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This experiment aimed to assess the effect of different indoor winter growth rates (WGR) followed by different concentrate supplementation levels at pasture on meat quality of 90 bulls. During the first winter, bulls were offered grass silage ad libitum and either 3 kg (WGR3) or 6 kg (WGR6) of concentrates. After turn-out to pasture, bulls were offered: grass without supplementation (PO), grass plus 0.2 predicted dry matter intake (DMI) as concentrates (PL) or grass plus 0.4 predicted DMI as concentrates (PH). After finishing, colour, chemical composition (unaged), instrumental texture and sensory characteristics (14 days of ageing) of longissimus thoracis were measured. WGR6 bulls had heavier carcasses than WGR3 bulls. There was an interaction between WGR and supplementation for instrumental texture and redness (a). Within WGR3, PO beef was the most tender, whereas within WRG6, PL was the most tender. However, these differences were not detected by the sensory panel. Within WGR3, redness was the lowest for PL, whereas within WRG6, PO was the least red. No differences were found for chemical composition. The multivariate analysis highlighted WGR as the main variable affecting meat quality characteristics. In conclusion, variations in growth path exerted minor effects on appearance and instrumental texture which did not affect the perception of bull beef by a trained sensory panel.
Information on the structure of the molecular flow within 1″ of IRC-2, in Orion-KL, is sparse. Measurements of the continuum at 7.8μ and 12.5μ show a disk of size and suggest that the center of the disk may be dust free (Lester et al. 1985). Aperture synthesis mapping of water maser shell features (Sylber 1986) has provided information on the scale. Smaller scales can be studied by mapping SiO maser emission. We observed the 43 GHz, v=1, J = 1 → 0, transition of SiO using a 2 station interferometer with a 74 km baseline between Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA and Five College Radio Observatory, New Salem, MA. The fringe spacing was 20 milliarcseconds (mas) and the velocity resolution was 0.25 km-s−1. Our results provide the highest resolution view to date of what is likely to be the inner of IRC-2.
VLBI OH maser observations simultaneously in right and left circular polarization at the 1665 and 1667 MHz transitions were conducted by taking advantage of the multichannel capability of the Mk III system. The OH maser maps of the right and left circular polarization at both transitions were obtained toward the OH maser sources NGC 6334N, NGC 7538N, NGC 7538S, and G45.07+0.13.
Radio astronomy has seen major advances in both instrumentation and scientific discovery during the last three years. This report is not encyclopedic but is intended to show the breadth of activity in the field. Division X is a technique-based division, and radio telescopes are becoming increasingly more international in character and usage. For these reasons this report devotes considerable attention to advances in instrumentation. More complete information on radio telescopes and scientific advances in the field can be found at the following Web site: http://www.stsci.edu/science/net-resources.html
The incursion of Bluetongue disease into the UK and elsewhere in Northern Europe in 2008 raised concerns about maintaining an appropriate level of preparedness for the encroachment of exotic diseases as circumstances and risks change. Consequently the Scottish government commissioned the present study to inform policy on the specific threat of Bluetongue virus 8 (BTV8) incursion into Scotland. An interdisciplinary expert panel, including BTV and midge experts, agreed a range of feasible BTV incursion scenarios, patterns of disease spread and specific control strategies. The study was primarily desk-based, applying quantitative methodologies with existing models, where possible, and utilizing data already held by different members of the project team. The most likely distribution of the disease was explored given Scotland's agricultural systems, unique landscape and climate. Epidemiological and economic models are integrated in an ex-ante cost-benefit appraisal of successful prevention of hypothetical BTV8 incursion into Scotland under various feasible incursion scenarios identified by the interdisciplinary panel. The costs of current public and private surveillance efforts are compared to the benefits of the avoided losses of potential disease outbreaks. These avoided losses included the direct costs of alternative vaccination, protection zone (PZ) strategies and their influence on other costs arising from an outbreak as predicted by the epidemiological model. Benefit-cost ratios were ranked within each incursion scenario to evaluate alternative strategies. In all incursion scenarios, the ranking indicated that a strategy, including 100% vaccination within a PZ set at Scottish counties along the England–Scotland border yielded the least benefit in terms of the extent of avoided outbreak losses (per unit cost). The economically optimal vaccination strategy was the scenario that employed 50% vaccination and all Scotland as a PZ. The results provide an indicator of how resources can best be targeted for an efficient ex-ante control strategy.
General Practitioner consultation rates for influenza-like illness (ILI) are monitored through several geographically distinct schemes in the UK, providing early warning to government and health services of community circulation and intensity of activity each winter. Following on from the 2009 pandemic, there has been a harmonization initiative to allow comparison across the distinct existing surveillance schemes each season. The moving epidemic method (MEM), proposed by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control for standardizing reporting of ILI rates, was piloted in 2011/12 and 2012/13 along with the previously proposed UK method of empirical percentiles. The MEM resulted in thresholds that were lower than traditional thresholds but more appropriate as indicators of the start of influenza virus circulation. The intensity of the influenza season assessed with the MEM was similar to that reported through the percentile approach. The MEM pre-epidemic threshold has now been adopted for reporting by each country of the UK. Further work will continue to assess intensity of activity and apply standardized methods to other influenza-related data sources.
A drive to promote European feed market competitiveness saw the introduction of Regulation (EC) 767/2009 which addresses the placing on the market and use of feed within the European Community. The aim of this study was to determine if the feed industry has changed their advertising practice since the introduction of the Regulation, particularly in reference to Article 13 which sets out the requirements for the use of claims on animal feed. A content analysis of feed material advertisements in nine major EU based feed industry journals, representing all major animal production species, was conducted (n = 822). Relevant advertisements incorporating a time period of one year before and after the enforcement of the Regulation were included. Advertisements were assessed for the level of information provided and the use of claims. The study indicated that there has been a decrease in the provision of information cues on feed advertisements since the Regulation came into being (from 2.5 cues to 1.7 (SEM = 0.56, p < 0.001)). Furthermore, the appearance of certain claims also showed reductions in frequency (reduction in claims relating to improvements in the environmental (χ2 = 4.7, p < 0.05), the nutritional needs of the animal (χ2 = 9.7, p < 0.01) and the effect on the performance of the animal (χ2 = 4.2, p < 0.05)). It is possible that despite the intention to inspire innovation in the food industry, the Regulation may be motivating a more cautious approach to the advertising of feedingstuffs in Europe.
Although communicable diseases have hitherto played a small part in illness associated with Olympic Games, an outbreak of infection in a national team, Games venue or visiting spectators has the potential to disrupt a global sporting event and distract from the international celebration of athletic excellence. Preparation for hosting the Olympic Games includes implementation of early warning systems for detecting emerging infection problems. Ensuring capability for rapid microbiological diagnoses to inform situational risk assessments underpins the ability to dispel rumours. These are a prelude to control measures to minimize impact of any outbreak of infectious disease at a time of intense public scrutiny. Complex multidisciplinary teamwork combined with laboratory technical innovation and efficient information flows underlie the Health Protection Agency's preparation for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. These will deliver durable legacies for clinical and public health microbiology, outbreak investigation and control in the coming years.
The scope of molecular dynamics problems designed to simulate materials properties is described, focussing on the limits computation imposes on space and time scales, as well as the limits theoretical understanding imposes on our knowledge of interatomic forces. Five strategies for improving the efficiency of the simulations are described. Shock-induced solid-solid phase transformations are discussed to illustrate these ideas.
We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of thin layers of InGaAs on GaAs substrates for different In concentrations to determine the critical thickness before strain relaxation occurs. We have considered both dislocation formation and islanding as possible mechanisms for strain relief. The results for the critical thickness for strain relief by misfit dislocations is slightly lower than that found using elasticity theory. For high In concentrations, facetted islands are found to be stable and are energetically favoured.
Birefringence measurements of nematic solutions of the poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole), PBT, using interference between the ordinary and extraordinary waves created when a plane polarized wave enters the crystal, are described. The measured birefringence is high, e.g., ne – no varies from 0.05 to 0.09 at 633 nm for polymer concentrations 4×10−2 < c < 10×10−2(g/cm3). These data are discussed with the implications they have on the order parameter in these solutions.
Solid-state chemistry has been used to control both the size and the interconnection distance of small II-VI semiconductor moeities incorporated in zeolitic hosts with the sodalite-type structure. Structural characterization was carried out using X-ray Rietveld powder methods, and optical properties of these materials were also measured. These novel materials show quantum superlattice effects as evidenced by blue shifts in their optical absorption spectra.
The molecular dynamics method employing an empirical potential energy function to describe the Si-C interaction has been used to determine the minimum energy sites for Si and C adatoms on C-terminated SiC (001) substrates. It is found that whereas a single C adatom lies on the carbon dimer bond, this site only becomes energetically favourable for silicon adatoms when they interact to form a dimer pair.
The formation of lithium inserted W18O49 phases has been studied byelectrochemical methods. When lithium is inserted, several single phases LixW18O49 are observed in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 40 between 3 and 1 V. Nevertheless the reaction is reversible only for x ≤ 22. Chemical reactions of W18O49 with different quantities of n-butyllithium have been carried out to isolate and characterize some of these phases. For Li17W18O49, this is ˜1:1 Li/W ratio, electron diffraction experiments clearly indicate that lithium produces a periodicity change, doubling the a, b and c cell parameters. On the other hand, when sodium is inserted in W18O49 two single phase regions NaxW18O49 are observed within the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.2 between 3 and 0.5 V.