impairment in selective attention and letter verbal fluency, but no semantic impairment, in the context of an overall preserved mental functioning. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorodeoxyglucose showed mild bilateral temporo-insular atrophy and hypometabolism in the left-superior temporal gyrus respectively. An amyloid PET scan and genetic analysis covering the dementia spectrum were normal. A diagnosis of bvFTD was made.
The clinical framing of behavioural symptoms of dementia such as hoarding poses a diagnostic challenge. This case illustrates the importance of a deeper understanding of Diogenes syndrome, leading to timelier diagnosis and effective therapeutic strategies.
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of falls and fractures. Assuming this association is causal, we aimed to identify the number and proportion of hospitalisations for falls and hip fractures attributable to vitamin D deficiency [25 hydroxy D (25(OH)D) <50 nmol/L] in Australians aged 65 years and over. We used 25(OH)D data from the 2011/12 Australian Health Survey and relative risks from published meta-analyses to calculate population attributable fractions for falls and hip fracture. We applied these to data published by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare to calculate the number of events each year attributable to vitamin D deficiency. In men and women combined, 8.3% of hospitalisations for falls (7991 events) and almost 8% of hospitalisations for hip fractures (1315 events) were attributable to vitamin D deficiency. These findings suggest that even in a sunny country such as Australia vitamin D deficiency contributes to a considerable number of hospitalisations as a consequence of falls and for treatment of hip fracture in older Australians; in countries where the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is higher the impact will be even greater. It is important to mitigate vitamin D deficiency but whether this should occur through supplementation or increased sun exposure needs consideration of the benefits, harms, practicalities, and costs of both approaches.
Italian ryegrass [Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] is one of the most troublesome weeds worldwide. L. multiflorum is also a grass seed crop cultivated on 50,000 ha in Oregon, where both diploid and tetraploid cultivars are grown. A survey was conducted to understand the distribution, frequency, and susceptibility of L. multiflorum to selected herbicides used to control L. multiflorum. The herbicides selected were clethodim, glufosinate, glyphosate, mesosulfuron-methyl (mesosulfuron), paraquat, pinoxaden, pyroxsulam, quizalofop-P-ethyl (quizolafop), pronamide, flufenacet + metribuzin, and pyroxasulfone. The ploidy levels of the populations were also tested. A total of 150 fields were surveyed between 2017 and 2018, of which 75 (50%) had L. multiflorum present. Herbicide-resistant populations were documented in 88% of the 75 populations collected. The most frequent mechanisms of action were resistance to Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase), Acetolactate Synthase (ALS), 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSPs) inhibitors, and combinations thereof. Multiple and cross-resistance, found in 75% of the populations, were the most frequent patterns of resistance. Paraquat-resistant biotypes were confirmed in six orchard crop populations for the first time in Oregon. Herbicide resistance was spatially clustered, with most cases of resistance in the northern part of the surveyed area. ALS and ACCase resistant populations were prevalent in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields. Multiple-resistance was positively correlated with plant density. Tetraploid feral populations were identified, but no cases of herbicide resistance were documented. This is the first survey of herbicide resistance and ploidy diversity in L. multiflorum in western Oregon. Resistant populations were present across the surveyed area, indicating that the problem is widespread.
Since the 1950s, interpreters of John Locke have debated whether his ideas about political economy figured among the intellectual sources of capitalist development. While some have labeled Locke a mercantile or agrarian “capitalist thinker,” others have insisted that, although a mercantilist, he was in no sense a theorist of capitalism. By reconstructing the relationship between Locke's ideas and the capitalist society of his day, this article challenges the prevailing terms through which commentators have traditionally interpreted his political economy and its place in the history of capitalism. I interpret Locke's perspectives on capital accumulation, foreign trade, and labor discipline throughout the 1690s as a reflection of the historical rise of export-oriented cycles of commodity manufacturing in the English countryside known as “proto-industrialization.” Moreover, I claim that, because proto-industrialization was tied to the expansion of England's colonial economy, this neglected context of Locke's economic doctrine sheds new light on his vision of empire. Looking to his writings on Ireland, I argue that Locke pursued proto-industrial economic reform by combining a hierarchical, stadial theory of progress with an imperial policy aimed at “improving” the colonies through decreed patterns of production and exchange that favored metropolitan trade.
To investigate the touch-contact antimicrobial efficacy of novel cold spray surface coatings composed of copper and silver metals, regard to their rate of microbial elimination.
Antimicrobial time-kill assay.
An adapted time-kill assay was conducted to characterize the antimicrobial efficacy of the developed coatings. A simulated touch-contact pathogenic exposure to Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), and the yeast Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), as well as corresponding resistant strains of gentamicin-methicillin–resistant S. aureus (ATCC 33592), azlocillin-carbenicillin–resistant P. aeruginosa (DSM 46316), and a fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strain was undertaken. Linear regression modeling was used to deduce microbial reduction rates.
A >7 log reduction in microbial colony forming units was achieved within minutes on surfaces with cold spray coatings compared to a single log bacterial reduction on copper metal sheets within a 3 hour contact period. Copper-coated 3-dimensional (3D) printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) achieved complete microbial elimination against all tested pathogens within a 15 minute exposure period. Similarly, a copper-on-copper coating achieved microbial elimination within 10 minutes and within 5 minutes with the addition of silver powder as a 5 wt% coating constituent.
In response to the global need for alternative solutions for infection control and prevention, these effective antimicrobial surface coatings were proposed. A longitudinal study is the next step toward technology integration.
In this study, we evaluated the efficacy, expressed as a mean weight decrease of the whole echinococcal cyst mass, of novel benzimidazole salt formulations in a murine Echinococcus granulosus infection model. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally infected with protoscoleces of E. granulosus (genotype G1). At 9 months post-infection, treatment with albendazole (ABZ), ricobendazole (RBZ) salt formulations, and RBZ enantiomer salts (R)-(+)-RBZ-Na and (S)-(−)-RBZ-Na formulations were initiated. Drugs were orally applied by gavage at 10 mg kg−1 body weight per day during 30 days. Experimental treatments with benzimidazole sodium salts resulted in a significant reduction of the weight of cysts compared to conventional ABZ treatment, except for the (S)-(−)-RBZ-Na enantiomer formulation. Scanning electron microscopy and histological inspection revealed that treatments impacted not only the structural integrity of the parasite tissue in the germinal layer, but also induced alterations in the laminated layer. Overall, these results demonstrate the improved efficacy of benzimidazole salt formulations compared to conventional ABZ treatment in experimental murine cystic echinococcosis.
Mental health disorders and their treatments produce significant costs and benefits in both healthcare and non-healthcare sectors. The latter are often referred to as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Little is known about healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector and how to include these in health economics research.
The triple aim of this study is (i) to identify healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector, (ii) to validate the list of healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector on a European level by sector-specific experts, and (iii) to classify the identified ICBs.
A scientific literature search in PubMed and an additional grey literature search, carried out in six European countries, were used to retrieve ICBs. In order to validate the international applicability of the ICBs, a survey was conducted with an international group of experts from the criminal justice sector. The list of criminal justice ICBs was categorized according to the PECUNIA conceptual framework.
The full-text analysis of forty-five peer-reviewed journal articles and eleven grey literature sources resulted in a draft list of items. Input from the expert survey resulted in a final list of fourteen unique criminal justice ICBs, categorized according to the care atom.
This study laid further foundations for the inclusion of important societal costs of mental health-related interventions within the criminal justice sector. More research is needed to facilitate the further and increased inclusion of ICBs in health economics research.
Field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 at two locations in Indiana to evaluate the influence of cover crop species, termination timing, and herbicide treatment on winter and summer annual weed suppression and corn yield. Cereal rye and canola cover crops were terminated early or late (2 wk before or after corn planting) with a glyphosate- or glufosinate-based herbicide program. Canola and cereal rye reduced total weed biomass collected at termination by up to 74% and 91%, in comparison to fallow, respectively. Canola reduced horseweed density by up to 56% at termination and 57% at POST application compared to fallow. Cereal rye reduced horseweed density by up to 59% at termination and 87% at POST application compared to fallow. Canola did not reduce giant ragweed density at termination in comparison to fallow. Cereal rye reduced giant ragweed density by up to 66% at termination and 62% at POST application. Termination timing had little to no effect on weed biomass and density reduction in comparison to the effect of cover crop species. Cereal rye reduced corn grain yield at both locations in comparison to fallow, especially for the late-termination timing. Corn grain yield reduction up to 49% (4,770 kg ha–1) was recorded for cereal rye terminated late in comparison to fallow terminated late. Canola did not reduce corn grain yield in comparison to fallow within termination timing; however, late-terminated canola reduced corn grain yield by up to 21% (2,980 kg ha–1) in comparison to early-terminated fallow. Cereal rye can suppress giant ragweed emergence, whereas canola is not as effective at suppressing large-seeded broadleaves such as giant ragweed. These results also indicate that early-terminated cover crops can often result in higher corn grain yields than late-terminated cover crops in an integrated weed management program.
Current antidepressants are clinically effective only after several weeks of administration. Because our previous studies indicated that both acute and sustained stimulation of serotonin4 (5-HT4) receptors facilitate central 5-HT activity, we assessed the ability of 5-HT4 agonists to induce antidepressant-like effects in the rat brain within a short (3 days) time-frame.
Methods and results
We found that 5-HT4 agonists reduce immobility in the Forced Swimming Test, displaying an antidepressant potential. Moreover, a 3-day regimen with such compounds modify rat brain parameters considered as key markers of antidepressant action, but observed only after 2-3 week treatments with classical molecules: desensitization of 5-HT1A autoreceptors, increased tonus on hippocampal postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, enhanced phosphorylation of the CREB protein and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. A 3-day regimen with the 5-HT4 agonist RS 67333 was also sufficient to reduce both the hyperlocomotion induced by olfactory bulbectomy, and the diminution of sucrose intake consecutive to a chronic mild stress. Moreover, the concomitant administration of a 5-HT4 receptor agonists with a classical antidepressant (SSRI) potentiated the amplitude of these effects, without altering the rapidity of action of the former.
These findings point out 5-HT4 receptor agonists as a putative new class of antidepressants, with a rapid onset of action.
Depression has frequently been reported to be associated with other physical diseases and changes in the cytokine system. We aimed to investigate associations between a medical history of depression, its comorbidities and cytokine plasma levels in the Bavarian Nutrition Survey II (BVS II) study sample and in patients suffering from an acute depressive episode.
The BVS II is a representative study of the Bavarian population aged 13–80 years. The disease history of its 1050 participants was assessed through face-to-face interviews. A sub-sample of 568 subjects and 62 additional acutely depressed inpatients of the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry participated in anthropometric measurements and blood sampling. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble TNF receptor (sTNF-R) p55 and sTNF-R p75 plasma levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
A history of depression was associated with a higher incidence of high blood pressure, peptic ulcer, dyslipoproteinemia, osteoporosis, allergic skin rash, atopic eczema and thyroid disease.
Within the BVS II sample, participants with a history of depression differed from subjects who had never had depression with regard to sTNF-R p55 and sTNF-R p75 levels even when controlling for age, BMI and smoking status. Acutely depressed inpatients showed even higher levels of sTNF-R p55 and sTNF-R p75 than subjects in the normal population. TNF-α levels were also significantly elevated in acutely depressed patients.
These results confirm earlier studies regarding the comorbidities of depression and support the hypothesis that activation of the TNF-α system may contribute to the development of a depressive disorder.
A frequently observed fact in clinical practice is the relationship between Substance Abuse Disorders and Personality Disorders (PD). Epidemiological investigations have found that diagnoses of PD seem to increase vulnerability to other pathologies, including substance abuse and addiction, and it is possible to speak of comorbidity or dual pathology.
To describe the comorbidity between PD and substance abuse disorders.
Systematic review of the literature on the subject. The databases consulted were Dialnet, Pubmed and Cochrane.
The various studies allow estimating that between 65% and 90% of subjects treated for substance abuse or dependence have at least one concomitant PT. Studies show a higher prevalence of Cluster C for alcohol consumption and Histrionic, Narcissistic, Boundary and Antisocial Disorders (Cluster B) for illegal drugs, mainly cocaine. Cluster B is the one that the literature has most related to substance use. It is also the group in which there is a greater predominance of impulsivity, which would be worth remembering its role as a vulnerability factor for addictions.
What the research has shown is that a good deal of the problems that accompany substance use come from dysfunctional patterns of behavior that are maintained over time with high stability and can justify, in part, both the persistence of The addictive behavior as the difficulty of handling the patients who present them. At present, although the high comorbidity between TP and substance use is sufficiently documented, many questions still remain to be solved.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Annual monitoring of physical health of people with severe mental illness (SMI) in primary or secondary care is recommended in England.
The SMI Health Improvement Profile (HIP) was developed to target physical well-being in SMI through the role of the mental health nurse.
The primary aim was to investigate if health checks performed by community mental health nurses (CMHNs) trained to use the HIP improved the physical well-being of patients with SMI at 12 months.
A single blind, parallel group randomised controlled trial of training to use the HIP (clustered at the level of the nurse). Physical well-being was measured in study patients using the physical component score of the SF36v2 at baseline and at 12 months.
Sixty CMHNs (working with 173 patients) were assigned to the HIP programme (training to use the HIP) or treatment as usual. The HIP was completed with 38 (42%) patients at baseline and 22 (24%) at follow-up in the HIP programme group. No effect of the HIP programme on physical health-related quality of life of study patients was identified, a finding supported by per protocol analyses.
This study found no evidence that CMHN delivered health checks following training to use the HIP are effective at improving the physical well-being of SMI patients at one year. More attention to methods that aim to enable the delivery, receipt and enactment of evidence-based interventions to improve physical health outcomes in this population is urgently required.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
There is a higher incidence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in families and offspring of people with the disorder, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors are vulnerable to the condition that is passed from generation to generation.
Identify the parenting strategies used by these mothers as potential targets for psychological intervention.
Literature review of the scientific literature.
The literature shows that mothers with BPD often have very characteristic parenting practices and that they are conditioned by what is inherent to BPD – oscillations between a search for excessive control of the other person for fear of abandonment and neglect behaviors, attachment insecure or disorganized. They are between extremes of over-involvement and lack of involvement with the child, that is, mothers who show themselves in some cold, avoidant and rejecting moments and in others that are excessively demanding, invasive and over-involved with the child, consistently denoting a pattern. Of relationship that goes from one end to the other.
Attachment-based interventions work through corrective experiences in the therapeutic relationship, work on their attachment style, giving the mother an opportunity to reflect on her own childhood experiences with her caregivers and how they led her to Have an insecure or disorganized attachment, while being encouraged to connect these reflections with your current experiences with your child.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Combined microstructural, mineral chemical, X-ray maps and X-ray single-crystal diffraction analyses are used to reveal the behaviour of individual grains of magmatic allanite relicts hosted in variably deformed metagranitoids at Lago della Vecchia (inner part of the Sesia-Lanzo Zone, Western Alps, Europe), which experienced high-pressure and low-temperature metamorphism during the Alpine subduction. X-ray single-crystal diffraction shows that none of the allanite crystals, irrespective of the strain state of the host rock, record any evidence of plastic deformation (i.e. intracrystalline deformation), as indicated by the shape of the Bragg diffraction spots, the atomic site positions, and their displacement around the centre of gravity. On the contrary, strong plastic deformation affected matrix minerals, such as quartz, white mica and feldspar of the hosting rocks, during the development of the Alpine eclogitic- and blueschist-facies metamorphism. Despite the strain-free atomic structures of allanite, different patterns of chemical zoning, as a function of strain accumulated in the rock matrix, are observed. As allanite occurs in magmatic and metamorphic rocks and it is stable at high-pressure and low-temperature conditions, we infer that allanite could behave as one of the main carriers of light rare earth elements into the mantle wedge during subduction of continental crust. In particular, the release of light rare earth elements from allanite, under high-pressure conditions in subduction zones, is facilitated by high strain accumulated in the host rock.
Acifluorfen is a nonsystemic PPO-inhibiting herbicide commonly used for POST Palmer amaranth control in soybean, peanut, and rice across the southern United States. Concerns have been raised regarding herbicide selection pressure and particle drift, increasing the need for application practices that optimize herbicide efficacy while mitigating spray drift. Field research was conducted in 2016, 2017, and 2018 in Mississippi and Nebraska to evaluate the influence of a range of spray droplet sizes [150 μm (Fine) to 900 μm (Ultra Coarse)], using acifluorfen to create a novel Palmer amaranth management recommendation using pulse width modulation (PWM) technology. A pooled site-year generalized additive model (GAM) analysis suggested that 150-μm (Fine) droplets should be used to obtain the greatest Palmer amaranth control and dry biomass reduction. Nevertheless, GAM models indicated that only 7.2% of the variability observed in Palmer amaranth control was due to differences in spray droplet size. Therefore, location-specific GAM analyses were performed to account for geographical differences to increase the accuracy of prediction models. GAM models suggested that 250-μm (Medium) droplets optimize acifluorfen efficacy on Palmer amaranth in Dundee, MS, and 310-μm (Medium) droplets could sustain 90% of maximum weed control. Specific models for Beaver City, NE, indicated that 150-μm (Fine) droplets provide maximum Palmer amaranth control, and 340-μm (Medium) droplets could maintain 90% of greatest weed control. For Robinsonville, MS, optimal Palmer amaranth control could be obtained with 370-μm (Coarse) droplets, and 90% maximum control could be sustained with 680 μm (Ultra Coarse) droplets. Differences in optimal droplet size across location could be a result of convoluted interactions between droplet size, weather conditions, population density, plant morphology, and soil fertility levels. Future research should adopt a holistic approach to identify and investigate the influence of environmental and application parameters to optimize droplet size recommendations.
Italian ryegrass is one of the most troublesome weeds worldwide because of the rapid evolution of herbicide resistance in this species. Oregon tall fescue seed production requires high seed purity, demanding good control of Italian ryegrass. The necessity to control herbicide-resistant Italian ryegrass and maintain tall fescue seed purity created interest in new chemical management options. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of synthetic auxin herbicides on seed viability of Italian ryegrass biotypes and the feasibility of this management strategy for use in tall fescue seed production. Eight treatments of synthetic auxin herbicides were applied to Italian ryegrass and tall fescue at two growth stages (boot and anthesis): dicamba (1.0 and 2.2 kg ae ha−1), 2,4-D (1.1 and 2.2 kg ae ha−1), aminopyralid (0.5 kg ae ha−1), dicamba + 2.4-D (0.8 + 1.1 kg ae ha−1), 2.4-D + clopyralid (1.1 + 0.3 kg ae ha−1), and halauxifen-methyl + florasulam (0.4 kg ae ha−1 + 0.4 kg ai ha−1). Aminopyralid applied at boot and anthesis stages of Italian ryegrass reduced seed viability. Aminopyralid treatments reduced seed viability and weight of Italian ryegrass more than 50% compared to the control. Four biotypes from different locations in western Oregon with different types of herbicide resistance were sprayed, and differences in aminopyralid effect among Italian ryegrass biotypes were documented. Aminopyralid reduced the speed of germination by 1 to 2 d. Aminopyralid treatments had a greater effect when applied at the anthesis stage and had a greater negative impact on tall fescue. Tall fescue plants were more susceptible to aminopyralid, so this management practice is not feasible for tall fescue seed production. Future studies are needed to understand the physiological mechanisms involved in the reduced seed viability and to define an optimum aminopyralid rate for different Italian ryegrass biotypes.
In 1989 an ancient burial consisting of a skeleton and a few objects was discovered at the Monte dei Cappuccini Monastery, in Torino (Italy). Anthropological analysis of the skeleton revealed that it belonged to a young man, and the archaeometric characterization of the objects suggested that most of them are compatible with the Medieval period. As a proper archeological survey was not conducted at the time of the finding, due to the religious nature of the site, a high-precision radiocarbon (14C) dating has been performed. The samples were processed with three different methods: besides the ultrafiltration (UF) treatment, we applied the “collagen” (COL) and the Longin-base (LB) methods. While UF and COL treatments provided compatible results, LB method returned ages older with respect the UF one, with significant disagreements in some cases and this evidence is supported by several measurements on the same individual. Thanks to the reduction of the uncertainty with the high number of measured samples and the availability of historical evidence, the possible age of the burial has been limited to the time interval 1464–1515 cal AD.
Impaired illness awareness or insight into illness (IIA) is a common feature of schizophrenia that contributes to medication nonadherence and poor clinical outcomes. Neuroimaging studies suggest IIA may arise from interhemispheric imbalance in frontoparietal regions, particularly in the posterior parietal area (PPA) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). In this pilot study, we examined the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on brain regions implicated in IIA.
Eleven patients with schizophrenia with IIA (≥3 PANSS G12) and 10 healthy controls were included. A crossover design was employed where all participants received single-session bi-frontal, bi-parietal, and sham stimulation in random order. For each condition, we measured (i) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to an illness awareness task pre- and post-stimulation, (ii) regional cerebral blood-flow (rCBF) prior to and during stimulation, and (iii) changes in illness awareness.
At baseline, patients with schizophrenia showed higher BOLD-response to an illness awareness task in the left-PPA compared to healthy controls. Bi-parietal stimulation reduced the interhemispheric imbalance in the PPA compared to sham stimulation. Relatedly, bi-parietal stimulation increased rCBF beneath the anode (21% increase in the right-PPA), but not beneath the cathode (5.6% increase in the left-PPA). Bi-frontal stimulation did not induce changes in rCBF. We found no changes in illness awareness.
Although single-session tDCS did not improve illness awareness, this pilot study provides mechanistic justification for future investigations to determine if multi-session bi-parietal tDCS can induce sustained changes in brain activity in the PPA in association with improved illness awareness.