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To examine the effect of restricting ciprofloxacin on the resistance of nosocomial gram-negative bacilli, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to antipseudomonal carbapenems.
Interrupted time-series analysis.
Tertiary care teaching hospital with 11 intensive care and intermediate care units with a total of 295 beds.
All nosocomial isolates of P. aeruginosa.
Restriction of ciprofloxacin.
There was a significant decreasing trend observed in the percentage (P = .0351) and the rate (P = .0006) of isolates of P. aeruginosa that were resistant to antipseudomonal carbapenems following the restriction of ciprofloxacin. There was also a significant decreasing trend observed in the percentage (P = .0017) and the rate (P = .0001) of isolates of ciprofloxacin-resistant P. aeruginosa. The rate of cefepime-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates declined (P = .004 ) but the percentage of cefepime-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates did not change. There were no significant changes observed in the rate or the percentage of piperacillin-tazobactam-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. There were no significant changes observed in the susceptibilities of nosocomial Enterobacteriaciae or Acinetobacter baumannii isolates that were resistant to carbapenems. Over the study period there was a significant increase in the use of carbapenems (P = .0134); the use of ciprofloxacin decreased significantly (P = .0027). There were no significant changes in the use of piperacillin-tazobactam or cefepime.
Restriction of ciprofloxacin was associated with a decreased resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to antipseudomonal carbapenems and ciprofloxacin in our hospital's intermediate care and intensive care units. There were no changes observed in the susceptibilities of nosocomial Enterobacteriaciae or A. baumannii to carbapenems, despite increased carbapenem use. Reducing ciprofloxacin use may be a means of controlling multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa.
Patients undergoing orthopedic surgery are susceptible to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, which can result in increased morbidity, hospital lengths of stay, and medical costs. We sought to estimate the economic value of routine preoperative MRSA screening and decolonization of orthopedic surgery patients.
A stochastic decision-analytic computer simulation model was used to evaluate the economic value of implementing this strategy (compared with no preoperative screening or decolonization) among orthopedic surgery patients from both the third-party payer and hospital perspectives. Sensitivity analyses explored the effects of varying MRSA colonization prevalence, the cost of screening and decolonization, and the probability of decolonization success.
Preoperative MRSA screening and decolonization was strongly cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio less than $6,000 per quality-adjusted life year) from the third-party payer perspective even when MRSA prevalence was as low as 1%, decolonization success was as low as 25%, and decolonization costs were as high as $300 per patient. In most scenarios this strategy was economically dominant (ie, less costly and more effective than no screening). From the hospital perspective, preoperative MRSA screening and decolonization was the economically dominant strategy for all scenarios explored.
Routine preoperative screening and decolonization of orthopedic surgery patients may under many circumstances save hospitals and third-party payers money while providing health benefits.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission and infections are a continuing problem in hospitals. Although some have recommended universal surveillance for MRSA at hospital admission to identify and to isolate MRSA-colonized patients, there is a need for formal economic studies to determine the cost-effectiveness of such a strategy.
We developed a stochastic computer simulation model to determine the potential economic impact of performing MRSA surveillance (ie, single culture of an anterior nares specimen) for all hospital admissions at different MRSA prevalences and basic reproductive rate thresholds from the societal and third party-payor perspectives. Patients with positive surveillance culture results were placed under isolation precautions to prevent transmission by way of respiratory droplets. MRSA-colonized patients who were not isolated could transmit MRSA to other hospital patients.
The performance of universal MRSA surveillance was cost-effective (defined as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of less than $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year) when the basic reproductive rate was 0.25 or greater and the prevalence was 1% or greater. In fact, surveillance was the dominant strategy when the basic reproductive rate was 1.5 or greater and the prevalence was 15% or greater, the basic reproductive rate was 2.0 or greater and the prevalence was 10% or greater, and the basic reproductive rate was 2.5 or greater and the prevalence was 5% or greater.
Universal MRSA surveillance of adults at hospital admission appears to be cost-effective at a wide range of prevalence and basic reproductive rate values. Individual hospitals and healthcare systems could compare their prevailing conditions (eg, the prevalence of MRSA colonization and MRSA transmission dynamics) with the benchmarks in our model to help determine their optimal local strategies.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can cause severe infection in patients who are undergoing vascular surgical operations. Testing all vascular surgery patients preoperatively for MRSA and attempting to decolonize those who have positive results may be a strategy to prevent MRSA infection. The economic value of such a strategy has not yet been determined.
We developed a decision-analytic computer simulation model to determine the economic value of using such a strategy before all vascular surgical procedures from the societal and third-party payer perspectives at different MRSA prevalence and decolonization success rates.
The model showed preoperative MRSA testing to be cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, <$50,000 per quality-adjusted life year) when the MRSA prevalence is ≥0.01 and the decolonization success rate is ≥0.25. In fact, this strategy was dominant (ie, less costly and more effective) at the following thresholds: MRSA prevalence ≥0.01 and decolonization success rate ≥0.5, and MRSA prevalence ≥0.025 and decolonization success rate ≥0.25.
Testing and decolonizing patients for MRSA before vascular surgery may be a cost-effective strategy over a wide range of MRSA prevalence and decolonization success rates.
Forty-one adults were entered into a prospective study to investigate the pattern of pain over 10 days after elective dissection tonsillectomy. The severity of pain was scored by the patient on a visual analogue scale. The results confirm that tonsillectomy is a very painful experience and the provision of adequate analgesia is of paramount importance, especially if day-case tonsillectomy is performed.
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