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Biochar has received attention due to its potential for mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration in soil and improving soil quality and crop productivity. This study evaluated the effects of rice straw biochar (RSB) and rice husk ash (RHA) each applied at 5 Mg ha−1 and four N levels (0, 40, 80, and 120 kg ha−1) on soil fertility, growth, and yield of rice and wheat for three consecutive rice–wheat rotations. RSB significantly increased electrical conductivity, dehydrogenase activity, and P and K contents when compared to control (no amendment) up to 7.5 cm soil depth. Both RSB and RHA did not influence shoot N concentration in wheat plant but significantly increased P and K concentrations at 60 days after sowing. Grain yields of both rice and wheat were significantly higher in RSB as compared to control (no amendment) and RHA treatments. While the highest grain yields of rice and wheat were observed at 120 kg N ha−1 in RHA and no biochar-treated plots, a significant increase in grain yields was observed at 80 kg N ha−1 in RSB treatment, thereby saving 40 kg N ha−1 in each crop. Both agronomic and recovery N efficiencies in rice and wheat were significantly higher in RSB-amended soil compared to control. Significant positive correlations were observed between soil N, P, and K concentrations and total N, P, and K concentrations in aboveground biomass of wheat at 60 days after sowing. This study showed the potential benefits of applying RSB for improving soil fertility and yields of rice and wheat in a rice–wheat system.
When and where the process of state formation took place in the biblical kingdom of Judah is heavily debated. Our regional project in the southwestern part of Judah, carried out from 2007 to the present, includes the excavation of three Iron Age sites: Khirbet Qeiyafa, Tel Lachish, and Khirbet al-Ra’i. New cultural horizons and new fortification systems have been uncovered, and these discoveries have been dated by 59 radiometric determinations. The controversial question of when the kingdom was able to build a fortified city at Lachish, its foremost center after Jerusalem, is now resolved thanks to the excavation of a previously unknown city wall, dated by radiocarbon (14C) to the second half of the 10th century BCE.
Improving understanding of the pathogen-specific seasonality of enteric infections is critical to informing policy on the timing of preventive measures and to forecast trends in the burden of diarrhoeal disease. Data obtained from active surveillance of cohorts can capture the underlying infection status as transmission occurs in the community. The purpose of this study was to characterise rotavirus seasonality in eight different locations while adjusting for age, calendar time and within-subject clustering of episodes by applying an adapted Serfling model approach to data from a multi-site cohort study. In the Bangladesh and Peru sites, within-subject clustering was high, with more than half of infants who experienced one rotavirus infection going on to experience a second and more than 20% experiencing a third. In the five sites that are in countries that had not introduced the rotavirus vaccine, the model predicted a primary peak in prevalence during the dry season and, in three of these, a secondary peak during the rainy season. The patterns predicted by this approach are broadly congruent with several emerging hypotheses about rotavirus transmission and are consistent for both symptomatic and asymptomatic rotavirus episodes. These findings have practical implications for programme design, but caution should be exercised in deriving inferences about the underlying pathways driving these trends, particularly when extending the approach to other pathogens.
Human bocaviruses (HBoVs) have been detected in human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. In 2005, HBoV was also discovered in infants and children with infections of the lower respiratory tract. Recently, several genotypes of this parvovirus, including HBoV genotype 2 (HBoV2), genotype 3 (HBoV3) and genotype 4 (HBoV4), were discovered and found to be closely related to HBoV. HBoV2 was first detected in stool samples from children in Pakistan, followed by detection in other countries. HBoV3 was detected in Australia and HBoV4 was identified in stool samples from Nigeria, Tunisia and the USA. Recently, HBoV infection has been on the rise throughout the world, particularly in countries neighbouring South Korea; however, there have been very few studies on Korean strains. In this study, we characterised the whole genome and determined the phylogenetic position of CUK-BC20, a new clinical HBoV strain isolated in South Korea. The CUK-BC20 genome of 5184 nucleotides (nt) contains three open-reading frames (ORFs). The genotype of CUK-BC20 is HBoV2, and 98.77% of its nt sequence is identical with those of other HBoVs, namely Rus-Nsc10-N386. Especially, the ORF3 amino acid sequences from positions 212–213 and 454 corresponding to a variable region (VR)1 and VR5, respectively, showed genotype-specific substitutions that distinguished the four HBoV genotypes. As the first whole-genome sequence analysis of HBoV in South Korea, this information will provide a valuable reference for the detection of recombination, tracking of epidemics and development of diagnosis methods for HBoV.
The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) is one of the most important wheat pests with polyphagia and autumn migrants. And, chemosensory genes were thought to play a key role in insect searching their hosts, food and mate. However, a systematic identification of the chemosensory genes in this pest has not been reported. Thus, in this study, we identified 14 odorant-binding proteins, nine chemosensory proteins, one sensory neuron membrane protein, 15 odorant receptors, 19 gustatory receptors and 16 ionotropic receptors from R. padi transcriptomes with a significantly similarity (E-value < 10−5) to known chemosensory genes in Acyrthosiphon pisum and Aphis gossypii. In addition, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was employed to determine the expression profiles of obtained genes. Among these obtained genes, we selected 23 chemosensory genes to analyze their expression patterns in different tissues, wing morphs and host plants. We found that except RpOBP1, RpOBP3, RpOBP4 and RpOBP5, the rest of the selected genes were highly expressed in the head with antennae compared with body without head and antennae. Besides that, the stimulation and depression of chemosensory genes by plant switch indicated that chemosensory genes might be involved in the plant suitability assessment. These results not only provide insights for the potential roles of chemosensory genes in plant search and perception of R. padi but also provide initial background information for the further research on the molecular mechanism of the polyphagia and autumn migrants of it. Furthermore, these chemosensory genes are also the candidate targets for pest management control in future.
In 1997, three ice cores were recovered from Dasuopu glacier on the northern slope of the central Himalaya. the first core, 159.9 m long, was drilled at 7000ma.s.l. down the flowline from the top of the col. the second core, 149.2m long, was drilled on the col at 7200ma.s.l. the third core, 167.7 m long, was also drilled on the col at 7200ma.s.l., 100 maway from the second core. the present paper discusses the δ18O and methane results reconstructed for the past 1000 years based on the second core. the δ18O can be interpreted as an air-temperature signal. the methane concentration is mainly representative of atmospheric methane concentration. Both δ18O and methane records show an obvious increasing trend in the past 1000 years. Methane concentration in the record is similar to the fluctuations of δ18O, decreasing during cold periods and increasing during warm periods. the Little Ice Age was well recorded in the core by both δ18O and methane. the coldest period appeared in the late 18th century, accompanied by a decrease in methane concentration. the abrupt methane-concentration increase starting after the 18th century is no doubt due to anthropogenic input. the observed methane-concentration decrease during World Wars I and II clearly demonstrates the importance of the anthropogenic input to atmospheric methane concentration if further measurements prove that it is a true atmospheric signal.
An updated compilation of published and new data of major-ion (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, NO3, SO4) and methylsulfonate (MS) concentrations in snow from 520 Antarctic sites is provided by the national ITASE (International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition) programmes of Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and the national Antarctic programme of Finland. The comparison shows that snow chemistry concentrations vary by up to four orders of magnitude across Antarctica and exhibit distinct geographical patterns. The Antarctic-wide comparison of glaciochemical records provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the fundamental factors that ultimately control the chemistry of snow or ice samples. This paper aims to initiate data compilation and administration in order to provide a framework for facilitation of Antarctic-wide snow chemistry discussions across all ITASE nations and other contributing groups. The data are made available through the ITASE web page (http://www2.umaine.edu/itase/content/syngroups/snowchem.html) and will be updated with new data as they are provided. In addition, recommendations for future research efforts are summarized.
Thermal plasma wind tunnels with power of 0.4 MW and 2.4 MW have been constructed at Chonbuk National University (CBNU) in Korea. This facility is capable of producing a heat flux greater than 10 MW/m2, a level that is relevant for testing thermal protection materials that are used for re-entry vehicles in space transportation. A segmented arc plasma torch was adopted as a plasma source; this was designed to have high thermal efficiency and long life, and to produce a supersonic plasma flow with enthalpy greater than 10 MJ/kg. We investigated the characteristics of the supersonic plasma flow using intrusive and non-intrusive diagnostic systems. Ablation characteristics of potential thermal protection materials such as carbon/carbon composites and graphite were investigated with the plasma wind tunnel. Cracks and pores in the materials accelerated the erosion. For carbon/carbon composites, the pores grew and the cracks which occurred at the interfaces between the carbon fibres and the matrix propagated, while for the graphite, the erosion started at the pores and peeled off the surface.
This paper treats a holomorphic self-mapping f: Ω → Ω of a bounded domain Ω in a separable Hilbert space with a fixed point p. In case the domain is convex, we prove an infinite-dimensional version of the Cartan-Carathéodory-Kaup-Wu Theorem. This is basically a rigidity result in the vein of the uniqueness part of the classical Schwarz lemma. The main technique, inspired by an old idea of H. Cartan, is iteration of the mapping f and its derivative. A normality result for holomorphic mappings in the compact-weak-open topology, due to Kim and Krantz, is used.
Two cases of hospital-acquired listeriosis were linked to a commercially produced, pasteurized ice cream mix. Manufacturers should implement safety measures from the Food Safety Modernization Act to minimize the risk of Listeria contamination. Dietary guidelines for persons at high risk of listeriosis may need revision to recognize the potential risk from pasteurized products.
Diarrhoeal diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This longitudinal study aimed to identify controllable environmental drivers of intestinal infections amidst a highly contaminated drinking water supply in urban slums and villages of Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. Three hundred households with children (<5 years) residing in two semi-urban slums and three villages were visited weekly for 12–18 months to monitor gastrointestinal morbidity. Households were surveyed at baseline to obtain information on environmental and behavioural factors relevant to diarrhoea. There were 258 diarrhoeal episodes during the follow-up period, resulting in an overall incidence rate of 0·12 episodes/person-year. Incidence and longitudinal prevalence rates of diarrhoea were twofold higher in the slums compared to rural communities (P < 0·0002). Regardless of study site, diarrhoeal incidence was highest in infants (<1 year) at 1·07 episodes/person-year, and decreased gradually with increasing age. Increasing diarrhoeal rates were associated with presence of children (<5 years), domesticated animals and low socioeconomic status. In rural communities, open-field defecation was associated with diarrhoea in young children. This study demonstrates the contribution of site-specific environmental and behavioural factors in influencing endemic rates of urban and rural diarrhoea in a region with highly contaminated drinking water.
After an outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1) virus, we had previously reported the emergence of a recombinant canine influenza virus (CIV) between the pH1N1 virus and the classic H3N2 CIV. Our ongoing routine surveillance isolated another reassortant H3N2 CIV carrying the matrix gene of the pH1N1 virus from 2012. The infection dynamics of this H3N2 CIV variant (CIV/H3N2mv) were investigated in dogs and ferrets via experimental infection and transmission. The CIV/H3N2mv-infected dogs and ferrets produced typical symptoms of respiratory disease, virus shedding, seroconversion, and direct-contact transmissions. Although indirect exposure was not presented for ferrets, CIV/H3N2mv presented higher viral replication in MDCK cells and more efficient transmission was observed in ferrets compared to classic CIV H3N2. This study demonstrates the effect of reassortment of the M gene of pH1N1 in CIV H3N2.
The Arabidopsis gene AVP1 encodes a vacuolar H+-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase (enzyme classification (EC) 184.108.40.206) that functions as an electronic proton pump in the vacuolar membrane and affects growth development and the stress response in plants. The current study was conducted to evaluate the molecular properties of the Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Incorporation and expression of the transgene was confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of the AVP1 gene in transgenic rice plants (TRP1 and TRP2) resulted in a significantly enhanced tolerance to 5·8 g/l NaCl under greenhouse conditions when compared with the control wild-type (WT) rice plants. Augmented AVP1 expression in the transgenic rice plants (TRP) also affected total biomass and improved ion homoeostasis through increased accumulation of Na+ ions in whole tissues when compared with control WT rice plants under high salinity conditions. The photochemical yield (Fv/Fm) values of TRP were higher than those of the WT rice plants, even though the values decreased over time in both the WT and transgenic (TRP1 to TRP8) rice plants. Furthermore, rice grain yield and biomass of the TRP were at least 15% higher based on culm and root weights, and panicle and spikelet numbers when compared with those of the WT rice plants during the 2010 and 2010 growing seasons in South Korea. Thus, these results suggest that ectopic AVP1 expression conferred tolerance and stress resistance to genetically modified transgenic crop plants by improving cellular ion homoeostasis in response to saline conditions, which enhanced rice yield and biomass under natural conditions in paddy fields.
The newer cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin, due to its pigmentation, has been found to cause interferences in some laboratory assays. Co-oximetry may also be affected by hydroxocobalamin, leading to false elevations in hemoglobin concentration, methemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, and false decreases in oxyhemoglobin. The Masimo Radical-7 is a medical device that performs noninvasive oximetry and estimates hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and percent carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), methemoglobin (MetHb), and oxyhemoglobin saturation (O2Hb).
The study sought to determine the effect of hydroxocobalamin on noninvasive measurement of hemoglobin indices using the Masimo Radical-7 monitor.
Seven asymptomatic volunteers who were unexposed to cyanide had baseline heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and oximeter measurements recorded followed by an infusion of five grams of hydroxocobalamin over 15 minutes. The above parameters were subsequently recorded at: 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes post infusion. Data were analyzed by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) for each variable and comparing the results to expected values by paired t tests. Expected AUC values were calculated by extrapolating baseline values across the entire time period.
The mean differences from baseline values with 95% confidence intervals and t tests of mean difference were: SBP: 11 mm Hg (95% CI, 0-22; P = .051); HR: -9 (95% CI, -15 to -3; P = .01); Hb: -0.1 (95% CI, -0.7 to 0.4; P = .57); O2Hb: 0 g/dL (95% CI, -1 to 1; P = .41); COHb: -1 (95% CI, -3 to 1; P = .25); MetHb: -0.2 (95% CI, -0.3 to 0; P = .03).
After infusion of hydroxocobalamin there was a significant elevation of systolic blood pressure and decrease in heart rate. There were no significant differences in Hb, O2Hb, and COHb. Although percent methemoglobin concentrations were statistically lower, the authors feel this difference is of trivial clinical significance.
The administration of hydroxocobalamin does not significantly impact noninvasive oximetry.
CashinB, MatlockA, KangC, ReynoldsP, WillsB. Effect of Hydroxocobalamin on Surface Oximetry in Nonexposed Humans. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(4):1-3.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
We have observed the parts of the second quadrant of the Galactic Plane in 13CO(1-0) using the multibeam receiver system installed on the 14 m telescope at Taeduk Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO). The first target region A (L=108° to 112°.5) is the part of the 12CO Outer Galactic Plane Survey (OGS; Heyer et al. 1998), and it is for the exact Galactic plane with the latitude range of +1 and -1 degree. A total of 48,000 spectra (about 9 square degrees) were obtained on 50″ grid. Two following regions were also observed; Region B: L = 120° ∼ 121°.7, B = −1° ∼ +1° (38,000 spectra) Region C: L = 130° 132°, B = −1° ∼ +1° (42,000 spectra). Eventually all the regions of the OGS will be covered. The selected velocity resolution is 0.63 km s−1 and the covered velocity is 320 km s−1, from −210 to 110 km s−1. The typical system temperature is ranging from 400 to 800 K, and average sensitivity per channel is 0.17 K.
We developed a new reduction method, which effectively deals with a relatively noisy 3-dimensional database. After using simple linear baseline subtraction, we mainly used the IRAF twod.longslit.background task in 3D within some scripts, as well as IRAF tasks dealing with statistics, and a revised FCRAO reduction package, which is working within IRAF as external user's tasks. The collected 13CO database will be manipulated with pre-existing 12CO data to get several physical parameters. As it is located in the second quadrant, the kinematic distances of the individual clouds, which will be identified, can be estimated straightforwardly without any distance ambiguity. In this meeting we present the reduction method, integrated intensity maps, and spatial-velocity maps. We intend to clarify any difference of their characteristics between the clouds in the Outer Galaxy and Inner Galaxy using our data base.
The present TRAO receiver system has aged, and thus its performance level degraded. However, we have a plan to renovate our receiver system to a brand new one within the next two years. This will speed up the TOGS project. At present, it costs substantial amount of time to homogeneously reduce the spectra obtained with our present receiver system. To compensate this, we invested more integration time, and developed more advanced reduction methods (see above). A future multibeam array receiver system at the TRAO would be at least 16 beams with most recent mixers (Tsys ∼ 150 K at 110GHz), hopefully.
As critical dimensions decrease, key dimension-related dielectric etch challenges emerge, including via and trench uniformity and etch depth profile. The transition to ultra-low-k films such as BDIII (Black Diamond; k=2.55) dielectrics requires consideration of film sensitivity to compositional modification, polymer interactions at pores, and the effect of diffusion. Use of N2/O2 plasma at 60 ˚C to modify the M1 trench profile has been demonstrated to lower the RC delay by 14% as compared to traditional CO2 plasmas at 60˚C. Use of a DHF solution to clean the etching residue in the dual damascene structure results in >97% yield with a tight range of via chain resistance.
Lpin1 was a gene with important effects on controlling lipid/energy metabolism in humans and mice. However, little was known about chicken Lpin1 gene. In the present study, two transcript isoforms of chicken Lpin1 were identified. Lpin1-α was predicted encoding one 902 amino acid protein, whereas Lpin1-δ was predicted encoding one 918 amino acid protein with an insertion of 48-bp fragment from intron 12 of chicken Lpin1-α, and a conservative element was found to be located in intron 12 of chicken Lpin1-α genomic sequence. Ten variants were identified from chicken Lpin1-α coding sequence, and two missense mutations were predicted to affect the protein function of Lpin1. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that chicken total Lpin1, Lpin1-α and Lpin1-δ were expressed in all analyzed tissues, and presented clear tissue expression differences. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed that 30% energy restriction significantly elevated the total Lpin1 mRNA expression level in hepatic (P < 0.01) and adipose (P < 0.01) tissues of birds. Chicken total Lpin1 gene mRNA expression level presented a significantly inverse correlation with some traits including abdominal fat rate (P < 0.01), serum high-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05) and total cholesterol (P < 0.05), which would make a foundation for the further study on chicken Lpin1 gene function.