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Accurate models of X-ray absorption and re-emission in partly stripped ions are necessary to calculate the structure of stars, the performance of hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion and many other systems in high-energy-density plasma physics. Despite theoretical progress, a persistent discrepancy exists with recent experiments at the Sandia Z facility studying iron in conditions characteristic of the solar radiative–convective transition region. The increased iron opacity measured at Z could help resolve a longstanding issue with the standard solar model, but requires a radical departure for opacity theory. To replicate the Z measurements, an opacity experiment has been designed for the National Facility (NIF). The design uses established techniques scaled to NIF. A laser-heated hohlraum will produce X-ray-heated uniform iron plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at temperatures
eV and electron densities
. The iron will be probed using continuum X-rays emitted in a
diameter source from a 2 mm diameter polystyrene (CH) capsule implosion. In this design,
of the NIF beams deliver 500 kJ to the
mm diameter hohlraum, and the remaining
directly drive the CH capsule with 200 kJ. Calculations indicate this capsule backlighter should outshine the iron sample, delivering a point-projection transmission opacity measurement to a time-integrated X-ray spectrometer viewing down the hohlraum axis. Preliminary experiments to develop the backlighter and hohlraum are underway, informing simulated measurements to guide the final design.
This paper sets out the detailed stratigraphy and chronology of the palaeolithic rockshelters of Asprochaliko and Kastritsa excavated in the 1960s, the methods used by the original investigators in excavation and classification of the finds, and the general characteristics of the stone industries and fauna. Methods of estimating the density of finds are discussed. Estimates of time density — the number of specimens accumulated per unit area per unit time — are applied to the upper palaeolithic deposits at both sites and reveal major differences in the rate of discard of material, indicating more intensive occupation at Kastritsa. Inter-site differences in the proportion of faunal species and artefact types are analysed in the light of the time-density evidence, and the various factors that could have influenced the pattern of inter-site variation are discussed.
To examine the micronutrient status of disadvantaged pre-schoolers from Northeast Brazil, following the introduction of pro-poor policies, by assessing the prevalence of anaemia and micronutrient deficiencies and the role of sociodemographic factors, genetic Hb disorders and parasitic infections.
In a cross-sectional study, data on sociodemographic status, health, growth, genetic Hb disorders, parasites and nutrient supply from day-care meals were obtained. Fasting blood samples were collected and analysed for Hb, serum ferritin, transferrin receptor, folate, vitamin B12, retinol, Zn and Se.
Pre-schoolers aged 3–6 years from disadvantaged households.
Of the 376 sampled children, 94 % were of black or mixed race; 33 % and 29 % had at least one genetic Hb disorder and intestinal parasite, respectively. Stunting and underweight were ≤5 %; 14 % were overweight. Day-care centres supplied micronutrient-dense meals and snacks each weekday. Less than 10 % of pre-schoolers had anaemia and micronutrient deficiencies. Predictors (P < 0·05) of Hb were α3·7 thalassaemia, Se and retinol (but not ferritin). Micronutrient predictors (P < 0·05) were: elevated α1-glycoprotein for ferritin, Hb AS and BMI Z-score >1 for transferrin receptor, Zn and elevated α1-glycoprotein for retinol, sex and helminths for Se, helminths for vitamin B12, and Giardia intestinalis infection for serum folate.
Impaired growth, anaemia and micronutrient deficiencies were uncommon among these disadvantaged pre-schoolers attending day care. A range of interventions including provision of micronutrient-dense, fortified day-care meals, deworming and vitamin A supplementation likely contributed to improved micronutrient status, suggesting expanded coverage of these programmes.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. The atmospheric conditions at Dome C deliver a high sensitivity, high photometric precision, wide-field, high spatial resolution, and high-cadence imaging capability to the PILOT telescope. These capabilities enable a unique scientific potential for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents a series of projects dealing with the nearby Universe that have been identified as key science drivers for the PILOT facility. Several projects are proposed that examine stellar populations in nearby galaxies and stellar clusters in order to gain insight into the formation and evolution processes of galaxies and stars. A series of projects will investigate the molecular phase of the Galaxy and explore the ecology of star formation, and investigate the formation processes of stellar and planetary systems. Three projects in the field of exoplanet science are proposed: a search for free-floating low-mass planets and dwarfs, a program of follow-up observations of gravitational microlensing events, and a study of infrared light-curves for previously discovered exoplanets. Three projects are also proposed in the field of planetary and space science: optical and near-infrared studies aimed at characterising planetary atmospheres, a study of coronal mass ejections from the Sun, and a monitoring program searching for small-scale Low Earth Orbit satellite debris items.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. Conditions at Dome C are known to be exceptional for astronomy. The seeing (above ∼30 m height), coherence time, and isoplanatic angle are all twice as good as at typical mid-latitude sites, while the water-vapour column, and the atmosphere and telescope thermal emission are all an order of magnitude better. These conditions enable a unique scientific capability for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents an overview of the optical and instrumentation suite for PILOT and its expected performance, a summary of the key science goals and observational approach for the facility, a discussion of the synergies between the science goals for PILOT and other telescopes, and a discussion of the future of Antarctic astronomy. Paper II and Paper III present details of the science projects divided, respectively, between the distant Universe (i.e. studies of first light, and the assembly and evolution of structure) and the nearby Universe (i.e. studies of Local Group galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Solar System).
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
The oxidation of CANDU fuel (UO2) by the alpha-radiolysis products of water has been investigated using electrochemical and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic-experiments. Experiments with O2 and H2O2, two of the expected products of radiolysis of water, indicate that the rate of oxidation of UO2 by H2O2 is about 200 times faster than by dissolved oxygen. Oxidation by both H2O2 and O2 shows pH dependence. Possible reaction paths for the oxidation of UO2 by radiolysis products are discussed.
The ability to dissociate the photo-generated excitons and transport the resulting charge carriers are the major impediments in improving the efficiency of polymeric solar cells. In order to simultaneously address both of these issues, we have investigated the use of quantum dotsingle wall carbon nanotube (QD-SWNT) complexes as a suitable nanomaterial dopant in these devices. The formation of CdSe-SWNT complexes occurred through covalent attachment of carboxylic acid-functionalized SWNTs with CdSe-aminoethanethiol (AET) quantum dots. An additional synthetic approach was evaluated using both electrostatic and covalent attachment schemes for CuInS2-mercaptoacetic acid (MA) quantum dots and amine terminated SWNTs. The efficacy of each approach is discussed, including the necessary transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical absorption spectroscopy data to probe the interactions between nanomaterials. The potential effects of charge transfer between components may have important implications in the efficiency of these materials for polymeric photovoltaic devices.
A total of 134876 Diptera collected in Kenya during a 3-year period were tested in 3383 pools for Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus. Nineteen pools of unengorged mosquitoes were found positive for RVF. All isolations were made from specimens collected at or near the naturally or artificially flooded grassland depressions that serve as the developmental sites for the immature stages of many mosquito species. The isolation of virus from adult male and female A. lineatopennis which had been reared from field-collected larvae and pupae suggests that transovarial transmission of the virus occurs in this species.
In July 1999, a rare strain of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg was isolated from the sputum of a trauma patient. Over a 6-year period (1999-2005) in northeast Florida, this Salmonella serovar spread to 66 other patients in 16 different healthcare facilities as a result of frequent transfers of patients among institutions. To our knowledge, this is the first outbreak of healthcare-associated infection and colonization with a fluoroquinolone-resistant strain of S. Senftenberg in the United States.
To investigate an outbreak of infection and colonization with an unusual strain of S. Senftenberg and assist with infection control measures.
A case series, outbreak investigation, and microbiological study of all samples positive for S. Senftenberg on culture.
Cases of S. Senftenberg infection and colonization occurred in hospitals and long-term care facilities in 2 counties in northeast Florida.
The affected patients were mostly elderly persons with multiple medical conditions. They were frequently transferred between healthcare facilities. This Salmonella serovar was capable of long-term colonization of chronically ill patients. All S. Senftenberg isolates tested shared a similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern.
A prolonged outbreak of infection and colonization with multidrug-resistant S. Senftenberg was identified in several healthcare facilities throughout the Jacksonville, Florida, area and became established when infection control measures failed. The bacterial agent was capable of long-term colonization in chronically ill patients. Because the dispersal pattern of this strain suggested a breakdown of infection control practices, a multipronged intervention approach was undertaken that included intense education of personnel in the different institutions, interinstitutional cooperation, and transfer paperwork notification.
A host-specific fungus Colletotrichum truncatum strain 00-3B1 (Ct) was mixed with herbicides to improve the control of scentless chamomile, a noxious weed in western Canada. The compatibility of Ct conidia (spores) with herbicides was evaluated in vitro, and varying effects were observed with different products on spore germination. Clodinafop, glufosinate, MCPA, and 2,4-D ester were relatively benign and delayed the germination slightly, whereas dicamba, imazethapyr, metribuzin, and 2,4-D amine were noticeably more inhibitive. Bromoxynil, glyphosate, sethoxydim, and Merge® (spray adjuvant) were most inhibitive, showing >50% inhibition after 24 h. To determine potential synergy, Ct was applied at 7 × 106 spores/ml in tank mixtures with selected herbicides at 1× and 0.1× registered rates under greenhouse conditions. Combining Ct with MCPA, 2,4-D ester, clopyralid, or metribuzin at 1× rate resulted in synergistic or additive interaction on scentless chamomile, increasing weed control significantly when compared to Ct or herbicides applied alone. Similar applications of Ct with imazethapyr, 2,4-D amine, dicamba, or glyphosate were antagonistic. Treatments with Ct plus 1× metribuzin killed scentless chamomile completely, whereas neither Ct nor the herbicide alone caused plant death, suggesting the value of this tank mixture.
Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) adsorbed on a carbon black support (Vulcan XC-72) and pyrolyzed at various temperatures is a potential catalyst for the reduction of oxygen in solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells. This paper reports the results of the microstructural characterization of β-Co particles that are formed after pyrolysis at temperatures of 700, 900, and 1050 °C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that (i) for a pyrolysis temperature of 700 °C, the size distribution of the Co particles is bell-shaped with an average value of 4 nm and mean deviation of 1 nm; (ii) for a pyrolysis temperature of 900 °C, the Co particle size distribution skews toward larger particle sizes. The most probable particle size is about 6 nm, and the average particle size is 13 nm. By comparison with the TEM results, the particle size estimated from a spectroscopic method like x-ray absorption is underestimated, while from x-ray diffraction is overestimated. The TEM images show that Co particles act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the graphitization of amorphous carbon. It is shown that (i), at least for pyrolysis temperature of 900 °C and above, most of the β-Co particles are surrounded by a shell of graphitic carbon layers that appears to protect the particles from corrosion in acidic media; (ii) for pyrolysis temperature of 1050 °C, graphite strings also appear throughout the amorphous carbon support in areas where Co particles are not detected. This behavior was not observed after pyrolysis of as-received carbon support at 1050 °C. These results allow for a better understanding of the behavior of the pyrolyzed catalysts immersed in an acidic solution or in a solid polymer fuel cell.
We have made the first observation of Kα X-ray satellites from a target heated by an intense ion beam. The satellites are produced when thermal ionization due to beam heating is accompanied by inner-shell ionization from beam ion impact. The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II was used to irradiate a conical aluminum target with a proton beam. The nominal beam parameters were 50–75 kJ in a 1-cm spot, 15–20-ns pulse length, and 4–5-MeV protons at peak power. An elliptical crystal X-ray spectrograph inside a 1000-kg tungsten shield was used to record the spectra. The peak ion stage reached by the aluminum target was +8. Collisional radiative calculations were performed, which indicate a peak electron temperature of 20–60 eV.
Aedes lineatopennis (Ludlow) is thought to be a vector and maintenance host for Rift Valley fever virus in Kenya and perhaps other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Immature examples are often found in tremendous numbers in restricted, low lying habitats known as dambos. A dambo in Thika District, Central Province, Kenya, was artificially flooded to simulate the conditions occurring when this area naturally floods and induces the hatch of A. lineatopennis eggs. Observations on the dispersion and survival of the emerging adult population were made at a time when no other adult A. lineatopennis populations existed. More than 10% (87 511) of the estimated A. lineatopennis adults that emerged from the flooded dambo were collected during a 45-day period. The overall mean distance travelled by males in the 45 days after emergence was only 0·07 km. Female dispersal was interrupted but generally was with the prevailing wind. The overall mean distance travelled by females in the 44 days after emergence was 0·15 km. Mortality of both males and females was independent of age. The high daily survival rate of males (0·83) was not significantly different from that of the females (0·85).
Evidence of Palaeolithic occupation in Epirus discovered in 1962 by the late E. S. Higgs is re-analysed, especially that from Asprochaliko and Kastritsa. The paper also presents the results of the first season's excavations at the rock-shelter of Klithi, which throws light on problems connected with the interpretation of the earlier excavation and the different functions of the two sites. The new excavations demonstrate that Klithi contains a rich Palaeolithic deposit, perhaps dating within the period 20,000 to 12,000 years ago.
Data for a total of 3715 cattle from four sources were used to examine the relative importance of live weight at slaughter, and visual assessments of carcass conformation and subcutaneous fat cover, as predictors of killing out. The sources were the Meat and Livestock Commission's beef breed evaluation programme (1689 steers of different breeds and crosses), the beef demonstration unit at the National Agricultural Centre, Stoneleigh (814 commercial dairy-bred cattle), an East Anglian abattoir (405 commercial cattle) and the Milk Marketing Board's Warren Farm (807 dairy-bred steers by different sire breeds). An assessment of live body conformation was also examined as a predictor in the Warren Farm data.
Carcass conformation provided a more precise prediction of killing out than did either live weight or subcutaneous fat score. Regression coefficients in the different groups ranged from 5·4 to 12·0 g/kg for each increase in conformation class (six-point scale). The live conformation assessment was a less precise predictor (within sire breed residual s.d. = 17·7 g/kg) than the carcass assessment (15·6 g/kg).