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Elucidating the cognitive architecture of schizophrenia promises to advance understanding of the clinical and biological substrates of the illness. Traditional cross-sectional neuropsychological approaches differentiate impaired from normal cognitive abilities but are limited in their ability to determine latent substructure. The current study examined the latent architecture of abnormal cognition in schizophrenia via a systematic approach.
Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were carried out on a large neuropsychological dataset including the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Continuous Performance Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test, and Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence matrix reasoning derived from 1012 English-speaking ethnic Chinese healthy controls and 707 schizophrenia cases recruited from in- and out-patient clinics.
An initial six-factor model fit cognitive data in healthy and schizophrenia subjects. Further modeling, which accounted for methodological variance between tests, resulted in a three-factor model of executive functioning, vigilance/speed of processing and memory that appeared to best discriminate schizophrenia cases from controls. Factor analytic-derived g estimands and conventionally calculated g showed similar case–control discrimination. However, agreement analysis suggested systematic differences between both g indices.
Factor structures derived in the current study were broadly similar to those reported previously. However, factor structures between schizophrenia subjects and healthy controls were different. Roles of factor analytic-derived g estimands and conventional composite score g were further discussed. Cognitive structures underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia may prove useful for interrogating biological substrates and enriching effect sizes for subsequent work.
The technique of external reflection infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to study silicon surface chemistry. External reflection is enhanced by implanting a buried cobalt silicide layer in silicon to act as an infrared reflector. The preparation of clean well-ordered surfaces from the ion implanted substrates is demonstrated. The reactions of water and ethanol with Si(100) are investigated.
We have investigated the effect of biaxial strain on local electrical/electronic properties in thin films of La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 with varying degrees of biaxial strain in them. The local electrical properties were investigated as a function of temperature by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and scanning tunneling potentiometry (STP), along with the bulk probe like conductance fluctuations.
The results indicate a positive correlation between the lattice mismatch biaxial strain and the local electrical/electronic inhomogenities observed in the strained sample. This is plausible since the crystal structure of the manganites interfere rather strongly with the magnetic/electronic degrees of freedom. Thus even a small imbalance (biaxial strain) can induce significant changes in the electrical properties of the system.
During one year from June 1992 serum IgG antibodies to
Toxoplasma gondii among 35940
pregnant women were measured in a cross-sectional study
conducted in Norway. The overall
prevalence was 10·9%. The lowest prevalences were
detected in the north (6·7%) and in the
inland counties (8·2%). A significantly higher
prevalence was detected in the southern counties
(13·4%) where a mild, coastal climate prevails.
Women with foreign names had a higher
prevalence (22·6%) than women with Norwegian names
(10·0%). The high prevalence among
women living in the capital city (Oslo) as compared to other
cities and rural areas (13·2% vs.
10·1% and 10·2% respectively), was explained by
the higher proportion of foreign women in
Oslo. Prevalence significantly increased with age in women
over 34 years old. This increase was
only detected among women with Norwegian names. An increase
in prevalence according to
number of children was detected. Women without children had
a prevalence of 8·8% while
women with three children or more had a prevalence of
14·9%. Multivariate analyses showed
that being seropositive was independently associated with
county of residence, age, nationality
and number of children.
This paper reports the experimental transmission of a bird parasite into jirds. Infective larvae of Cardiofilaria nilesi obtained from laboratory colonized Coquillettidia crassipes mosquitoes which had fed on an infected chicken were inoculated subcutaneously into jirds. The number of larvae per jird varied from 10 to 228. Microfilaraemia appeared 22 to 89 days after inoculation of the infective larvae. Experiments were carried out with 24 jirds through six generations extending over a period of 22 months and 17 produced patent infections. At present 8 infected jirds are being maintained in the laboratory; their patent periods ranging from 6 to 13 months. However, the longest patent period observed was about thirteen months. The percentage of adults recovered in autopsied jirds ranged from 0 to 40 with an average of 16. The chicken showed a microfilarial periodicity with the peak microfilarial density around 2200 hours. However, in jirds there was a change in sub-periodicity. This model in the jird may be very useful for the screening of filaricides and in immunological work.
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