To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The principle and practice of pro bono, or volunteer legal services for poor and other marginalized groups, is an increasingly important feature of civil justice systems around the world. Recent surveys have identified pro bono initiatives in more than eighty countries - including Colombia, Portugal, Nigeria, and Singapore - and the list keeps growing. Covering the spread of pro bono in across five continents, this book provides a unique comparative dataset permitting the first-ever analysis of pro bono's growing role in access to justice globally. The contributors are leading experts from around the world, whose chapters explore both the internal roots of and global influences on pro bono in transnational context. Global Pro Bono explores the dramatically expanding geographical and political reach of pro bono: documenting its essential contribution to bringing more justice to those on the margins, while underscoring its complex and contested meaning in different parts of the world.
Explore a thorough and up to date overview of the current knowledge, developments and outstanding challenges in turbulent combustion and application. The balance among various renewable and combustion technologies are surveyed, and numerical and experimental tools are discussed along with recent advances. Covers combustion of gaseous, liquid and solid fuels and subsonic and supersonic flows. This detailed insight into the turbulence-combustion coupling with turbulence and other physical aspects, shared by a number of the world leading experts in the field, makes this an excellent reference for graduate students, researchers and practitioners in the field.
Fertilization is an exceptionally specific cell recognition event that represents the culmination of a complex sequence of morphological and functional maturational events. In the case of the male gamete, this process is initiated by the commitment of spermatogonial stem cells to differentiate, sequentially forming spermatogonia, spermatocytes and eventually spermatozoa that are released into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules . In addition to meiotic divisions, this process encompasses extensive cytoplasmic, organelle and nuclear remodeling events, thus establishing the unique and highly polarized architecture of the mature spermatozoon. A key aspect of this phase of development is the modification and repositioning of the Golgi apparatus to form a highly specialized secretory organelle, known as the acrosome, overlying the anterior aspect of the sperm head. Upon release from the testes the functionally immature spermatozoa enter the epididymis where they are progressively remodeled and acquire both motility and the potential to fertilize an oocyte . This potential is eventually realized after passage through the female reproductive tract whereupon the ejaculated cells complete a suite of biochemical and biophysical changes known as capacitation . These successive phases of functional maturation culminate in the acquired ability to release the acrosomal contents, during an event known as the acrosome reaction. This unique exocytotic event facilitates sperm passage through the outer vestments of the oocyte and is essential for successful in vivo fertilization in all mammalian species, including the human . Consequently, failure of acrosomal exocytosis represents a common etiology in defective spermatozoa of male infertility patients that have failed in vitro fertilization (IVF) in a clinical setting; accounting for as much as 29 percent of unexplained male infertility cases [5, 6]. Much of our current mechanistic understanding of the acrosome reaction is grounded in the ability to stimulate this process in vitro using simple chemically defined media and the application of pharmacological interventions, and/or transgenic mouse models. Here, we discuss the biological significance of the acrosome reaction and the application of histochemical techniques that have been developed to study the progression and completion of this critical physiological event.
This study aimed to evaluate and compare cases of simultaneous and consecutive bilateral cochlear implantation from the perspective of the duration of anaesthesia, surgical complications and hospitalisation.
Fifty patients with simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation (group 1) and 47 patients with consecutive bilateral cochlear implantation (group 2) were included in this study. The two groups were compared in terms of the duration of anaesthesia, the duration of surgery, radiological findings, the complications and the post-operative hospitalisation time.
Group 1 had a significantly shorter operation time than group 2 (p < 0.01). The mean total operation time was 189 minutes in group 1. In group 2, the mean operation times for the first and second surgery were 134 minutes and 136 minutes, respectively, and the total operation time for both surgical procedures in group 2 was 270 minutes. The duration of post-operative hospitalisation of the patients in group 1 was significantly shorter than the total post-operative hospitalisation after both operations for the patients in group 2 (p < 0.01).
In conclusion, if there is no anatomical problem that may lead to a prolonged operation time or any risk regarding anaesthesia, simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation can be performed safely.
Several sag-type basins apparently developed from rift systems, but there is no consensus about how and if these grabens influenced the sedimentation of the post-rift thermal subsidence phase. The Ediacaran Jaibaras Rift Basin is one of the best-exposed sedimentary records among the NE Brazil late Precambrian – early Cambrian rift system, cropping out at the eastern margin of the intracratonic Parnaíba Basin and extending below it towards the west. Here we present detrital zircon U–Pb ages of rocks from the Jaibaras (Aprazível Formation) and Parnaíba (Ipu Formation) basins, in order to understand the provenance patterns, maximum depositional ages (MDA) and age relationship between these units. The MDA for the Aprazível Formation (c. 499 ± 5 Ma) indicates a Cambrian age for the upper part of the Jaibaras Basin. The bulk U–Pb data indicate that the Ipu Formation started to deposit during late Cambrian and/or Early Ordovician time, despite its MDA (c. 528 ± 11 Ma) being older than that of the Aprazível Formation. Detrital zircon provenance suggests that the primary source areas for the early deposits of the Parnaíba Basin were mountains related to the Brasiliano Orogeny to the south and SE (e.g. Rio Preto and Riacho do Pontal metamorphic belts). Finally, our data emphasize the key change in source areas from the rift to the initial deposition of the intracratonic phase, indicating major depositional style changes between both basins after the Gondwana assembly.
In this volume, we examined examples of environmental injustice and unsustainable development from around the world, emphasizing multiple, overlapping forms of subordination and the legal tools used by communities in their struggles to seek remedy and redress. In this concluding chapter, we offer some reflections on moving beyond fragmentation and toward holistic and just solutions. We also provide some clarifications and discuss some of the challenges we encountered as we compiled and edited this volume.
Humanity stands at a critical juncture. It has entered a new geologic era called the “Anthropocene,”1 in which unbridled economic activity threatens irreversible ecological harm. In the name of “development,” human beings have caused massive ecosystem destruction and species extinction, disrupted the planet’s climate, and generated vast amounts of toxic waste – exceeding the assimilative and regenerative capacity of nature.