To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Objective: White matter (WM) microstructural changes are
increasingly recognized as a mechanism of age-related cognitive differences.
This study examined the associations between patterns of WM microstructure and
cognitive performance on the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF)
Brain Health Assessment (BHA) subtests of memory (Favorites), executive
functions and speed (Match), and visuospatial skills (Line Orientation) within a
sample of older adults. Method: Fractional anisotropy (FA) in WM
tracts and BHA performance were examined in 84 older adults diagnosed as
neurologically healthy (47), with mild cognitive impairment (19), or with
dementia (18). The relationships between FA and subtest performances were
evaluated using regression analyses. We then explored whether regional WM
predicted performance after accounting for variance explained by global FA.
Results: Memory performance was associated with FA of the
fornix and the superior cerebellar peduncle; and executive functions and speed,
with the body of the corpus callosum. The fornix–memory association and
the corpus callosum–executive association remained significant after
accounting for global FA. Neither tract-based nor global FA was associated with
visuospatial performance. Conclusions: Memory and executive
functions are associated with different patterns of WM diffusivity. Findings add
insight into WM alterations underlying age- and disease-related cognitive
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: (1) Identify current barriers to coordinated care between behavior consultation and PCIT services. (2) Identify current facilitators to coordinated care between behavior consultation and PCIT services. (3) Utilize this knowledge to create and pilot a coordinated care model that will enhance PCIT and behavior consultation service outcomes. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Objectives 1 and 2: Two focus groups consisting of 8–10 behavior consultants will be conducted to gather initial information on barriers and facilitators to coordinated care. Participants will be recruited from the state-funded behavior consultation team, to represent consultation occurring in rural and urban settings. All focus groups will be recorded and transcribed to capture questions and comments. Focus groups will be provided with an initial 10-minute overview of PCIT, including theory, prescribed strategies, and mode of intervention. A grand tour question will then be asked to elicit consultant perceptions of PCIT (e.g., “What are your thoughts on the compatibility between PCIT and behavior consultation services”), followed by probe questions deigned to elicit more detailed information about any perceived differences based on philosophical approach; differences in what is recommended in childcare settings Versus at home, etc.; and perceived barriers to coordinated care between school and outpatient services (e.g., “What factors make coordinating care with outpatient providers challenging?). Participants will be asked about their willingness to participate in a second focus group to review materials created to enhance coordinated care, based on their feedback. Objective 3. Based on feedback from the focus groups and quantitative data regarding factors associated with PCIT outcomes, we will develop an enhanced childcare component(s) for eventual implementation. To confirm our approach, we will invite the members of both focus groups back for a second session, in which we provide them with the created materials and elicit their feedback. We will start with a grand tour question (e.g., “How do you think parents and teachers would react to these materials?”) and then follow-up with probe questions related to feasibility (e.g., “How do you anticipate using these tools?”), appropriateness (e.g., “How adequately do you feel these materials address concerns with coordinated care?”), and acceptability (e.g., “How likely are you to begin using these tools within your consultation?”). Both focus groups will be recorded and transcribed to capture questions and comments. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: (1) Barriers and facilitators to coordinated care will include individual (e.g., acceptability of PCIT framework) and system-level factors (e.g., ease of communication between providers). (2) There will be significant overlap in coordination between the first phase of PCIT (which focuses on positive parenting strategies) and what is prescribed by behavior consultants. (3) There will be less compatibility between the second phase of PCIT (which focuses on disciplinary strategies) and what is prescribed by behavior consultants. (4) A coordinated are model will be rated as more feasible, appropriate, and acceptable to behavior consultants than PCIT services as currently prescribed. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Childhood disruptive behaviors are among the most frequent reasons for referral to outpatient child/adolescent mental health clinics (Sukhodolsky et al., 2016). Disruptive and aggressive behaviors are problematic, not only for victims of children who are aggressive but also for aggressive children as they age. Although effective treatments exist, families are often provided with conflicting strategies for behavior management by outpatient clinicians and behavior consultants in the daycare setting, thus providing children inconsistent feedback which will delay their attainment of new skills. These data will provide the initial foundation for the development of a coordinated care model that promotes treatment efficacy by improving the compatibility between clinic-based PCIT and daycare-based behavior consultation services.
To investigate the potential dietary impact of the opening of new retailers of healthy foods.
Systematic review of the peer-reviewed research literature.
References published before November 2015 were retrieved from MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases using keyword searches.
The outcome of the review was change in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults.
Of 3514 references retrieved, ninety-two articles were reviewed in full text, and twenty-three articles representing fifteen studies were included. Studies used post-test only (n 4), repeated cross-sectional (n 4) and repeated measures designs (n 7) to evaluate the dietary impact of supermarket (n 7), farmers’ market (n 4), produce stand (n 2) or mobile market (n 2) openings. Evidence of increased fruit and vegetable consumption was most consistent among adults who began shopping at the new retailer. Three of four repeated measures studies found modest, albeit not always statistically significant, increases in fruit and vegetable consumption (range 0·23–0·54 servings/d) at 6–12 months after baseline. Dietary change among residents of the broader community where the new retailer opened was less consistent.
The methodological quality of studies, including research designs, sampling methods, follow-up intervals and outcome measures, ranged widely. Future research should align methodologically with previous work to facilitate meta-analytic synthesis of results. Opening a new retailer may result in modest short-term increases in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults who choose to shop there, but the potential longer-term dietary impact on customers and its impact on the broader community remain unclear.
PSR B1820–30A is located in the globular cluster NGC 6624 and has the smallest projected distance to the centre of any globular cluster in the sky plane. We observe this millisecond pulsar over more than 25 years and obtain higher-order rotational frequency time derivative measurements through high-precision timing. Modelling these higher-order derivatives as being due to orbital motion, we find that the pulsar is in either a low-eccentricity smaller orbit with a low mass companion or a high-eccentricity larger orbit with a massive companion. The cluster mass properties and the observed properties of other nearby sources indicate that the high-eccentricity solution is more probably. This reveals that the pulsar is orbiting around an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) of mass >7500 M⊙ located at the cluster centre. This contribution is based on previous work published in MNRAS 471, 1258 (2017).
PSR B1828–11 is a young pulsar once thought to be undergoing free precession and recently found instead to be switching magnetospheric states in tandem with spin-down changes. Here we show the two extreme states of the mode-changing found for this pulsar and comment briefly on its interpretation.
Multi-decade observing campaigns of the globular clusters 47 Tucanae and M15 have led to an outstanding number of discoveries. Here, we report on the latest results of the long-term observations of the pulsars in these two clusters. For most of the pulsars in 47 Tucanae we have measured, among other things, their higher-order spin period derivatives, which have in turn provided stringent constraints on the physical parameters of the cluster, such as its distance and gravitational potential. For M15, we have studied the relativistic spin precession effect in PSR B2127+11C. We have used full-Stokes observations to model the precession effect, and to constrain the system geometry. We find that the visible beam of the pulsar is swiftly moving away from our line of sight and may very soon become undetectable. On the other hand, we expect to see the opposite emission beam sometime between 2041 and 2053.
Aberrant reward mechanisms with regard to slim body shapes are discussed in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the present study was to examine of cue reactivity toward body shapes in AN via the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related electroencephalography (EEG) component. By including adolescents and adults, aspects of development and chronification could be studied (2 × 2 design).
Thirty-two female AN patients (19 adolescents and 13 adults) and 37 control participants (16 adolescents and 21 adults) were included. Standardized photographic stimuli showing women's bodies in underwear from five body mass index (BMI) categories (extremely underweight to extremely overweight) were presented. During picture evaluation, EEG activity was recorded (10–20 system). The LPP was measured in two time windows characterized by different topographies (450–700 ms: posterior; 1000–1300 ms: central).
Regarding the posterior component, LPP amplitudes were clearly reduced in adult but not in adolescent patients; for both time windows the LPP showed differential patterns over BMI categories for patients and controls. Regarding the central component, a highly significant linear decrease from extremely underweight to extremely overweight body shapes was revealed in patients and no significant modulation in control participants.
Adolescent and adult patients show increased sustained attention toward extremely underweight bodies. In chronically ill patients, this bias appears to be accompanied by generally reduced automatic attention. The LPP findings provide a differentiated picture of aberrant cue reactivity which could be interpreted as motivated attention toward body shapes in AN.
This study was undertaken to provide a thorough analysis of the neutral lipid (NL) and polar lipid (PL) fractions of horse meat that included the content and distribution of acyl and alkenyl moieties in foals under different rearing conditions. Two groups of crossbred horses were studied; the first group was selected from suckling foals produced under grazing conditions and slaughtered at 4 months of age (n=8), and the second group was selected from concentrate-finished foals and slaughtered at 12 months of age (n=7). There were significant differences related to the age and feeding practices of foals which affected the intramuscular (IM) fat content and the fatty acid (FA) composition of NL and PL fractions. Samples from suckling foals were leaner and provided the highest content of methylation products from the plasmalogenic lipids, and total and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). By contrast, the meat from concentrate-finished foals had a higher IM fat level resulting in a greater accumulation of 16:0 and total monounsaturated FAs in the NL fraction, whereas the muscle PL fraction retained a similar FA composition between both groups. Linolenic acid was preferentially deposited in the NL fraction, but linoleic acid and the long-chain n-3 and n-6 PUFAs were incorporated into the PL fraction where they served as cell membrane constituents and in eicosanoid formation.
Can core genetic liabilities for suicidal behavior be indexed using psychological and neural indicators combined? The current work addressed this question by examining phenotypic and genetic associations of two biobehavioral traits, threat sensitivity (THT) and disinhibition (DIS) – operationalized as psychoneurometric variables (i.e., composites of psychological-scale and neurophysiological measures) – with suicidal behaviors in a sample of adult twins.
Participants were 444 identical and fraternal twins recruited from an urban community. THT was assessed using a psychological-scale measure of fear/fearlessness combined with physiological indicators of reactivity to aversive pictures, and DIS was assessed using scale measures of disinhibitory tendencies combined with indicators of brain response from lab performance tasks. Suicidality was assessed using items from structured interview and questionnaire protocols.
THT and DIS each contributed uniquely to prediction of suicidality when assessed psychoneurometrically (i.e., as composites of scale and neurophysiological indicators). In addition, these traits predicted suicidality interactively, with participants high on both reporting the greatest degree of suicidal behaviors. Biometric (twin-modeling) analyses revealed that a high percentage of the predictive association for each psychoneurometric trait (83% for THT, 68% for DIS) was attributable to genetic variance in common with suicidality.
Findings indicate that psychoneurometric assessments of biobehavioral traits index genetic liability for suicidal behavior, and as such, can serve as innovative targets for research on core biological processes contributing to severe psychopathology, including suicidal proclivities and actions.
During 2016 February, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science and the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy installed, commissioned, and carried out science observations with a phased array feed receiver system on the 64-m diameter Parkes radio telescope. Here, we demonstrate that the phased array feed can be used for pulsar observations and we highlight some unique capabilities. We demonstrate that the pulse profiles obtained using the phased array feed can be calibrated and that multiple pulsars can be simultaneously observed. Significantly, we find that an intrinsic polarisation leakage of −31 dB can be achieved with a phased array feed beam offset from the centre of the field of view. We discuss the possibilities for using a phased array feed for future pulsar observations and for searching for fast radio bursts with the Parkes and Effelsberg telescopes.
J. Hou, European Patent Office Munich,
G. Kramer, Chair of Communications Engineering, Technische Universität München,
M. Bloch, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
We have analyzed the arrival times for 374 pulsars that have been observed for more than six years using the 76-m Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory. Here we present a qualitative analysis of structures seen in the timing residuals.
Giant pulses (GPs), occasional individual pulses with an intensity 100 times the average intensity, have been detected in four pulsars to date. Their origin is not well understood, but studies suggest a connection between the strength of magnetic field at the light cylinder Blc and the existence of GPs. Here, we report on detection of significant Large Amplitude Pulses (LAPs) in two more pulsars with high values of Blc, PSRs J0218+4232 and B1957+20, observed using Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT).
By developing a new technique, 13 drifting subpulses have been revealed across one period in PSR B0826–34. The variation of drift rate when drifting subpulses drift through different longitude regions are noticed. A weak emission mode was detected during its apparent null.
PSRs J1847–0130 and J1718–37184 have inferred surface dipole magnetic fields greater than those of any other known pulsars and well above the “quantum critical field” above which some models predict radio emission should not occur. These fields are similar to those of the anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), which growing evidence suggests are “magnetars”. The lack of AXP-like X-ray emission from these radio pulsars (and the non-detection of radio emission from the AXPs) creates new challenges for understanding pulsar emission physics and the relationship between these classes of apparently young neutron stars.