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Nutritional therapy is a cornerstone of burns management. The optimal macronutrient intake for wound healing after burn injury has not been identified, although high-energy, high-protein diets are favoured. This study aimed to identify the optimal macronutrient intake for burn wound healing. The Geometric Framework (GF) was used to analyse wound healing after a 10% TBSA contact burn in mice ad libitum fed one of 11 high-energy diets, varying in macronutrient composition with protein (P5%-60%), carbohydrate (C20%-75%) and fat (F20%-75%). In the GF study, the optimal ratio for wound healing was identified as a moderate-protein, high-carbohydrate diet with a protein:carbohydrate:fat (P:C:F) ratio of 1:4:2. High-carbohydrate intake was associated with lower mortality, improved body weight and a beneficial pattern of body fat reserves. Protein intake was essential to prevent weight loss and mortality, but a protein intake target of ~7 kJ/day (~15% of energy intake) was identified, above which no further benefit was gained. High-protein intake was associated with delayed wound healing and increased liver and spleen weight. As the GF study demonstrated that an initial very high-protein intake prevented mortality, a very high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate diet (P40:C42:F18) was specifically designed. The dynamic diet study was also designed to combine and validate the benefits of an initial very high-protein intake for mortality, and subsequent moderate-protein, high-carbohydrate intake for optimal wound healing. The dynamic feeding experiment showed switching from an initial very high-protein diet to the optimal moderate-protein, high-carbohydrate diet accelerated wound healing whilst preventing mortality and liver enlargement.
The aim of this research was to identify variation in the yak lipin-1 gene (LPIN1) and determine whether this variation affects milk traits. PCR-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis was used to detect variation in the 5′ untranslated region of LPIN1 in 500 yaks from four populations: Tianzhu white yaks, Qinghai yaks, wild × domestic-cross yaks and Gannan yaks. Four unique PCR-SSCP patterns, representing four different DNA sequence variants (named A, B, C and D), were observed. These contained six single nucleotide polymorphisms. Female Gannan yaks with BC genotype produced milk with a higher fat content (P < 0.001) and total milk solids (P < 0.001), than those with the AA, AB and BB genotypes. These results would suggest that LPIN1 is having an effect on yak milk fat synthesis.
The hydroelastic waves in a channel covered by an ice sheet, without or with crack and subject to various edge constraints at channel banks, are investigated based on the linearized velocity potential theory for the fluid domain and the thin-plate elastic theory for the ice sheet. An effective analytical solution procedure is developed through expanding the velocity potential and the fourth derivative of the ice deflection to a series of cosine functions with unknown coefficients. The latter are integrated to obtain the expression for the deflection, which involves four constants. The procedure is then extended to the case with a longitudinal crack in the ice sheet by using the Dirac delta function and its derivatives at the crack in the dynamic equation, with unknown jumps of deflection and slope at the crack. Conditions at the edges and crack are then imposed, from which a system of linear equations for the unknowns is established. From this, the dispersion relation between the wave frequency and wavenumber is found, as well as the natural frequency of the channel. Extensive results are then provided for wave celerity, wave profiles and strain in the ice sheet. In-depth discussions are made on the effects of the edge condition, and the crack.
The fatty acid composition of chicken’s meat is largely influenced by dietary lipids, which are often used as supplements to increase dietary caloric density. The underlying key metabolites and pathways influenced by dietary oils remain poorly known in chickens. The objective of this study was to explore the underlying metabolic mechanisms of how diets supplemented with mixed or a single oil with distinct fatty acid composition influence the fatty acid profile in breast muscle of Qingyuan chickens. Birds were fed a corn-soybean meal diet supplemented with either soybean oil (control, CON) or equal amounts of mixed edible oils (MEO; soybean oil : lard : fish oil : coconut oil = 1 : 1 : 0.5 : 0.5) from 1 to 120 days of age. Growth performance and fatty acid composition of muscle lipids were analysed. LC-MS was applied to investigate the effects of CON v. MEO diets on lipid-related metabolites in the muscle of chickens at day 120. Compared with the CON diet, chickens fed the MEO diet had a lower feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05), higher proportions of lauric acid (C12:0), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7), oleic acid (C18:1n-9), EPA (C20:5n-3) and DHA (C22:6n-3), and a lower linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) content in breast muscle (P < 0.05). Muscle metabolome profiling showed that the most differentially abundant metabolites are phospholipids, including phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), which enriched the glycerophospholipid metabolism (P < 0.05). These key differentially abundant metabolites – PC (14:0/20:4), PC (18:1/14:1), PC (18:0/14:1), PC (18:0/18:4), PC (20:0/18:4), PE (22:0/P-16:0), PE (24:0/20:5), PE (22:2/P-18:1), PE (24:0/18:4) – were closely associated with the contents of C12:0, C14:0, DHA and C18:2n-6 in muscle lipids (P < 0.05). The content of glutathione metabolite was higher with MEO than CON diet (P < 0.05). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the diet supplemented with MEO reduced the feed conversion ratio, enriched the content of n-3 fatty acids and modified the related metabolites (including PC, PE and glutathione) in breast muscle of chickens.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
To estimate the effects of continuous daily treatment with different acid suppressants on the risk of ventilator-associated events in critically ill patients.
Retrospective cohort study.
Adult critically ill patients who underwent mechanical ventilation for ≥3 days during an inpatient admission between January 2006 and December 2014.
We estimated the 30-day cumulative risk ratios (RRs) for ventilator-associated events comparing daily proton pump inhibitor (PPI) versus daily histamine-2-receptor antagonist (H2RA) strategies while controlling for time-fixed and time-varying confounding and accounting for competing events.
Of 6,133 patients, on ventilation day 3, 58.8% received H2RAs, 26.1% received PPIs, and 4.1% received sucralfate. Patients frequently changed treatment throughout follow-up. Among 4,595 patients receiving PPIs or H2RAs on day 3, we found no differences in risk estimates for ventilator mortality and extubation alive comparing daily PPI versus daily H2RA strategies: RR, mortality, 1.03 (95% CI, 0.89–1.22); extubation alive, 1.00 (95% CI, 0.96–1.03). We found similar results after accounting for PPI dose. For possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP) and infection-related ventilator-associated complication (IVAC), point estimates were larger, but the 95% CIs crossed 1.0: RR PVAP, 1.25 (95% CI, 0.80–1.94); IVAC, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.64–1.17). The magnitude of effect estimates depended on PPI dose. The RR for PVAP, high-dose PPI versus H2RA, was 1.53 (95% CI, 0.82–2.51), and for low-dose PPI versus H2RA, the RR was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.47–1.63). For IVAC, high-dose PPI versus H2RA, the RR was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.66–1.42), and for low-dose PPI versus H2RA, the RR was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.50–1.11).
We estimated no effect of daily PPI versus daily H2RA on risk of mortality or extubation alive in critically ill patients. Further investigation with larger samples is warranted for PVAP and IVAC.
A large proportion of older adults are affected by impaired glucose metabolism. Previous studies with fish protein have reported improved glucose regulation in healthy adults, but the evidence in older adults is limited. Therefore, we wanted to assess the effect of increasing doses of a cod protein hydrolysate (CPH) on postprandial glucose metabolism in older adults. The study was a double-blind cross-over trial. Participants received four different doses (10, 20, 30 or 40 mg/kg body weight (BW)) of CPH daily for 1 week with 1-week washout periods in between. The primary outcome was postprandial response in glucose metabolism, measured by samples of serum glucose and insulin in 20 min intervals for 120 min. The secondary outcome was postprandial response in plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Thirty-one subjects aged 60–78 years were included in the study. In a mixed-model statistical analysis, no differences in estimated maximum value of glucose, insulin or GLP-1 were observed when comparing the lowest dose of CPH (10 mg/kg BW) with the higher doses (20, 30 or 40 mg/kg BW). The estimated maximum value of glucose was on average 0·28 mmol/l lower when the participants were given 40 mg/kg BW CPH compared with 10 mg/kg BW (P = 0·13). The estimated maximum value of insulin was on average 5·14 mIU/l lower with 40 mg/kg BW of CPH compared with 10 mg/kg BW (P = 0·20). Our findings suggest that serum glucose and insulin levels tend to decrease with increasing amounts of CPH. Due to preliminary findings, the results require further investigation.
Adolescents have been largely neglected from tuberculosis control efforts. In low- to medium burden settings much of the tuberculosis burden in this age group occurs from school outbreaks. We report on a large tuberculosis outbreak in adolescents from a boarding high school in Jiangsu Province, China. From March to June 2018, a tuberculosis outbreak occurred in a boarding high school. We conducted an outbreak investigation involving clinical diagnostic tests and molecular analysis to determine the outbreak origin. Cases were detected through symptom screening, tuberculin skin testing (TST), chest radiography, sputum smear, solid sputum culture and GeneXpert MTB/RIF. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping and spoligotyping methods were performed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) isolates to identify the outbreak origin. A total of 845 students and 131 teachers/staff attended a TST screening for tuberculosis infection. The prevalence of elevated tuberculin reactions at ≥5, ≥10 and ≥15 mm was 12.19% (119/976), 6.35% (62/976) and 3.28% (32/976), respectively. Radiographic abnormalities were present in 5.73% (56 of 976) individuals, 40 students and 16 teachers/staff. Of these, 12 students were diagnosed with confirmed tuberculosis. In total, 14 students (two index cases and 12 confirmed cases) were diagnosed and reported in the tuberculosis outbreak, an attack rate of 1.7% (14/847) among students (two index cases and 845 screened students). Results from MIRU-VNTR typing and spoligotyping analyses demonstrated that three M. tuberculosis strains belong to the Beijing family with corresponding MIRU-VNTR alleles. This school-based tuberculosis outbreak among adolescents demonstrates that transmission among individuals in this age group is common and must be prioritised. It suggests that identifying and timely diagnosis of smear-positive cases, especially in the early phase of outbreaks, is the key to preventing further spread among close contacts.
Ethnic minority groups often have more complex and aversive pathways to mental health care. However, large population-based studies are lacking, particularly regarding involuntary hospitalisation. We sought to examine the risk of involuntary admission among first-generation ethnic minority groups with early psychosis in Ontario, Canada.
Using health administrative data, we constructed a retrospective cohort (2009–2013) of people with first-onset non-affective psychotic disorder aged 16–35 years. This cohort was linked to immigration data to ascertain migrant status and country of birth. We identified the first involuntary admission within 2 years and compared the risk of involuntary admission for first-generation migrant groups to the general population. To control for the role of migrant status, we restricted the sample to first-generation migrants and examined differences by country of birth, comparing risk of involuntary admission among ethnic minority groups to a European reference. We further explored the role of migrant class by adjusting for immigrant vs refugee status within the migrant cohort. We also explored effect modification of migrant class by ethnic minority group.
We identified 15 844 incident cases of psychotic disorder, of whom 19% (n = 3049) were first-generation migrants. Risk of involuntary admission was higher than the general population in five of seven ethnic minority groups. African and Caribbean migrants had the highest risk of involuntary admission (African: risk ratio (RR) = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.34–1.73; Caribbean: RR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.37–1.82), and were the only groups where the elevated risk persisted when compared to the European reference group within the migrant cohort (African: RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.04–1.48; Caribbean: RR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.07–1.56). Refugee status was independently associated with involuntary admission (RR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.02–1.32); however, this risk varied by ethnic minority group, with Caribbean refugees having an elevated risk of involuntary admission compared with Caribbean immigrants (RR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.15–2.58).
Our findings are consistent with the international literature showing increased rates of involuntary admission among some ethnic minority groups with early psychosis. Interventions aimed at improving pathways to care could be targeted at these groups to reduce disparities.
In the livestock industry, subcutaneous and visceral fat pads are considered as wastes, while intramuscular fat or marbling fat is essential for improving flavor and palatability of meat. Thus, strategies for optimizing fat deposition are needed. Intramuscular adipocytes provide sites for lipid deposition and marbling formation. In the present article, we addressed the origin and markers of intramuscular adipocyte progenitors – fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs), as well as the latest progresses in mechanisms regulating the proliferation and differentiation of intramuscular FAPs. Finally, by targeting intramuscular FAPs, possible nutritional manipulations to improve marbling fat deposition are discussed. Despite recent progresses, the properties and regulation of intramuscular FAPs in livestock remain poorly understood and deserve further investigation.
Sensitive cotton varieties planted into soil treated with 2,4-D or dicamba utilized in burndowns can result in stunting and stand loss if use rate is too high and the plant-back interval is too short. The objective of this study was to evaluate cotton stunting and yield responses resulting from 2,4-D or dicamba residues in soil after preplant burndown applications at three locations in 2016 and 2017. Treatments with 2,4-D included 532 and 1,063 g ae ha−1 applied 3 wk before planting (WBP) and 53, 160, 266, 532, 1,063 g ae ha−1 applied at planting. Dicamba treatments included 560 and 1,120 g ae h−1 applied 3 WBP and 56, 168, 280, 560, 1,120 g ae ha−1 applied at planting. Dicamba or 2,4-D treatments applied 3 WBP resulted in no adverse effects on cotton stand, plant height, or yield. Dicamba 560 g ae h−1 applied at planting reduced cotton stand by 36% at 21 to 24 d after planting (DAP) over all locations in 2016. In 2017, stands were reduced by dicamba at 168, 280, 560, and 1,120 g ae ha−1 by 17% to 25% at 20 to 23 DAP. Moreover, cotton stands were not affected by 2,4-D in 2016, and only 266, 532, and 1,063 g ae ha−1 of 2,4-D caused stand reductions of 26% to 36% at 20 to 23 DAP over all locations in 2017. Dicamba at 560 g ae ha−1 at planting was the only treatment in this study that reduced plant height. Although stand losses were observed in both years, no yield loss occurred. The data suggest that stunting and stand reduction may occur if susceptible varieties are planted soon after burndown applications with 2,4-D or dicamba, but yield may not be affected after a full growing season. Dicamba showed greater potential to cause stunting and stand reduction than 2,4-D.
Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
Project management expertise is employed across many professional sectors, including clinical research organizations, to ensure that efforts undertaken by the organization are completed on time and according to specifications and are capable of achieving the needed impact. Increasingly, project leaders (PLs) who possess this expertise are being employed in academic settings to support clinical and preclinical translational research team science. Duke University’s clinical and translational science enterprise has been an early adopter of project management to support clinical and preclinical programs. We review the history and evolution of project management and the PL role at Duke, examine case studies that illustrate their growing value to our academic research environment, and address challenges and solutions to employing project management in academia. Furthermore, we describe the critical role project leadership plays in accelerating and increasing the success of translational team science and team approaches frequently required for systems biology and “big data” scientific studies. Finally, we discuss perspectives from Duke project leadership professionals regarding the training needs and requirements for PLs working in academic clinical and translational science research settings.
KRTAP8-1 was the initial high-glycine-tyrosine keratin-associated protein gene recognized in sheep, but little is known about the functional influence of this gene. The current study used polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism analysis to genotype KRTAP8-1 in 391 Southdown × Merino-cross sheep from six sire-lines. Five previously described variants (named A to E) of KRTAP8-1 were identified with frequencies of 67.0, 14.2, 7.0, 10.7 and 1.0%, respectively. Of the four variants (A, B, C and D) that occurred at a frequency greater than 5%, the presence of C was found to be associated with a reduction in mean fibre curvature (MFC) and the presence of D was associated with an increase in mean staple strength (MSS), whereas the presence of A had a trend of association with reduced MSS. Associations were not identified with other wool traits. These results suggest that variation in KRTAP8-1 affects MSS and MFC, and that KRTAP8-1 has the potential to be used as a genetic marker for improving these traits.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
Turbulence is commonly observed in nearly collisionless heliospheric plasmas, including the solar wind and corona and the Earth’s magnetosphere. Understanding the collisionless mechanisms responsible for the energy transfer from the turbulent fluctuations to the particles is a frontier in kinetic turbulence research. Collisionless energy transfer from the turbulence to the particles can take place reversibly, resulting in non-thermal energy in the particle velocity distribution functions (VDFs) before eventual collisional thermalization is realized. Exploiting the information contained in the fluctuations in the VDFs is valuable. Here we apply a recently developed method based on VDFs, the field–particle correlation technique, to a
, solar-wind-like, low-frequency Alfvénic turbulence simulation with well-resolved phase space to identify the field–particle energy transfer in velocity space. The field–particle correlations reveal that the energy transfer, mediated by the parallel electric field, results in significant structuring of the VDF in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. Fourier modes representing the length scales between the ion and electron gyroradii show that energy transfer is resonant in nature, localized in velocity space to the Landau resonances for each Fourier mode. The energy transfer closely follows the Landau resonant velocities with varying perpendicular wavenumber
. This resonant signature, consistent with Landau damping, is observed in all diagnosed Fourier modes that cover the dissipation range of the simulation.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.