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One of the most serious forms of abuse is sexual abuse (SA), especially when the victims are children. Questions still remain: what actual long-term consequences of child sexual abuse effect the mental health of children.
Examined-68 people (22 boys, 46 girls) having detected by physicians fact of SA, and recognized as victims in legal status. The group was split by age (3-6 years), and by the type of SA: family abuse and extrafamilial abuse. Group of 38 children – catamnesis study over a 5-year period.
To reveal long-term mental health consequences of child SA taking into accountd the type (family and extrafamilial).
All the children were examined repeatedly during the follow-up period, clinically and paraclinically by psychiatrist (clinical observation, dialog with the child and parents), by neurologist and clinical psychologist (projective techniques and standardized personality questionnaires).
Results and Conclusions
Psychopathologic consequences of SA are divided into acute (reaction to stress), subacute (6 months after the trauma) and remote (observation during 5 years). In acute and subacute period the disorders are qualified as acute reaction to stress and PTSD.
In long-term period clinical characteristics were defined as conduct disorder (personality development disorder), primarily of mixed type. In the structure of remote psychopathologic presentations, especially as the consequences of family SA are – hyperemotivity, neuroticism (trichologia, onychophagia, enuresis and encopresis, asthenic syndrome and subdepressive syndrome, obsessive fears, dysmorphophobia and others).
In prepubertal period-runaways, promiscuity, early alcoholization, taking drugs, behavior as a victim, sex-role identification disorder.
The body image development begins at an early age. Children with psychopathology may have body image disturbances. It is important to determine nosological specificity of body image disturbances in children.
To reveal body image disturbances in: 20 people (12 boys, 8 girls) having schizophrenia; 18 people (8 boys, 10 girls) with detected fact of sexual abuse (catamnesis study over a 5-year period); control group – 5 boys, 5 girls with normal psycho-physical development.
To reveal body image disturbance in children in case of psychopathology.
All the children were examined clinically and paraclinically by psychiatrist and clinical psychologist (projective techniques; standardized personality questionnaires and semantic method [analysis of statements]).
Results and conclusions
In children having schizophrenia specific disturbances of proprioceptive self-awareness in the form of senestopathy (feelings of compression, deformation, size loss or size gain of the body) and the idea of physical defect, are considered as the early symptoms of the body dysmorphic disorder. In this group of children disturbances of body scheme, difficulties in right/left orientation were detected. In the group of children with detected fact of sexual abuse the following disturbances took place: the body dysmorphic disorder (self-disgust, considering body to be tainted by the abuser, feeling dirty, compulsive body washing, sensitivity to touch) and senestopathy below one's waist, in the area of genitals, feeling dirtiness of the skin and clothes. In the pictures drawn by the children, they represented themselves older, grotesquely painted their faces, pictured strange haircuts, preferring bright and extravagant clothes.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Improving the mental health diagnosis in young children is the high-priority problem in reducing the rate of child disability due to mental illnesses. In 2015, the Ministry of Healthcare (Russia) introduced the pilot project – the total screening of the paediatric population at an early age, detecting autism spectrum disorders (ASD) risk group.
To determine the broad range of mental disorders: from minor borderline states (states of risk) to serious mental disorders, with an emphasis on determination of ASD in children aged 16–24 months in general population.
The survey was conducted by the total screening in primary health care institutions (in the three largest regions of Russia: Volgograd, Novosibirsk, Chelyabinsk regions). The screening tool: checklist for parents aimed at detection of risk of occurrence of ASD in early children, for screening in general population.
Results and conclusions
During 2015, 34,770 parents of children aged 16–24 were questioned. Of these 4102 children or 11.8% (118:1000) formed the risk group in ASD. By the risk group in ASD predisposition (diathesis) is understood, that does not correspond fully to the clinical criteria of illness. This state of predisposition may last for several years and pass either to illness or to health.
The part of the children of the risk group in ASD were consulted by psychiatrist on a voluntary basis (2774 cases). Fifteen children (0.4:1000) were diagnosed with prominent clinical disorders in ICD-10 (F84). This prevalence rate cannot be extrapolated on the general population of the children at the considered age.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
GravityCam is a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. Advances in optical and near-infrared imaging technologies allow images to be acquired at high speed without significant noise penalty. Aligning these images before they are combined can yield a 2.5–3-fold improvement in image resolution. By using arrays of such detectors, survey fields may be as wide as the telescope optics allows. Consequently, GravityCam enables both wide-field high-resolution imaging and high-speed photometry. We describe the instrument and detail its application to provide demographics of planets and satellites down to Lunar mass (or even below) across the Milky Way. GravityCam is also suited to improve the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant clusters of galaxies and multiwavelength follow-ups of background sources that are strongly lensed by galaxy clusters. The photometric data arising from an extensive microlensing survey will also be useful for asteroseismology studies, while GravityCam can be used to monitor fast multiwavelength flaring in accreting compact objects and promises to generate a unique data set on the population of the Kuiper belt and possibly the Oort cloud.
Here we report ongoing efforts for an untriggered search of rapid optical transients of various astrophysical and non-astrophysical origins on time scales down to fractions of a second with Mini-MegaTORTORA. Mini-MegaTORTORA is a novel 9-channel wide-field optical monitoring system in operation since 2014 at Special Astrophysical Observatory on Russian Caucasus.
Geological disposal (GD) of radioactive waste is close to becoming a reality for Finland, Sweden and France. High-technology development and advanced knowledge has made it possible to defend the feasibility and the safety of such facilities, making the European Union a leader in the field. Other European countries are closely behind, developing high competence through advanced research programmes, research infrastructures and public engagement.
At the other extreme, there are countries whose GD programmes are at an early stage and no systematic research programmes exist. These include several new Member States but not the Czech Republic and Hungary, both of which have already initiated a siting process.
There are several common reasons for this delay in schedule: small and relatively younger nuclear energy programmes, return of the spent fuel (especially from research reactors) to the countries of origin, open fuel cycle concept (requiring at least 50 years of wet and dry storage). In this context, there has been little pressure on setting up an early GD programme. Currently their disposal concepts are only generic and in most of these countries need updating, taking into account the current socio-economic context.
However, some of these new Member States still aim to have a GD in operation within several decades, e.g. 2055 in Romania and 2067 in Slovenia. Strategic planning based on the experience of more advanced programmes shows the GD process should start immediately in order to be able to achieve these deadlines.
In this context, the implementation of the EC Directive 70/2011 gives the opportunity to progress the advancement of the GD process in these countries.
A plasma target for highly efficient neutralization of powerful negative ion beams is considered. The plasma is confined within a magnetic trap with multipole magnetic walls. It is proposed to use inverse magnetic mirrors to limit plasma outflow through the inlet and outlet holes in the trap. Using the particle-in-cell method, mathematical simulation of plasma dynamics in the trap has been performed. The estimates of plasma distribution and particle confinement efficiency in the region of the magnetic mirrors has been obtained. Simulation results were compared with experimental data.
This report summarizes epidemiological data on nephropathia epidemica (NE) in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. NE cases identified in the period 1997–2013 were investigated in parallel with the hantavirus antigen prevalence in small rodents in the study area. A total of 13 930 NE cases were documented in all but one district of Tatarstan, with most cases located in the central and southeastern districts. The NE annual incidence rate exhibited a cyclical pattern, with the highest numbers of cases being registered once in every 3–5 years. The numbers of NE cases rose gradually from July to November, with the highest morbidity in adult males. The highest annual disease incidence rate, 64·4 cases/100 000 population, was observed in 1997, with a total of 2431 NE cases registered. NE cases were mostly associated with visiting forests and agricultural activities. The analysis revealed that the bank vole Myodes glareolus not only comprises the majority of the small rodent communities in the region, but also consistently displays the highest hantavirus prevalence compared to other small rodent species.
The Magellanic System represents one of the best places to study the formation and evolution of galaxies. Photometric surveys of various depths, areas and wavelengths have had a significant impact on our understanding of the system; however, a complete picture is still lacking. VMC (the VISTA near-infrared YJKs survey of the Magellanic System) will provide new data to derive the spatially resolved star formation history and to construct a three-dimensional map of the system. These data combined with those from other ongoing and planned surveys will give us an absolutely unique view of the system opening up the doors to truly new science!
Here we briefly summarize our long period experience of constructing and operating
wide-field monitoring cameras with sub-second temporal resolution to look for optical
components of GRBs, fast-moving satellites and meteors. General requirements for hardware
for such systems are discussed along with algorithms of real-time detection and
classification of various kinds of short optical transients. We also give a status report
on the next generation, multi-objective and transforming monitoring system, the
MegaTORTORA, whose 6-channel (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Spain) and 9-channel
prototypes (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Kazan) we are building now at SAO RAS. This system combines a
wide field of view with subsecond temporal resolution in monitoring regime, and is able to
reconfigure itself, in a fractions of second, to follow-up mode which has better
sensitivity and provides us with multi-color and polarimetric information on detected
Thin-film piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is one of the most efficient electromechanical coupling transducer materials currently available for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). This article reviews piezoelectric MEMS (piezo MEMS) technologies using PZT thin films in radio frequency (RF) devices for communications and radar applications and in the emerging field of millimeter-scale robotics. The electromechanical material properties of thin-film PZT uniquely enable insect-inspired and insect-scale autonomous robots. Recent progress on large force and displacement actuators for robotic leg joints, compact and high torque ultrasonic motors, and bioinspired millimeter-scale flapping wing platforms will be presented. The use of thin-film PZT to achieve high performance and low-voltage RF MEMS switches, ultralow power consumption nanomechanical logic circuits, and high coupling and low loss resonators, filters, and transformers are also reviewed.
Continuous decrease of the feature size of transistors in modern integrated circuits (ICs) constrains thickness of auxiliary dielectric layers in interconnects because of their relatively high dielectric constant, which reduces the efficiency of low-k material integration. Dielectric materials used today as barrier or etch-stop layers are usually SiN (k ∼ 7.0) and SiCN (k ∼ 4.8), which k-value significantly exceeds that of recent ultra low-k materials (k < 2.2). In our work we have investigated thin films of rigid-chain polyimide (PI) with a k-value of about 3.2-3.3. This film was deposited using a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique and can be as thin as several monolayers. The intermolecular interaction of densely packed precursor macromolecules within a monolayer formed at the water-air interface makes it possible to avoid penetration of precursor material inside the pores. The latter peculiarity of the deposition process results in a pore sealing effect using a 4 nm PI film.
The well-known recurrent nova T Pyx has brightened by 7 magnitudes, starting on 2011 April 14, its first eruption since 1966. T Pyx is unique amongst recurrent novæ in being surrounded by a nebula formed of material ejected during previous eruptions. The latest eruption therefore offers the rare opportunity to observe a light echo sweeping through the existing shell, and a new one forming. The sudden exposure of the existing shell to high-energy light is expected to result in a change of the dust morphology as well as in the part destruction of molecules. We observe this process in the near- and mid-IR during several epochs using ESO's VLT instruments Sinfoni, Visir and Isaac. Unfortunately, in the data analysed so far we only have a tentative detection in Brα from the shell, so might in the end have to be content with upper limits for the emission from the various molecular bands and ionised lines.
We performed group-theoretical analysis of the symmetry relationships between lattice structures of R, M1, M2, and T phases of vanadium dioxide in the frameworks of the general Ginzburg-Landau phase transition theory. The analysis leads to a conclusion that the competition between the lower-symmetry phases M1, M2, and T in the metal-insulator transition is pure symmetry driven, since all the three phases correspond to different directions of the same multi-component structural order parameter. Therefore, the lower-symmetry phases can be stabilized in respect to each other by small perturbations such as doping or stress.
Sexual dimorphism in size and shape has been studied in a wide range of organisms, but intraspecific variation in sexual dimorphism remains largely unexplored. In many parasitoid species the diversity of morphological-variation patterns within species is complicated by host effects. It is not known whether the magnitude and direction of sexual size dimorphism can be affected by the developmental environment (i.e., different host species). In this study we explored patterns of sexual dimorphism in size and shape in the aphid parasitoid Ephedrus persicae Froggatt. The analyzed sample consisted of 83 females and 54 males reared from five species of host aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from various areas of the Palaearctic region. The most notable result of the study is that E. persicae displays divergent patterns of sexual dimorphism in body size and wing size: females have larger bodies than males, but males have larger wings. Our analysis of wing size and wing shape also showed significant within species variation in the degree and pattern of sexual dimorphism. Variation in wing shape between the sexes seems to be more conserved than variation in wing size. Variation in wing shape is influenced predominantly by host (biotype) and to a lesser extent by sexual dimorphism within a biotype.
The binary fraction in the sub-stellar regime is a topic of discussion. The lower masses of ultra cool dwarfs (UCDs) with respect to the other stars make them even more important because a measurable effect on their radial velocity (RV) or luminosities can be caused by extremely low mass companions. Some UCDs in young star forming regions are bright enough to be studied with existing high resolution instrumentation. The UCDs are intrinsically faint in the optical and the optical RV measurements are affected by “rotationally modulated inhomogeneous surface features” that can mimic a companion, while the near-infrared (NIR) RVs are less prone to them. Therefore, we decided to monitor the RV of six UCDs in the NIR. Blake et al. (2007) demonstrated RV measurement accuracy of 300-600 m s−1 in the NIR using telluric calibration.
Many attempts have been made to carry out a complete observational census of Milky Way star clusters based on recent near- and mid-infrared surveys. However, more clusters are still being discovered, indicating that existing catalogs are incomplete. We attempt to estimate the total number of supermassive (SM; Mcl ≥ 104 M⊙) clusters in the Galaxy, and to improve the yield from the automated cluster searches. Assuming that the ‘local’ census of SM clusters is complete, and that their surface density accross the disk follows that of the stars, we predict that the Milky Way contains ≥81 ± 21 SM clusters. We apply a cluster-detection algorithm to the 2mass Point Source Catalog after a preliminary color and/or magnitude selection of the point sources to improves the surface-density cluster-to-field contrast. Our algorithm identified 94 new candidates, and re-identified 34 known clusters. During the visual inspection, we detected an additional 41 new candidates, and re-identified 32 known objects. Preliminary characterization suggests that the new list may contain red-supergiant, open and globular clusters.
On 24 August 2008, an outbreak alert regarding cases of acute gastroenteritis in Podgorica triggered investigations to guide control measures. From 23 August to 7 September, 1699 cases were reported in Podgorica (population 136 000) and we estimated the total size of the outbreak to be 10 000–15 000 corresponding to an attack rate of ~10%. We conducted an age- and neighbourhood-matched case-control study, microbiologically analysed faecal and municipal water samples and assessed the water distribution system. All cases (83/83) and 90% (89/90) of controls drank unboiled chlorinated municipal water [matched odds ratio (mOR) 11·2, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1·6–∞]. Consumption of bottled water was inversely associated with illness (mOR 0·3, 95% CI 0·1–0·8). Analyses of faecal samples identified six norovirus genotypes (21/38 samples) and occasionally other viruses. Multiple defects in the water distribution system were noted. These results suggest that the outbreak was caused by faecally contaminated municipal water. It is unusual to have such a large outbreak in a European city especially when the municipal water supply is chlorinated. Therefore, it is important to establish effective multiple-barrier water-treatment systems whenever possible, but even with an established chlorinated supply, sustained vigilance is central to public health.
Electromagnetic wave propagation along the interface between a magnetoactive plasma and a metallic screen is investigated analytically and numerically. It is shown that the waves have a Rayleigh character: they are superpositions of two partial waves. It is concluded that electromagnetic waves propagate only at frequencies lower than min (ωp, ωc), where ωp is the plasma frequency and ωc is the cyclotron frequency. The field topology is found, and the physical character of the waves is discussed.
A detailed analysis of wave dispersion in a plasma-filled waveguide in a finite external magnetic field is presented. The mutual influence of modes on their dispersion curves is treated. A new phenomenon is demonstrated: the coupling of the waveguide EH and HE modes and the parallel appearance of a backward wave. The values of Ω and ωp (the cyclotron and plasma frequencies) and R (the waveguide radius) at which coupling between arbitrary EH and HE modes becomes possible are found. The dispersion relations and field distributions of two new mode families that arise owing to the presence of the anisotropic plasma are analysed.