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High-resolution spectra emitted by laboratory plasmas provide invaluable diagnostic tools for the measurement of plasma properties. To be implemented, they require a large amount of atomic data and transition rates, which are available in several spectral codes. In this paper we present a new feature added to the CHIANTI code, which allows us to calculate the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in the presence of a magnetic field with known intensity and orientation. When combined with the CHIANTI database and software to calculate level populations and line emissivities, this new feature returns the emissivities in all four Stokes parameters, that can be utilized for the measurement of the magnetic field inside laboratory plasma chambers, along with other plasma parameters. This new feature can be applied to the analysis of the emission of laboratory plasmas created in different devices.
There has been an increased interest on the role of urban security and fear of crime on mental health of the general population, but there are not studies about this among patients with minor psychiatric disorders.
Assess patients’ fear of crime and perceived urban insecurity.
1) evaluate the association between perceived urban insecurity and crime, and minor psychiatric disorders;
2) identify subgroups of patients with high levels of perceived urban insecurity and fear of crime.
A sample of 24 patients with depressive or anxiety disorders attending outpatient services was collected. Patients consenting to the study underwent a battery of psychometric instruments. This study is part of a national multicentric study that enrolled 426 subjects.
The sample was mainly composed by females (83%), cohabiting (58%), employed (54%). Patients were more frequently diagnosed with dysthymia (54%) had an average GAF score of 73 (SD=8,44), an average GHQ-12 of 17.33 (SD =3,95). 41% reported high level of insecurity or fear and 58% stated that their worries were increased compared to 10 years earlier. Reported reasons for this were mostly ‘decrease of social security’ and ‘loss of values’. 12.5% of the sample reported of having been victim of a theft or vandalism.
The results of this study are not only useful to understand the role of fear of crime in the onset and relapses of minor psychiatric disorders, but they can also help to plan psychiatrists’ and Public Health's interventions in order to prevent them.
Studying the pathways followed by psychiatric patients is important to plan both mental health services organization and training programmes for doctors and psychiatrists.
Detecting the main pathways-to-care followed by patients.
Finding the reasons why patients look for psychiatric help and the main responses given to patients’ problems by psychiatric services. Evaluating the delays occurring along the pathways.
The study has been done on 420 Italian patients. In one month, patients with a new episode of disease have been included. Each of them has been administered a questionnaire collecting socio-demographical, medical infos and data concerning health workers, timing and delays along the pathways. Diagnosis done using ICD-10 and an Intervention Detection Schedule filled for each patient.
The Carpi’s sample consists of 43 patients. The 58% has seen the General Practitioner (GP) in the first place, the 19% the hospital doctor (HD), the 16% the psychiatric worker. Nation-widely, most patients have firstly referred to the psychiatrist (34%). In Carpi, the 44% has received a diagnosis of “Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders”. The 93% has been treated with psychotropic medications. The longest pathway has occurred for behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors, the shortest for affective disorders.
GP, HD and direct access are the 3 main pathways followed by patients. The importance of the GP is confirmed, so as the necessity for training of sanitary workers within the psychiatric field. A greater cooperation between general practice and mental health services should be pursued
In a demographic survey in 2005, 13.6% of Italians admitted to have taken CAMs during the 3 years before. A study on hospitalized patients for psychiatric reasons highlighted that 63% of them used CAM in the previous year and 79% did not mention this to their psychiatrists.
To collect the opinions about the use of CAMs in psychiatry among a group of psychiatrists and nurses working in a Mental Health Centre.
To investigate knowledge, opinions and experiences on CAMs.
A mixed qualitative-quantitative method was used: 2 focus groups were conducted in June 2011, involving 12 professionals of one Mental Health Community Centre in Modena, Italy. The audio-recordings of the focus groups were analyzed by 2 researchers, who identified the main themes with an inductive method. The participants were finally asked to fill in a respondent validation questionnaire.
Four main themes were developed:
1) advantages, and
2) disadvantages in the use of CAMs,
3) patients’ and own experiences,
4) variety of therapies under the CAM acronym.
Among the pros, 75% of respondents agreed that CAMs allow a better global approach to the patient, 58% that CAMs may improve quality of life, 66% that conventional psychiatric therapies do not solve every situation. As to disadvantages, some professionals (medical doctors) expressed skepticism on CAMs.
Being realistic, open-minded and ready to listen and cooperate: this could be the best attitude towards patients who take CAMs.
INTERMED is a patient-centered method designed to assess bio-psycho-social case complexity in general health care. It consists in a structured interview leading to definition of 20 variables by focusing on past, present and future health needs and risks of patients. The total score supports professional decision and guides to patient-oriented care.
To describe the training process on INTERMED interview and to assess its effectiveness.
A training group of 4 doctors and 4 6th-year medical students attended two-hour meetings twice a month (December 2011– March 2012). After introductory sessions on theoretical aspects and inter-trainee simulations on interviewing and scoring techniques, students were assigned the task of producing recorded clinical material, which was used to comment on interviewing skills and practice on scoring. Individual and consensus scores were collected at the end of every session and compared statistically by means of Cohen’s kappa.
Agreement between individual and consensus scores was already considerable at the beginning of the training and improved during the course (Cohen’s kappa raised from 0.39 to 0.65). The participants were interested and motivated. They expressed satisfaction for the skills acquired during the training.
A five months 20-hour training period is a reasonable time not only for learning how to master the instrument, but also for gaining the basic skills required to build a structured interview. These skills would be useful in the whole participants’ career and allowed the implementation of INTERMED as a clinical and research tool in the Modena General Hospital.
A challenging medicine dissertation: to design a psychiatric therapeutic community.
A medical student winning a grant addressed to architects and farm laborers aimed to convert a rural area through Social Innovation programmes, a group of young enthusiastic psychiatrists and a donor involved in psychiatric circumstances are the actors of the project for turning a rural building located in the small village of “Villa San Bartolomeo” (Reggio Emilia, Italy) into a psychiatric social-rehabilitation community.
The project started reviewing the literature concerning community-based psychiatry residential facilities. Later, a structured interview has been carried out with the village's inhabitants in order to investigate both their perception of stigma towards mental illness and the perceived needs of their city. The answers have then been used to organize the activities within the psychiatric community, ranging from recreational through sportive until occupational ones, such as farming vegetable gardens, breeding domestic animals, producing handiworks. These labors are intended both to satisfy the village demands and realize a greater integration of the community itself within the surrounding social network.
The therapeutic interventions that are going to be realized within the residential home will be aimed to promote patients’ personal growth and adapting capacity. These interventions are intended to allow the accomplishment of a greater housing independence of the hosts by restructuring their affective, relational and social backgrounds.
This is an ambitious project, started by chance, representing the desire and the hope for curing mental illness by establishing a contact with the natural environment.
The term ‘revolving door (RD) phenomenon” was coined to define recurrent hospitalizations of chronically ill patients after closure of psychiatric hospitals and implementation of community treatments.
Continued readmissions require a large portion of Mental Health Departments’ resources.
To analyze the RD phenomenon in an acute psychiatric ward during a 5-year period.
We retrospectively selected all patients with 3 or more hospitalizations per year from 01/01/ 2009 to 31/12/2013 in SPDC-Modena Centro. From their medical records we collected selected variables, potential predictors of RD phenomenon. Data were statistically analyzed.
In the 5-year period, a sample of 105 patients (47 females, 58 males) with an average age of 40.25 years (± 13.47 SD), 5.68 % of all inpatients (n = 1850), realized 778 hospitalizations, 23.94 % of all admissions (n=3250). The most frequent reason for admission was ‘worsening of psychiatric symptomatology” (55.27%). The most frequent diagnoses at discharge were ‘Schizophrenia” (41.26%) and ‘Personality Disorders” (25.32%). Most of RD patients (87%) were Italian, only 15 % were employed and 50 % lived with family. The mean duration of RD hospitalizations (12.23 days ± 18.37 SD) was statistically significantly different from all others in the 5-year period (10.39 days ± 11.09 SD, p=0.0008, t test) as was the frequency of compulsory admissions (RD hospitalizations 18% vs. 26% all others, chi2, p<0.001).
Our RD patients represented a small percent of all inpatients but required many and long hospitalizations, probably due to severe and disabling illness.
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) occur in 8 of 1000 live-born children, making them common birth defects in the adolescent population. CHDs may have single gene, chromosomal, or multifactorial causes. Despite evidence that patients with CHD want information on heritability and genetics, no studies have investigated the interest or knowledge base in the adolescent population. This information is necessary as patients in adolescence take greater ownership of their health care and discuss reproductive risks with their physicians. The objectives of this survey-based study were to determine adolescents’ recall of their own heart condition, to assess patient and parent perception of the genetic contribution to the adolescent’s CHD, and to obtain information about the preferred method(s) for education. The results show that adolescent patients had good recall of their type of CHD. Less than half of adolescents and parents believed their CHD had a genetic basis or was heritable; however, adolescents with a positive family history of CHD were more likely to believe that their condition was genetic (p = 0.0005). The majority of patients were interested in receiving additional genetics education and preferred education in-person and in consultation with both parents and a physician. The adolescents who felt most competent to have discussions with their doctors regarding potential causes of their heart defect previously had a school science course which covered topics in genetics. These results provide insight into adolescents’ perceptions and understanding about their CHD and genetic risk and may inform the creation and provision of additional genetic education.
Credibility and trustworthiness are the bedrock upon which any science is built. The strength of these foundations has been increasingly questioned across the sciences as instances of research misconduct and mounting concerns over the prevalence of detrimental research practices have been identified. Consequently, the purpose of this article is to encourage our scientific community to positively and proactively engage in efforts that foster a healthy and robust industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. We begin by advancing six defining principles that we believe reflect the values of robust science and offer criteria for evaluating proposed efforts to change scientific practices. Recognizing that the contemporary scientific enterprise is a complex and diverse network of actors and institutions, we then conclude by identifying 12 stakeholders who play important roles in achieving a culture of robust science in I-O psychology and offer recommendations for actions we can take as members of these groups to strengthen our science.
The occurrence of Zenion hololepis in Portuguese continental waters is reported for the first time. A total of five specimens were collected in two separate fisheries research surveys, in 2008 and 2009. Analyses of morphometric and meristic characteristics confirmed all five specimens as Z. hololepis, while DNA barcode sequence data delivered a genus-level assignment. The records here described constitute a new extended northern limit for the distribution of Z. hololepis in the eastern Atlantic and the first DNA barcode data for this species.
The purpose of this study was to histologically and mechanically appraise the in vivo bone-bonding abilities of K2TinO2n+1 coated and uncoated Ti-15Mo-3Nb (TMN) implants. According to GB/T16886.6－1997 biological evaluation of medical devices Part 6:Tests for local effects after implantation, the two types of implants were implanted into the proximal metaphyses of Chinese white rabbits’ femurs for 12, 26 and 52 weeks and investigated by pushing out test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attached to an energy-dispersive X-ray micro-analyzer (EDX) and light microscopy. The bone-bonding abilities of the K2TinO2n+1 biocoating /Ti-15Mo-3Nb (KBT) gradient biomaterial implants were higher than those of T implants at different periods of implantation. The K2TinO2n+1 biocoating (KB) could stimulate new bone rapid formation at the early stages of implantation. And the implants with the biocoating eventually bonded to bone directly, with no intervening soft tissue layer, that was an osseocoalescence. However, the type of bone-bonding between TMN titanium alloy implants and bone was a simple osseocoaptation. The more excellent bone-bonding ability of the KBT implants should be attributed to the superficial characteristics, the bioactivity of low potassium titanate and biostability of high potassium titanate.
The Waipounamu Erosion Surface is a time-transgressive, nearly planar, wave-cut surface. It is not a peneplain. Formation of the Waipounamu Erosion Surface began in Late Cretaceous time following break-up of Gondwanaland, and continued until earliest Miocene time, during a 60 million year period of widespread tectonic quiescence, thermal subsidence and marine transgression. Sedimentary facies and geomorphological evidence suggest that the erosion surface may have eventually covered the New Zealand subcontinent (Zealandia). We can find no geological evidence to indicate that land areas were continuously present throughout the middle Cenozoic. Important implications of this conclusion are: (1) the New Zealand subcontinent was largely, or entirely, submerged and (2) New Zealand's present terrestrial fauna and flora evolved largely from fortuitous arrivals during the past 22 million years. Thus the modern terrestrial biota may not be descended from archaic ancestors residing on Zealandia when it broke away from Gondwanaland in the Cretaceous, since the terrestrial biota would have been extinguished if this landmass was submerged in Oligocene–Early Miocene time. We conclude that there is insufficient geological basis for assuming that land was continuously present in the New Zealand region through Oligocene to Early Miocene time, and we therefore contemplate the alternative possibility, complete submergence of Zealandia.
The electrochemical cycling performance of high purity single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) paper electrodes has been measured for a series of electrolyte solvent compositions. The effects of varying the galvanostatic charge rate and cycling temperature on lithium ion capacity have been evaluated between 25-100 °C. The measured reversible lithium ion capacities for SWCNT anodes range from 600-1000 mAh/g for a 1M LiPF6 electrolyte, depending on solvent composition and cycling temperature. The solid-electrolyte-interface (SEI) formation and first cycle charge loss are also shown to vary dramatically with carbonate solvent selection and illustrate the importance of solvent alkyl chain length and polarity on SWCNT capacity. SWCNT anodes have also been incorporated into full battery designs using LiCoO2 cathode composites. An electrochemical pre-lithiation sequence, prior to battery assembly, has been developed to mitigate the first cycle charge loss of SWCNT anodes. The pre-lithiated SWCNT anodes show reversible cycling at varying charge rates and depths of discharge with the cathode system. The summary of data shows that the structural integrity of individual SWCNTs is preserved after cycling, and that free-standing SWCNT paper electrodes represent an attractive material for lithium ion batteries.
Stoichiometric and magnesium-substituted synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) powders with different Mg contents were characterized by Raman and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopies. The substitution of Ca ions by Mg is presently of great interest because it may improve activity in the first stage of the bone remodeling process. In this paper, we show new evidence that CL spectroscopy has the capability to detect the presence of crystal defects, related to the presence of magnesium substituting calcium in Mg-doped HA powders. The dependence of CL spectra of stoichiometric and magnesium-doped HA powders on their chemical composition was studied, and the results are compared with Raman analysis and data previously collected by other analytical tools. All the investigated powders showed five distinct CL bands; moreover, in magnesium-doped HA, an additional band at higher energy was found. The intensity ratios between selected CL bands showed some relationships with the powder crystallinity and the estimated amount of magnesium both in the HA lattice and in the amorphous surface layer; moreover the band observed only in magnesium-substituted powders could be directly related to the amount of magnesium entered into the HA lattice. Such results can contribute to improve the knowledge of the crystallographic structure of Mg-substituted hydroxyapatite.
Mammography is the primary method for screening and detecting breast cancers. However, it frequently fails to detect small tumors and is not quite specific in terms of tumor benignity and malignancy. The objective of this paper is to develop a new imaging modality called elastomammography that generates the modulus elastograms based conventional mammographs. A new elastic reconstruction method is described based on elastography and mammography for breast tissues. Elastic distribution can be reconstructed through the measurement of displacement provided by mammographic projection. It is shown that the proposed elasto-mammography provides higher sensitivity and specificity than the conventional mammography on its own for breast cancer diagnosis.
The exoskeleton of the lobster Homarus americanus is a multiphase bio-composite which consists of a fibrous organic matrix (crystalline α-chitin and various types of non-crystalline proteins) and embedded biominerals (mainly calcite). In this study we present experimental data about the microscopic and mesoscopic structure of this material.