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An ongoing challenge in understanding and treating personality disorders (PDs) is a significant heterogeneity in disorder expression, stemming from variability in underlying dynamic processes. These processes are commonly discussed in clinical settings, but are rarely empirically studied due to their personalized, temporal nature. The goal of the current study was to combine intensive longitudinal data collection with person-specific temporal network models to produce individualized symptom-level structures of personality pathology. These structures were then linked to traditional PD diagnoses and stress (to index daily functioning).
Using about 100 daily assessments of internalizing and externalizing domains underlying PDs (i.e. negative affect, detachment, impulsivity, hostility), a temporal network mapping approach (i.e. group iterative multiple model estimation) was used to create person-specific networks of the temporal relations among domains for 91 individuals (62.6% female) with a PD. Network characteristics were then associated with traditional PD symptomatology (controlling for mean domain levels) and with daily variation in clinically-relevant phenomena (i.e. stress).
Features of the person-specific networks predicted paranoid, borderline, narcissistic, and obsessive-PD symptom counts above average levels of the domains, in ways that align with clinical conceptualizations. They also predicted between-person variation in stress across days.
Relations among behavioral domains thought to underlie heterogeneity in PDs were indeed associated with traditional diagnostic constructs and with daily functioning (i.e. stress) in person-specific networks. Findings highlight the importance of leveraging data and models that capture person-specific, dynamic processes, and suggest that person-specific networks may have implications for precision medicine.
Online self-reported 24-h dietary recall systems promise increased feasibility of dietary assessment. Comparison against interviewer-led recalls established their convergent validity; however, reliability and criterion-validity information is lacking. The validity of energy intakes (EI) reported using Intake24, an online 24-h recall system, was assessed against concurrent measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE) using doubly labelled water in ninety-eight UK adults (40–65 years). Accuracy and precision of EI were assessed using correlation and Bland–Altman analysis. Test–retest reliability of energy and nutrient intakes was assessed using data from three further UK studies where participants (11–88 years) completed Intake24 at least four times; reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations (ICC). Compared with TEE, participants under-reported EI by 25 % (95 % limits of agreement −73 % to +68 %) in the first recall, 22 % (−61 % to +41 %) for average of first two, and 25 % (−60 % to +28 %) for first three recalls. Correlations between EI and TEE were 0·31 (first), 0·47 (first two) and 0·39 (first three recalls), respectively. ICC for a single recall was 0·35 for EI and ranged from 0·31 for Fe to 0·43 for non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES). Considering pairs of recalls (first two v. third and fourth recalls), ICC was 0·52 for EI and ranged from 0·37 for fat to 0·63 for NMES. EI reported with Intake24 was moderately correlated with objectively measured TEE and underestimated on average to the same extent as seen with interviewer-led 24-h recalls and estimated weight food diaries. Online 24-h recall systems may offer low-cost, low-burden alternatives for collecting dietary information.
To understand increasing rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Tennessee, we conducted testing, risk factor analysis and a nested case–control study among persons who use drugs. During June–October 2016, HCV testing with risk factor assessment was conducted in sexually transmitted disease clinics, family planning clinics and an addiction treatment facility in eastern Tennessee; data were analysed by using multivariable logistic regression. A nested case–control study was conducted to assess drug-using risks and behaviours among persons who reported intranasal or injection drug use (IDU). Of 4753 persons tested, 397 (8.4%) were HCV-antibody positive. HCV infection was significantly associated with a history of both intranasal and IDU (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 35.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 24.1–51.9), IDU alone (aOR 52.7, CI 25.3–109.9), intranasal drug use alone (aOR 2.6, CI 1.8–3.9) and incarceration (aOR 2.7, CI 2.0–3.8). By 4 October 2016, 574 persons with a reported history of drug use; 63 (11%) were interviewed further. Of 31 persons who used both intranasal and injection drugs, 26 (84%) reported previous intranasal drug use, occurring 1–18 years (median 5.5 years) before their first IDU. Our findings provide evidence that reported IDU, intranasal drug use and incarceration are independent indicators of risk for past or present HCV infection in the study population.
We performed a spatial-temporal analysis to assess household risk factors for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in a remote, severely-affected village. We defined a household as a family's shared living space and a case-household as a household with at least one resident who became a suspect, probable, or confirmed Ebola case from 1 August 2014 to 10 October 2014. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) software to calculate inter-household distances, performed space-time cluster analyses, and developed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). Village X consisted of 64 households; 42% of households became case-households over the observation period. Two significant space-time clusters occurred among households in the village; temporal effects outweighed spatial effects. GEE demonstrated that the odds of becoming a case-household increased by 4·0% for each additional person per household (P < 0·02) and 2·6% per day (P < 0·07). An increasing number of persons per household, and to a lesser extent, the passage of time after onset of the outbreak were risk factors for household Ebola acquisition, emphasizing the importance of prompt public health interventions that prioritize the most populated households. Using GIS with GEE can reveal complex spatial-temporal risk factors, which can inform prioritization of response activities in future outbreaks.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
The Compendium of Physical Activities (CPA) provides the energy expenditure (EE) for hundreds of daily activities reported in metabolic equivalents (MET). It remains to be determined if the metabolic changes of pregnancy alter the use of the CPA MET (METCPA) in this population. The energy cost of rest, activities of daily living (ADL; typing, folding laundry and sweeping) and treadmill walking [2.0, 2.5, 3.0 mph (0% incline), 3.0 mph (3% incline)] were compared with the METCPA from the 2000 and 2011 CPA in 30 pregnant women (10–14 weeks gestation) using indirect calorimetry (IC). The METCPA for each activity was compared against two measured IC values: METabsolute (3.5 ml O2/kg/min) and METratio (EEactivity/EErest). Means for both comparisons were tested by one-sample t-test. Measured MET correlated with the 2011 METCPA: METabsolutev. METCPAR2 = 0.906, P < 0.0001; METratiov. METCPAR2 = 0.861, P < 0.0001. Differences between measured MET values and the 2011 METCPA ranged from 16% underestimation to 48% overestimation. Using the absolute definition, the METCPA significantly overestimated the ADL (P < 0.0005); yet, no significant differences were found between walking at 0% grade and METCPA. Conversely, only folding laundry was significantly different with the ratio definition, whereas walking at a level grade was significantly underestimated (P < 0.0001). Similar observations were found using the 2000 CPA. The use of the METCPA to estimate EE in pregnant women can result in significant over- or underestimation, depending on the activity and the definition of the MET that is used.
Epitaxial PbTiOM3 films were prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on MgO(001), SrTiO3 (001) and LaAlO3 (001) surfaces. Four-circle X-ray diffraction and optical waveguiding experiments were performed to characterize the deposited films. The films on all three substrates were single-crystal; however, the domain structure of the films was strongly dependent on the substrate material. Films on MgO and LaAlO3 substrates showed a large amount of 90° domain structures, whereas, the degree of twinning was greatly suppressed for films on SrTiO3. The refractive indices and optical birefringence of the films were measured as a function of wavelength using the film-prism coupling method. We found that for films on LaAlO3 (001), the ordinary index and for films on MgO(001) both the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices were higher than those of bulk single-crystal PbTiO3. For films grown on SrTiO3 (001), the ordinary refractive index was very close to that of single crystal PbTiO3. We correlate the increased refractive index and the reduced birefringence to the degree of epitaxial strain and twinning in the samples, respectively.
The growth and structural characterization of Fe3O4/MgO superlattices on MgO(001) and Fe-coated MgO(001) are compared. Long modulated coherence and sharp interface are revealed by X-ray diffraction and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). For the superlattice grown directly on MgO(001), high crystalline quality is comparable to the previous report on the oxide superlattice system. For the superlattice grown on Fe/MgO(001), both chemical and lattice spacing modulations are maintained which is different from the polycrystlline structure of the Fe3O4/NiO grown on Ni-based system. This superiority of the growth on Fe-coated surface results from both the smaller lattice mismatch and the oxidation state of Fe relative to MgO. The changes of the RHEED intensity during the growth of these superlattices are also measured. The evolution of the oxide interface during the growth of Fe3O4/MgO is quantitatively presented.
Single-crystal thin films covering the full compositional range of Pb(ZrxTi1−x)O3(PZT) 0≤x≤1 have been deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The films were grown on epitaxial, RF-sputter-deposited SrRuO3 thin film electrodes on (001) SrTiO3 substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive electron spectroscopy (EDS) and optical waveguiding were used to characterize the crystalline structure, composition, refractive index, and film thickness of the deposited films. We found that the PZT films were single-crystalline for all compositions exhibiting cube-on-cube epitaxy with the substrate with very high degrees of crystallinity and orientation. We report the systematic variations in the optical, dielectric, polarization, and transport properties as a function of composition and the epitaxy-induced modifications in the solid-solution phase diagram of this system. These films exhibited electronic properties which showed clear systematic variations with composition. High values of remnant polarization (30–55 μC/cm2) were observed at all ferroelectric compositions. Unlike previous studies, the dielectric constant exhibited a clear dependence on composition with values ranging from 225–650. The coercive fields decreased with increasing Zr concentration to a minimum of 20 kV/cm at the (70/30) composition. In addition, these films exhibited both high resistivity and dielectric-breakdown strength (˜1013 Ω-cm at 100 kV/cm and >300 kV/cm, respectively) without any compensative doping.
A perplexing issue in the growth of epitaxial oxide films on (100) silicon is the observed (110) orientation of yttria (Y2O3) and ceria (CeO2) despite the (100) orientation having a lower lattice mismatch. As expected, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) grows with the (100) orientation, yet it has a worse lattice match than both Y2O3(100) and CeO2(100) with silicon (100). The orientations observed would be expected if an epitaxial metal suicide layer forms initially during growth, before the oxidizing ambient is introduced. Calculation of the ensuing lattice mismatch between the oxide and suicide layer and multiplicity (σoxide) of the near coincident-site lattice for the oxide lattice shows that the (110) orientation is better lattice-matched than the (100) orientation for both Y2O3 (+2.3% × -2.4%, σoxide= 2, vs. -2.4% × +3.5%, σoxide = 4) and CeO2 (+1.8% × -4.0%, σoxide = 5, vs. 1.9% × 1.9%, σoxide= 5) and that for YSZ, (100) is better lattice matched than (110) (-0.8% × -1.6%, σoxide = 1, vs. -1.1 % × +4.8%, σoxide = 3). In each case, the in-plane orientation yielding the lowest mismatch with the suicide layer is consistent with the in-plane orientation observed between the oxide film and silicon substrate. Furthermore, the commonly observed rotational twinning in the oxide film can be accounted for by the expected orthogonal domain multipositioning in both the suicide and oxide layers. In CeO2, multipositioning allows two equally matched sets of orthogonal domains. One set consists of the two experimentally observed orientations (related by a 90° rotation). The other set is rotated 37° from the commonly observed orientations. Only the set with orientations aligned to the surface steps of Si(100) is observed, indicating the likely influence of graphoepitaxy in selecting between the two degenerate sets of orientations. When grown on Pt(100), Y2O3 grows with predominantly the (100) orientation and no (110) orientation, suggesting that without suicide formation, Y2O3 will grow with the expected well matched (100) orientation even when polar interfaces are involved.
(Ba, Sr)TiO3 films were deposited on Pt-coated SiO2/Si wafers by the MOCVD method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the mechanisms of nucleation and growth. It was observed that the diameter of the (Ba, Sr)TiO3 grains is established in the early stages of nucleation and does not increase substantially during the growth of the film. By controlling the process conditions, it is possible to control the final microstructure and improve the electrical properties of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 films. I-V and C-V measurements show that (Ba, Sr)TiO3 films with a thickness of approximately 15nm can produce a charge storage density of >120 fF/μm2 with a leakage current density of < 10 nA/cm2 at IV, making them suitable for Gigabit-scale DRAM applications.
Lanthanum-doped or niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate stannate antiferroelectric thin films with the thickness of about 0.4 μm have been prepared from acetic acid-based or 2-methoxyethanol-based sol-gel method. All the films have the maximum polarization larger than 30 μC/cm2 and show zero remanent polarization. By choosing appropriate compositions, we can make the films have “square” hysteresis loops with very sharp phase transition or “slanted” hysteresis loops with very small hysteresis. The properties that are important for decoupling capacitor and microactuator applications are characterized. For decoupling capacitor applications, films having square hysteresis loops with energy storage density of up to 7 J/cm3 can be made, which release more than half of their stored charge in 10 ns with a maximum current density of more than 9400 A/cm2. For microactuator applications, the films can either have a strain level of 0.32% with very small hysteresis or have a strain level of 0.42% with moderate hysteresis.
We synthesized dendrimer composite nanoparticles and investigated their potential for traditional X-ray imaging and Computed Tomography (CT). These new X-ray contrast agents show better contrast compared to traditional iodine-based contrast agents, and are expected to clear from the blood much slower than commercial agents, permitting longer imaging times. We have also investigated their safety profile in terms of viscosity and osmotic pressure.
Peach-potato aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), collected in Scotland in the years 1995 and 2002–2004 were characterized using four microsatellite loci and three insecticide resistance mechanisms. From 868 samples, 14 multilocus genotypes were defined (designated clones A–N). Five of these (denoted A, B, H, M and N) carried modified acetylcholinesterase (MACE) resistance, the most recent resistance mechanism to have evolved in M. persicae. The current paper shows that the continued presence of MACE aphids is due to turnover, as clones A and B were replaced in field samples by clones H, M and N in later seasons. Thus, insecticide-resistant populations in Scotland can be attributed to multiple waves of rapid clone colonisations and not to the continued presence of stable resistant clones or mutation or sexual recombination in local populations. The MACE clones carried varying levels of the other insecticide resistance mechanisms, kdr and esterase. The presence of these mechanisms could alter the clones success in the field depending on insecticide spraying (positive selection) and resistance fitness costs (negative selection).
The relationship between plutonic and volcanic rocks is central to understanding the geochemical evolution of silicic magma systems, but it is clouded by ambiguities associated with unravelling the plutonic record. Here we report an integrated U–Pb, O and Lu–Hf isotope study of zircons from three putative granitic–volcanic rock pairs from the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia, to explore the connection between the intrusive and extrusive realms. The data reveal contrasting petrogenetic scenarios for the S- and I-type pairs. The zircon Hf–O isotope systematics in an I-type dacite are very similar to those of their plutonic counterpart, supporting an essentially co-magmatic relationship between these units. The elevated δ18O of zircons in these I-type rocks confirm a significant supracrustal source component. The S-type volcanic rocks are not the simple erupted equivalents of the granites, although the extrusive and plutonic units can be related by open-system magmatic evolution. Zircons in the S-type rocks define covariant εHf–δ18O arrays that attest to mixing or assimilation processes between two components, one being the Ordovician metasedimentary country rocks, the other either an I-type magma or a mantle-derived magma. The data are consistent with models involving incremental melt extraction from relatively juvenile magmas undergoing open-system differentiation at depth, followed by crystal-liquid mixing upon emplacement in shallow magma reservoirs, or upon eruption. The latter juxtaposes crystals with markedly different petrogenetic histories and determines whole-rock geochemical and textural properties. This scenario can explain the puzzling decoupling between the bulk rock isotope and geochemical compositions commonly observed for granite suites.
Myzus persicae (Sulzer) collected in Scotland were characterized for four microsatellite loci, intergenic spacer fingerprints and the resistance mechanisms modified acetylcholinesterase (MACE), overproduced carboxylesterase and knockdown resistance (kdr). Microsatellite polymorphisms were used to define a limited number of clones that were either fully susceptible to insecticides or possessed characteristic combinations of resistance mechanisms. Within these clones, intergenic spacer fingerprints could either be very consistent or variable, with the latter indicating ongoing evolution within lineages, most likely derived from the same zygote. Two clones (termed A and B) possessed all three resistance mechanisms and predominated at sites treated with insecticides. Their appearance on seed potatoes and oilseed rape in Scotland in 2001 coincided with extensive insecticide use and severe control failures. Clones C, I and J, with no or fewer resistance mechanisms, were found in samples from 1995 and were dominant at untreated sites in 2001. A comparison of Scottish collections with those from other UK and non-UK sites provides insight into the likely origins, distribution and dynamics of M. persicae clones in a region where asexual (anholocyclic) reproduction predominates, but is vulnerable to migration by novel genotypes from areas of Europe where sexual (holocyclic) reproduction occurs.
Data recording the course of scrapie outbreaks in 4 sheep flocks (2 in Cheviot sheep and 2 in Suffolks) are compared. For each outbreak the data on scrapie incidence and sheep demography and pedigrees cover periods of years or decades. A key finding is that the incidence of clinical cases peaks in sheep 2–3 years old, despite very different forces-of-infection. This is consistent with age-specific susceptibility of sheep to scrapie, as has been reported for cattle to bovine spongiform encephalopathy and for humans to variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Scrapie incidence was higher in ewes than rams and at certain times of years, though these effects were not consistent between flocks. There was no evidence for high levels of vertical transmission.
The preferred orientation, grain morphology, and composition heterogeneity of the polycrystalline Pb(ZrxTi1–x)O3 (PZT) thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). PZT thin films with nominal x = 0.5 were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on (110)- and (101)-textured RuO2 bottom electrodes at temperatures ≤525 °C. Columnar grain microstructure with strongly faceted surface morphology was observed in both films. The grain morphology and surface roughness of the PZT films were observed to depend on those of the underlying RuO2 layers. TEM-EDS analysis shows notable cation composition heterogeneity in length scales of 0.2–2 μm. Pronounced Pb composition deficiency and heterogeneity were also observed in PZT/(110)RuO2 in length scales above 40 μm. The grain morphology and cation heterogeneity of the PZT films are discussed on the basis of diffusion-limited columnar growth mechanism.