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Obtaining objective, dietary exposure information from individuals is challenging because of the complexity of food consumption patterns and the limitations of self-reporting tools (e.g., FFQ and diet diaries). This hinders research efforts to associate intakes of specific foods or eating patterns with population health outcomes.
Dietary exposure can be assessed by the measurement of food-derived chemicals in urine samples. We aimed to develop methodologies for urine collection that minimised impact on the day-to-day activities of participants but also yielded samples that were data-rich in terms of targeted biomarker measurements.
Urine collection methodologies were developed within home settings.
Different cohorts of free-living volunteers.
Home collection of urine samples using vacuum transfer technology was deemed highly acceptable by volunteers. Statistical analysis of both metabolome and selected dietary exposure biomarkers in spot urine collected and stored using this method showed that they were compositionally similar to urine collected using a standard method with immediate sample freezing. Even without chemical preservatives, samples can be stored under different temperature regimes without any significant impact on the overall urine composition or concentration of forty-six exemplar dietary exposure biomarkers. Importantly, the samples could be posted directly to analytical facilities, without the need for refrigerated transport and involvement of clinical professionals.
This urine sampling methodology appears to be suitable for routine use and may provide a scalable, cost-effective means to collect urine samples and to assess diet in epidemiological studies.
Introduction: Rapid diagnostic algorithms using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin can rapidly diagnose or exclude acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, multiple algorithms have been proposed and it is unclear if some outperform others. The objective of this study was to prospectively compare the diagnostic performance of 1- and 2-hour algorithms in clinical practice in a Canadian population. Methods: Emergency department patients with chest pain had high-sensitivity cardiac troponin-T (hs-cTnT) collected on presentation and 1- and 2-hours later at a single academic tertiary hospital and regional percutaneous coronary intervention site over a 2-year period. The primary outcome was index MI, the secondary outcome was 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE). All outcomes were 2 physician adjudicated. Results: We enrolled 1,167 patients with hs-cTnT collected on ED presentation. Of these, 350 had a valid 1-hour and 550 had a 2-hour hs-cTnT sample. Index MI prevalence was ~11%. Sensitivity of the 1- and 2-hour algorithms for index MI was 97.3% (95% CI 85.8-99.9%) and 100% (95% CI 91.6-100%) and for 30-day MACE was 80.9% (95% CI 66.7-90.9%) and 83.3% (95% CI 73.2-90.8%), respectively. The 1-hour algorithm was 96.3% specific for index MI (95% CI 93.8-98.2%) whereas specificity for the 2-hour algorithm was 97.9% (95% CI 96.3-100%). Both algorithms classified about one-quarter of patients in an indeterminate observational zone with an ~11% MI prevalence. Conclusion: Both the 1- and 2-hour algorithms were highly sensitive and specific for MI, but were less sensitive for 30-day MACE. However, the 2-hour algorithm trended toward better performance, likely because its larger delta cutoffs reduce the risk of misclassification owing to analytic variability. These findings suggest algorithms using larger delta cutoffs may provide a greater margin of safety. Further comparative evaluation of rapid diagnostic algorithms using different cutoffs and characterization of patients in the observational zone is warranted.
Introduction: Very low high-sensitivity troponin-T (hs-cTnT) concentrations on presentation can rule out acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but the ability to identify patients at low risk of 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE) is less clear. This study examines the sensitivity of low concentrations of hs-cTnT on presentation to rule out 30-day MACE. Methods: This prospective cohort study enrolled emergency department chest pain patients with non-ischemic ECGs who underwent AMI rule-out with an hs-cTnT assay. The primary outcome was 30-day MACE; secondary outcomes were individual MACE components. Because guidelines recommend using a single hs-cTnT strategy only for patients with more than 3-hours since symptom onset, a subgroup analysis was performed for this population. Outcomes were adjudicated based on review of medical records and telephone follow-up. Results: Of 1,167 patients enrolled, 125 (10.7%) experienced 30-day MACE and 97 (8.3%) suffered AMI on the index visit. More than one-third (35.6%) had presenting hs-cTnT concentrations below the limit of detection (5ng/L), which was 94.4% (95%CI 88.8-97.7%) sensitive for 30-day MACE and 99.0% (95%CI 94.5-100%) sensitive for index AMI. Of 292 (25.0%) patients with hs-cTnT < 5ng/L and at least 3-hours since symptom onset, only 3 experienced 30-day MACE (sensitivity 97.6%, 95%CI 93.2-100%) and none suffered AMI within 30-days (sensitivity 100%, 95%CI 96.3-100%). Conclusion: Among patients with non-ischemic ECGs and >3-hours since symptom onset, low hs-cTnT concentrations on presentation confer a very low risk of 30-day MACE. In the absence of a high risk clinical presentation, further risk stratification is likely to be low yield.
To explore beverage intake and associations between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and sociodemographic, life circumstances, health and well-being factors in a national cohort of Indigenous children.
We calculated prevalence ratios for any SSB consumption across exposures, using multilevel Poisson regression (robust variance), adjusted for age group and remoteness. A key informant focus group contextualised these exploratory findings.
Diverse settings across Australia.
Families of Indigenous children aged 0–3 years, in the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children.
Half (50·7 %, n 473/933) of children had ever consumed SSB at survey, increasing from 29·3 % of 0–12-month-olds to 65·7 % of 18–36-month-olds. SSB consumption prevalence was significantly lower in urban and regional v. remote areas, and in families experiencing socio-economic advantage (area-level advantage, caregiver employed, financial security), better life circumstances (caregiver social support, limited exposure to stressors) and caregiver well-being (non-smoking, social and emotional well-being, physical health). SSB consumption prevalence was significantly lower among those engaged with health services (adequate health-service access, regular prenatal check-ups), except SSB consumption prevalence was higher among those who received home visits from an Aboriginal Health Worker compared with no home visits. Key informants highlighted the role of water quality/safety on SSB consumption.
A substantial proportion of Indigenous children in this sample consumed SSB from an early age. Health provider information needs to be relevant to the context of families’ lives. Health system strategies must be paired with upstream strategies, such as holistic support programmes for families, reducing racism and improving water quality.