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Recent studies have tried to find a reliable way of predicting the development of Alzheimer´s Disease (AD) among patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), often focusing on olfactory dysfunction or semantic memory. Our study aimed to validate these findings while also comparing the predictive accuracy of olfactory and semantic assessments for this purpose.
Six hundred fifty patients (median age 68, 58% females) including controls, SCD (subjective cognitive decline), non-amnestic MCI (naMCI), amnestic MCI (aMCI), and AD patients were tested for olfactory dysfunction by means of odor identification testing and semantic memory. Of those 650 patients, 120 participants with SCD, naMCI, or aMCI at baseline underwent a follow-up examination after two years on average. Of these 120 patients, 12% had developed AD at follow-up (converters), while 88% did not develop AD at follow-up (non-converters).
Analysis showed a significant difference only for initial olfactory identification between converters and non-converters. Sensitivity of impairment of olfactory identification for AD prediction was low at 46.2%, although specificity was high at 81.9%. Semantic memory impairment at baseline was not significantly related to AD conversion, although, when naming objects, significant differences were found between AD patients and all other groups and between naMCI and aMCI patients compared to controls and SCD patients.
Objective olfactory assessments are promising instruments for predicting the conversion to AD among MCI patients. However, due to their low sensitivity and high specificity, a combination with other neuropsychological tests might lead to an improved predictive accuracy. Further longitudinal studies with more participants are required to investigate the usefulness of semantic memory tests in this case.
This paper investigates how we infer the status of others from their social relationships. In a series of experimental studies, we test the effects of a social relationship's type and direction on the status judgments of others. We demonstrate empirically, possibly for the first time, a widely-assumed connection between network structure and perceptions of status; that is, that observers do infer the status positions of group members from their relationships. Moreover, we find that observers' status judgments vary with the direction and type of social relationship. We theorize that underlying this variance in status judgments are two relational schemas which differentially influence the processing of the observed social ties. Our finding that only the linear-ordering schema leads to status inferences provides an important scope condition to prior research on network cognition, and specifically on the perceptions of social status.
We argue that triple-mode RR Lyrae pulsation with low amplitudes might be quite common. It is shown that until very accurate abundance data become available, triple-mode RR Lyrae stars are the only hope to estimate reliable stellar parameters from the periods alone.
We review the recent nonlinear hydrodynamical results and the numerical problems to be solved by the next generation of codes. The behavior of the Fourier parameters and double-mode RR Lyrae pulsation will be discussed in detail. We emphasize the importance of the implementation of the various adaptive-mesh schemes for stellar pulsations. A further goal is the substitution of the artificial viscosity with modern shock capturing methods and a better treatment of radiative transfer. Convection however, must ultimately be included in order to supply the necessary physical mechanism for dissipation.
We estimate the column density of the Galactic foreground interstellar medium (GFISM) in the direction of extragalactic sources. All-sky AKARI FIS infrared sky survey data might be used to trace the GFISM with a resolution of 2 arcminutes. The AKARI based GFISM hydrogen column density estimates are compared with similar quantities based on HI 21cm measurements of various resolution and of Planck results. High spatial resolution observations of the GFISM may be important recalculating the physical parameters of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using the updated foreground parameters.
The numerically generated dynamical evolution of an RR Lyrae model from different initial conditions is subjected to a time-dependent Fourier analysis, which yields the temporal behavior of the amplitudes and phases of the few longlived transient modes in addition to the ultimate winner. It is shown that the amplitude equation formalism of Buchler and Goupil gives an almost perfect fit to the observed transient behavior of the amplitudes and phases of the excited modes. Prospects and applications are discussed.
It is shown that in a certain range of physical parameters a proper choice of the artificial viscosity parameters can lead to double-mode pulsation of RR Lyrae models. Here we present one such model and exhibit its double-mode behavior both through the stability analysis of the periodic limit cycles and through straightforward numerical integrations.
The current study investigates potential pathways from socio-economic status (SES) to BMI in the adult population, considering psychological domains of eating behaviour (restrained eating, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating) as potential mediators stratified for sex.
Data were derived from the population-based cross-sectional LIFE-Adult-Study. Parallel-mediation models were conducted to obtain the total, direct and indirect effects of psychological eating behaviour domains on the association between SES and BMI for men and for women.
We studied 5935 participants aged 18 to 79 years.
Uncontrolled eating mediated the association between SES and BMI in men only and restrained eating in both men and women. Emotional eating did not act as mediator in this relationship. The total effect of eating behaviour domains on the association between SES and BMI was estimated as β=−0·03 (se 0·02; 95 % CI −0·062, −0·003) in men and β=−0·18 (se 0·02; 95 % CI −0·217, −0·138) in women.
Our findings do not indicate a strong overall mediation effect of the eating behaviour domains restrained eating, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating on the association between SES and BMI. Further research on other pathways of this association is strongly recommended. Importantly, our findings indicate that, independent from one’s social position, focusing on psychological aspects in weight reduction might be a promising approach.
We report an in situ measurement of the electric field attenuation length Lα at radio frequencies for the bulk ice at Summit Station, Greenland, made by broadcasting radio-frequency signals vertically through the ice and measuring the relative power in the return ground bounce signal. We find the depth-averaged field attenuation length to be at 75 MHz. While this measurement has clear radioglaciological applications, the radio clarity of the ice also has implications for the detection of ultra-high energy (UHE) astrophysical particles via their radio emission in dielectric media such as ice. Assuming a reliable extrapolation to higher frequencies, the measured attenuation length at Summit Station is comparable to previously measured radio-frequency attenuation lengths at candidate particle detector sites around the world, and strengthens the case for Summit Station as a promising northern site for UHE neutrino detection.
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Reducing CAUTI rates has become a major focus of attention due to increasing public health concerns and reimbursement implications.
To implement and describe a multifaceted intervention to decrease CAUTIs in our ICUs with an emphasis on indications for obtaining a urine culture.
A project team composed of all critical care disciplines was assembled to address an institutional goal of decreasing CAUTIs. Interventions implemented between year 1 and year 2 included protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for placement, maintenance, and removal of catheters. Leaders from all critical care disciplines agreed to align routine culturing practice with American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCCM) and Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) guidelines for evaluating a fever in a critically ill patient. Surveillance data for CAUTI and hospital-acquired bloodstream infection (HABSI) were recorded prospectively according to National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) protocols. Device utilization ratios (DURs), rates of CAUTI, HABSI, and urine cultures were calculated and compared.
The CAUTI rate decreased from 3.0 per 1,000 catheter days in 2013 to 1.9 in 2014. The DUR was 0.7 in 2013 and 0.68 in 2014. The HABSI rates per 1,000 patient days decreased from 2.8 in 2013 to 2.4 in 2014.
Effectively reducing ICU CAUTI rates requires a multifaceted and collaborative approach; stewardship of culturing was a key and safe component of our successful reduction efforts.
We describe the design and current status of the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI), a compact cm-wave interferometer operating at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole research station. With 20-cm diameter primary antenna elements operating over the frequency range 26 − 36 GHz, DASI is optimized to measure the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) over the multipole range 140 − 920, (corresponding to scales of 25′ − 2°.6), as well as make high-sensitivity maps of the microwave sky. The telescope was built at the University of Chicago and deployed at the South Pole during the 1999-2000 austral summer.
The European Union Network ANTENA started to work in October 1993. During these last three years, several collaborative projects have been undertaken. ANTENA has offered a very good opportunity for most of the European people doing asteroseismology to work together. The asteroseismological networks STEPHI and STACC have run within the framework of the project, obtaining fairly good results. New instrumentation has also been developed, such as the Four-Channel Stellar Photometer.
The nature of irregular light variation in giants and supergiants has long been a matter of dispute. Our lack of understanding has two main sources: (i) a paucity of long, continuous, high quality observations and thorough analysis of the available data and (ii) until very recently, a lack of systematic nonlinear hydrodynamic studies for these stars.
The direct fit of theoretical pulsation frequencies to the observations (i.e. stellar seismology) proved to be a very efficient tool in the study of solar oscillations. In the case of other multiperiodic variables, like δ Scuti stars, Ap stars and white dwarfs the method suffers from the disturbing abundance of possible nonradial modes. Colour and/or radial velocity (or line profile) measurements can narrow down the number of possibilities, but these kinds of data are not often available with the desired accuracy and sampling rate. Since pulsational frequencies are the most readily and accurately computed and measured quantities of pulsation, we address the question of the accurate fit of the nonradial pulsation frequencies to the observations in the case of δ Scuti stars.
We present the preliminary results of a frequency analysis of 1457 fundamental mode RR Lyrae (RR0) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) from MACHO Project photometry. We find the same classes of pulsational behavior as were found in our earlier survey of first overtone RR Lyrae (RR1) stars. Variables whose prewhitened power spectra contain one or two peaks close to the main frequency component in the original power spectra are commonly known as Blazhko-type variables. The present analysis shows the overall frequency of Blazhko-type stars in the total RR0 population analysed to date to be ≈ 10%. This is lower than the often cited Galactic field/globular rate of 20-30% (Szeidl, 1988).
The incidence rate of Blazhko-type variability in the LMC appears to be about three times higher in RR0 stars than in RR1 stars. This puts important constraints on possible models of the Blazhko effect.
The current observational and theoretical status of the double-mode variables is reviewed. Focusing mostly on the RR Lyrae stars, we address the question of the observational evidence of modal stability. The problem of stationarity is a crucial issue in the modelling of these stars.
We mention past efforts in hydrodynamical and analytical modelling together with a detailed discussion of some very recent results. It is suggested that stochastic forcing due to turbulent convection may play a crucial role in exciting some marginally stable modes in the limiting pulsation. The latest hydrodynamical results first demonstrate that purely radiative models are able to show permanent double-mode behavior in the relevant period regime of RRd stars. The reason for the previous lack of double-mode behavior is attributed to the large dissipation, i.e. artificial viscosity, generally used in the codes to ensure numerical stability and to obtain amplitudes comparable to the observed ones.
We think that better models should include some physical dissipation, most probably turbulent convection, and a more accurate numerical treatment of the radiative hydrodynamics.
The relations between the physical parameters of the RRab stars and the Fourier parameters of their light curves have been reanalyzed on the basis of new CCD data. We show that the absolute magnitude MV and the dereddened color indices (B − V)0, (V − I)0 are linear functions of the period and of the A1 Fourier amplitude of the V light curve. Due to the large datasets, we are able to test the consistency of the formulae on independent sets. The present results are in good or fair agreement with our previous studies, despite the fewer number of significant parameters entering in the revised formulae.