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Background: Postoperative follow-up of non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs) occasionally detects residual or recurrent disease. Subsequent treatment options range from continued follow-up, to re-resection or radiotherapy. To better understand current practice patterns on this topic, we surveyed neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists in Canada. Methods: Skull-base neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists across Canada were invited to complete a 25-item online questionnaire. Summary statistics were computed and 2-tailed t-tests were performed to assess significance. Results: 33 participants returned completed questionnaires: neurosurgeons (n=20, 61%) and radiation oncologists (ROs; n=13, 39%). When treating giant (>3cm) tumours, 92% of neurosurgeons in practice for less than 15 years use an endoscopic approach, as compared to only 57% of neurosurgeons in practice for 15 years or more. Additionally, younger neurosurgeons have a greater tendency to advocate for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or re-resection (54% and 38%, respectively), as compared to older surgeons who show a higher propensity (29%) to advocate for observation. The presence of cavernous sinus extension appears to encourage neurosurgeons (40%) to offer radiotherapy sooner, as compared to 62% of ROs. Conclusions: Our results identify both variations and commonalities in practice amongst Canadian neurosurgeons. Approaches deviate in the setting of residual tumors based on years of practice.
Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that often persists into adulthood and old age. Yet ADHD is currently underdiagnosed and undertreated in many European countries, leading to chronicity of symptoms and impairment, due to lack of, or ineffective treatment, and higher costs of illness.
Methods The European Network Adult ADHD and the Section for Neurodevelopmental Disorders Across the Lifespan (NDAL) of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), aim to increase awareness and knowledge of adult ADHD in and outside Europe. This Updated European Consensus Statement aims to support clinicians with research evidence and clinical experience from 63 experts of European and other countries in which ADHD in adults is recognized and treated.
Results Besides reviewing the latest research on prevalence, persistence, genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How should ADHD be properly diagnosed in adults? (3) How should adult ADHDbe effectively treated?
Conclusions ADHD often presents as a lifelong impairing condition. The stigma surrounding ADHD, mainly due to lack of knowledge, increases the suffering of patients. Education on the lifespan perspective, diagnostic assessment, and treatment of ADHD must increase for students of general and mental health, and for psychiatry professionals. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available, as are effective evidence-based treatments for ADHD and its negative outcomes. More research is needed on gender differences, and in older adults with ADHD.
We compare first-order (refractive) ionospheric effects seen by the MWA with the ionosphere as inferred from GPS data. The first-order ionosphere manifests itself as a bulk position shift of the observed sources across an MWA field of view. These effects can be computed from global ionosphere maps provided by GPS analysis centres, namely the CODE. However, for precision radio astronomy applications, data from local GPS networks needs to be incorporated into ionospheric modelling. For GPS observations, the ionospheric parameters are biased by GPS receiver instrument delays, among other effects, also known as receiver DCBs. The receiver DCBs need to be estimated for any non-CODE GPS station used for ionosphere modelling. In this work, single GPS station-based ionospheric modelling is performed at a time resolution of 10 min. Also the receiver DCBs are estimated for selected Geoscience Australia GPS receivers, located at Murchison Radio Observatory, Yarragadee, Mount Magnet and Wiluna. The ionospheric gradients estimated from GPS are compared with that inferred from MWA. The ionospheric gradients at all the GPS stations show a correlation with the gradients observed with the MWA. The ionosphere estimates obtained using GPS measurements show promise in terms of providing calibration information for the MWA.
Since opening its doors in 1998, the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center (MPMRC) has had an identity as both a tribal center and a museum committed to challenging the public’s conventional understandings of Native history in New England. Over a 15-year period, museum staff and the tribal community learned to work more collaboratively in an effort to document and illuminate Pequot survivance—the histories of Mashantucket families living and working in and against the modern world. A review of recent museum projects clarifies the benefits of collaboration while revealing how new exhibits and programs are impacting visitor experiences and understandings. Another kind of museum space is envisioned in which visitors, staff, and tribal members actively co-create exhibits and programs centered on Pequot survivance, using content informed by ongoing archaeological studies. In that space, co-creation practices would encourage social interaction—a collaborative pushing-and-pulling of ideas and stories in a shared search for new understandings of survivance at Mashantucket and beyond.
GLEAM, the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky MWA survey, is a survey of the entire radio sky south of declination + 25° at frequencies between 72 and 231 MHz, made with the MWA using a drift scan method that makes efficient use of the MWA’s very large field-of-view. We present the observation details, imaging strategies, and theoretical sensitivity for GLEAM. The survey ran for two years, the first year using 40-kHz frequency resolution and 0.5-s time resolution; the second year using 10-kHz frequency resolution and 2 s time resolution. The resulting image resolution and sensitivity depends on observing frequency, sky pointing, and image weighting scheme. At 154 MHz, the image resolution is approximately 2.5 × 2.2/cos (δ + 26.7°) arcmin with sensitivity to structures up to ~ 10° in angular size. We provide tables to calculate the expected thermal noise for GLEAM mosaics depending on pointing and frequency and discuss limitations to achieving theoretical noise in Stokes I images. We discuss challenges, and their solutions, that arise for GLEAM including ionospheric effects on source positions and linearly polarised emission, and the instrumental polarisation effects inherent to the MWA’s primary beam.
This work experimentally examines the detachment of liquid droplets from both oleophilic and oleophobic fibres, using an atomic force microscope. The droplet detachment force was found to increase with increasing fibre diameter and forces were higher for philic fibres than phobic fibres. We also considered the detachment of droplets situated on the intersection of two fibres and arrays of fibres (such as found in fibrous mats or filters) and found that the required detachment forces were higher than for similarly sized droplets on a single fibre, though not as high as expected based on theory. A model was developed to predict the detachment force, from single fibres, which agreed well with experimental results. It was found that the entire dataset (single and multiple fibres) could be best described by power law relationships.
The Murchison Widefield Array is a Square Kilometre Array Precursor. The telescope is located at the Murchison Radio–astronomy Observatory in Western Australia. The MWA consists of 4 096 dipoles arranged into 128 dual polarisation aperture arrays forming a connected element interferometer that cross-correlates signals from all 256 inputs. A hybrid approach to the correlation task is employed, with some processing stages being performed by bespoke hardware, based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays, and others by Graphics Processing Units housed in general purpose rack mounted servers. The correlation capability required is approximately 8 tera floating point operations per second. The MWA has commenced operations and the correlator is generating 8.3 TB day−1 of correlation products, that are subsequently transferred 700 km from the MRO to Perth (WA) in real-time for storage and offline processing. In this paper, we outline the correlator design, signal path, and processing elements and present the data format for the internal and external interfaces.
The science cases for incorporating high time resolution capabilities into modern radio telescopes are as numerous as they are compelling. Science targets range from exotic sources such as pulsars, to our Sun, to recently detected possible extragalactic bursts of radio emission, the so-called fast radio bursts (FRBs). Originally conceived purely as an imaging telescope, the initial design of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) did not include the ability to access high time and frequency resolution voltage data. However, the flexibility of the MWA’s software correlator allowed an off-the-shelf solution for adding this capability. This paper describes the system that records the 100 μs and 10 kHz resolution voltage data from the MWA. Example science applications, where this capability is critical, are presented, as well as accompanying commissioning results from this mode to demonstrate verification.
Hydrogels are an excellent scaffold structure for numerous applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In particular, they can be used as cell and drug carriers to deliver such therapeutic components directly and locally . Hydrogels can be injected and crosslinked in situ, reducing the need for risky invasive surgeries . In addition, hydrogels can mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) environment, and allow one to control cellular and tissue functions as well as the transport of nutrients and bioactive molecules [3, 4].
Fumarate-based hydrogels are synthetic polymers, allowing flexible control of physical, mechanical, and degradative properties for a desired application . Fumaric acid, the fundamental component of these hydrogel scaffolds, is an unsaturated organic acid that is commonly found in the human body and can be metabolized through the Krebs cycle [5–7]. Polymer chains that contain fumarate units crosslink easily via the unsaturated double bonds and degrade through hydrolysis of the ester bonds in the fumarate group [6–9]. Furthermore, the biodegradable nature of these hydrogels allows neotissue ingrowth and eliminates the need for further surgery to remove the implanted scaffold [5, 10].
Here we present the installation and successful commissioning of an L'-band Annular Groove Phase Mask (AGPM) coronagraph on VLT/NACO. The AGPM is a vector vortex coronagraph made from diamond subwavelength gratings tuned to the L' band. The vector vortex coronagraph enables high contrast imaging at very small inner working angle (here 0″.09, the diffraction limit of the VLT at L'), potentially being the key to a new parameter space. During technical and science verification runs, we discovered a late-type companion at two beamwidths from an F0V star (Mawet et al. 2013), and imaged the inner regions of β Pictoris down to the previously unexplored projected radius of 1.75 AU. The circumstellar disk was also resolved from ≃ 1″ to 5″ (see J. Milli et al., these proceedings). These results showcase the potential of the NACO L-band AGPM over a wide range of spatial scales.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is one of three Square Kilometre Array Precursor telescopes and is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in the Murchison Shire of the mid-west of Western Australia, a location chosen for its extremely low levels of radio frequency interference. The MWA operates at low radio frequencies, 80–300 MHz, with a processed bandwidth of 30.72 MHz for both linear polarisations, and consists of 128 aperture arrays (known as tiles) distributed over a ~3-km diameter area. Novel hybrid hardware/software correlation and a real-time imaging and calibration systems comprise the MWA signal processing backend. In this paper, the as-built MWA is described both at a system and sub-system level, the expected performance of the array is presented, and the science goals of the instrument are summarised.
We investigate the evolution of the Hα equivalent width, EW(Hα), with redshift and its dependence on stellar mass, using the first data from the 3D-HST survey, a large spectroscopic Treasury program with the HST-WFC3. Combining our Hα measurements of 854 galaxies at 0.8<z<1.5 with those of ground based surveys at lower and higher redshift, we can consistently determine the evolution of the EW(Hα) distribution from z=0 to z=2.2. We find that at all masses the characteristic EW(Hα) is decreasing towards the present epoch, and that at each redshift the EW(Hα) is lower for high-mass galaxies. We find EW(Hα) ~ (1+z)1.8 with little mass dependence. Qualitatively, this measurement is a model-independent confirmation of the evolution of star forming galaxies with redshift. A quantitative conversion of EW(Hα) to sSFR (specific star-formation rate) is model dependent, because of differential reddening corrections between the continuum and the Balmer lines. The observed EW(Hα) can be reproduced with the characteristic evolutionary history for galaxies, whose star formation rises with cosmic time to z ~ 2.5 and then decreases to z = 0. This implies that EW(Hα) rises to 400 Å at z = 8. The sSFR evolves faster than EW(Hα), as the mass-to-light ratio also evolves with redshift. We find that the sSFR evolves as (1+z)3.2, nearly independent of mass, consistent with previous reddening insensitive estimates. We confirm previous results that the observed slope of the sSFR-z relation is steeper than the one predicted by models, but models and observations agree in finding little mass dependence.
A problem facing doctors treating adults with congenitally malformed hearts is that a significant number of these patients are lost for follow-up. The purpose of our study is to describe the medical history and clinical findings in a group of such adults that was lost for follow-up.
Design, settings and patients
The Danish press ran a front-page story about adults with congenitally malformed hearts who were lost for follow-up. These patients were strongly advised to contact a center for congenital cardiac disease, and we examined all responding patients within four-weeks.
We carried out a structured interview, a clinical examination, echocardiography, and measured levels of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide.
The number of responders was 147. Based on the diagnosis and the findings, further follow-up was scheduled for 52 (35.4%), either because of significant residual lesions, found in 32, or the risk of late complications, judged to be present in 20. Symptoms were present in 36.5% of patients scheduled for follow-up. The presence of a heart murmur was highly predictive of the need for further follow-up but the sensitivity was too low to recommend the use of auscultation as a screening test.
A large proportion of adults with congenitally malformed hearts who are lost for follow-up require regular assessment according to a modern standard. Symptoms, signs, and measurement of natriuretic peptide cannot replace full cardiological assessment. It is a challenge for centres treating adults with congenital heart disease to find the lost group of patient with significant cardiac malformations.
We present a detailed study of the thermal stability of organic thin films of diindenoperylene encapsulated by sputtered aluminum oxide layers. We studied the influence of capping layer thickness, stoichiometry, and heating rate on the thermal stability of capped films and their eventual breakdown. Under optimized encapsulation conditions (thick and stoichiometric capping layer), the organic films desorb only at temperatures 200 °C above the desorption of the uncapped film. Moreover, the capped organic films retain their crystalline order at these elevated temperatures, whereas they would normally (i.e., uncapped) be in the gas phase. This study therefore also shows a way of studying organic materials under temperature conditions normally inaccessible. Considering results from complementary techniques, we discuss possible scenarios for the eventual breakdown. The results have implications for the performance and long-term stability of organic devices for which stability against elevated temperatures as well as against exposure to ambient gases is crucial.
The detection of telluric extra-solar planets implies an extremely high contrast long exposure imaging capability at near-infrared and probably visible wavelengths. We present here the core of any Planet Finder instrument which is the extreme AO sub-system. The level of AO correction directly impacts on the exposure time required for planet detection. The extreme adaptive optics system has to correct for the perturbation induced by the atmospheric turbulence as well as for the internal aberrations of the instrument itself. An example of application is proposed in the frame of the EPICS project (XAO system for the ESO OWL telescope).
We have studied the strain state, film and surface morphology of SiGe virtual substrates (Ge concentrations in-between 20% and 55%) grown by reduced pressure – chemical vapor deposition. The macroscopic degree of strain relaxation of those virtual substrates is equal to 97.2 ± 1.5%. The misfit dislocations generated to relax the lattice mismatch between Si and SiGe are mostly confined inside the graded layer. Indeed, the threading dislocations density obtained for Ge concentrations of 20% and 26% is indeed typically of the order of 7.5 ± 2.5 105 cm−2. Low surface root mean square roughness have been obtained, with values in-between 2 and 5 nm. In order to check the electronic quality of our layers, we have grown a MODFET-like heterostructure, with a buried tensile-strained Si channel 8 nm thick embedded inside SiGe 26%. We have obtained a well-behaved 2-dimensional electron gas in the Si channel, with electron sheet densities and mobilities at 1.45K of 5.4×1011 cm−2 and 212 000 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively.
Ge-based photodetectors operating in the telecommunication wavelength range (1.3-1.6 μm) of silica fibers are highly desirable for the development of optical interconnections on SOI substrates. We have therefore investigated the structural and optical properties of Ge thick films grown directly onto Si(001) substrates using a production-compatible Reduced Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition system. The thick Ge layers grown using a low-temperature / high temperature approach are in a definite tensile-strain configuration, with a threading dislocation density for as-grown layers of the order of 3×107 cm−2. The surface of those Ge thick layers is rather smooth, especially when considering the large lattice mismatch in-between Ge and Si. The root mean square roughness is indeed of the order of 2 nm only for as-grown layers. The layers produced are of high optical quality. An absorption coefficient α ≈10000 cm−1 @ 1.3μm (4500 cm−1 @ 1.55μm) has been found at room temperature for our Ge thick layers. A 30 meV bandgap shrinkage with respect to bulk Ge (0.77 eV ≎ 0.80 eV) is observed as well in those tensilestrained Ge epilayers.
The rapid expansion of SiGe technologies during the last decade essentially due to civil telecommunication's applications have led Si/SiGe based heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) to excellent performance levels, allowing high frequency low noise circuit designs such as linear low noise amplifiers( RF noise) or also low-phase noise oscillators (LF noise). Among these technologies, the SiGe BiCMOS one integrates digital and RF functions on the same chip. Fast improvements of the technological process have been performed thanks to large efforts allowed to characterization and modeling of the devices. We have investigated on the influence of technological parameters such as Germanium profile, doping level and thickness of the base layer (5 different wafers) on the dynamic and high frequency noise performances to converge towards the optimum technological process (now available with the BiCMOS6G processed by ST microelectronics). We made use of scattering parameters [S] measurements on the devices to extract the electrical parameters of our small signal model. The high frequency noise parameters based on the electrical model (with noise sources added to the junction, resistances) are simulated and compared with the measured noise parameters of the devices. The four noise parameters (Fmin, Rn, and complex Γopt) measurements have been performed from 1 GHz to 12 GHz, and the dynamic S parameters measurements have been realized in the 40 MHz-40 GHz range. These models have been used to enable the identification of the limiting parameters on the dynamic performances and on the high frequency noise parameters.
Tensile strained Si on SiGe Strain Relaxed Buffers (SRB) is an interesting candidate to increase both electron and hole mobility which results in improved device performance. Most of this work was/is based on thick (several μm), step-graded SRBs with or without Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) planarisation. This approach bears several disadvantages such as issues with STI formation in the thick SiGe structure, and considerable self-heating effects due to the lower thermal conductivity of the SiGe material. Further, pMOS improvement requires SRBs with high Ge contents (> 30 %), which complicates device fabrication even more. To overcome these issues, we developed a new and cost efficient type of thin SRB (∼200 nm). The concept is based on the introduction of a thin carbon-containing layer during growth of a constant composition SiGe layer. The process relies on standard Chemical Vapor Deposition epitaxial technology without need for CMP. It is designed to allow both non-selective growth on blanket wafers and selective growth in the active area of structured wafers with Shallow Trench Isolation (STI). The selective epitaxial process for strained Si on thin SRBs proposed here, allows relatively simple and cost-effective fabrication of strained Si layers on existing STI structures without any process modification. Further, it offers a very flexible fabrication scheme to independently improve nMOS and pMOS devices. The SRB quality is comparable to the best reported in literature so far, with 70 % and 53 % mobility enhancements for long channel nMOSFETs on 22 % Ge SRBs grown on blanket and STI patterned wafers, respectively.