Plethiandra (Melastomataceae–Melastomatoideae–Dissochaeteae) comprises seven species in Borneo and one (P. sessiliflora) in the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia and central Sumatra. Plethiandra is easily recognized by its polystaminate androecium, having 16–40 stamens with short, straight, inappendiculate anthers. The closely related Medinilla has a diplostemonous androecium with 8–12 stamens and variously appendaged anthers. Ontogenetic studies in P. hookeri show that the increase in stamen number in Plethiandra results from subdivision of the stamen primordia into three or more subprimordia.
This paper provides a key, genus and species descriptions including diagnostic characters, distribution maps and ecological notes. One species, P. tomentosa, is newly described. During field observations on P. hookeri and P. cuneata pollination by bees and dispersal by birds and squirrels were observed.