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Non-axisymmetric endwalls in turbine stages have shown to be a robust method to improve the performance of turbines in both power generation and aero-derivative applications. Non-axisymmetric endwalls target the control of secondary flows and are designed using detailed computational fluid dynamics coupled with a variety of optimisation algorithms and utilising a number of objective functions according to the engine company or researcher's preference. These numerical predictions are often backed up by detailed measurements in linear and annular cascades and later proven in full-scale engine tests. Relatively little literature is available describing their performance in rotating test rigs or at conditions other than design, apart from that of the authors. This study comprehensively revisits the low-speed, model turbines used in the earlier study, replacing all of the 5-hole probe data with more accurate results and additional hot-film measurements. These results together with computational fluid dynamics solutions are used to show the success of the method across a large incidence range and to compare to earlier cascade results for a similar endwall and blade profile to establish the usefulness of cascade testing in this application. In addition, a comparison to two other off-design studies is made. Results indicate that the endwalls successfully improve the rotor total isentropic efficiency at all test conditions and that the improvement increases with increased turning in the blade row, from 0.5% to 1.8% across the incidence range. The results also compare well to the estimation of isentropic efficiency improvement that can be drawn from the cascade testing which stands at 1.55%.
We provide detailed contextual information on 25 14C dates for unusually well-preserved archaeological and paleontological remains from Daisy Cave. Paleontological materials, including faunal and floral remains, have been recovered from deposits spanning roughly the past 16,000 yr, while archaeological materials date back to ca. 10,500 BP. Multidisciplinary investigations at the site provide a detailed record of environmental and cultural changes on San Miguel Island during this time period. This record includes evidence for the local or regional extinction of a number of animal species, as well as some of the earliest evidence for the human use of boats and other maritime activities in the Americas. Data from Daisy Cave contribute to a growing body of evidence that Paleoindians had adapted to a wide variety of New World environments prior to 10,000 PB. Analysis of shell-charcoal pairs, along with isotopic analysis of associated marine shells, supports the general validity of marine shell dating, but also provides evidence for temporal fluctuations in the reservoir effect within the Santa Barbara Channel region.
The spectre of the seventeenth century loomed large in the eighteenth century. The Anglican orthodox were particularly aghast at the radical assault on the religio-political order during the previous century and feared a reprise during theirs. In 1734, for instance, Thomas Seeker (1693–1768) warned his audience at St James’s, Westminster, that Charles I’s execution was ‘a most peculiarly instructive example of divine judgments, brought down by a sinful people on their own heads’. In all his providential interventions in human affairs, God teaches ‘an awful regard to himself, as moral governor of the world; and a faithful practice of true religion’. And what drew his divine wrath upon Britain during the 1650s was the abandonment of’real religion’ for ‘hypocrisy, superstition, and enthusiasm’. Certainly Laud and his followers might have displayed ‘an over warm zeal, and very blameable stiffness and severity’, Seeker acknowledged. ‘But there was also, in the enemies of the church, a most provoking bitterness and perverseness; with a wild eagerness for innovation, founded on ignorant prejudices, which their heated fancies raised into necessary truths; and then, looking on them, as the cause of Christ, they thought themselves bound and commissioned to overturn whatever was contrary to them.’
An Englishman living during the mid-eighteenth century would have known that his country had been, at least since the late sixteenth century, a decidedly and, for the long-foreseeable future, an unalterably Protestant nation. But what sort of Protestant nation? One that needed a legally estabhshed church? And, if so, what sort of church should that church as established by law be? Did it, for instance, necessarily require a certain kind of church government? In its relation to the English state, did the church need to be the senior, equal or junior partner? And what rights, if any, should those not conforming to the estabhshed church have? These were vexing questions, and the mid-seventeenth-century civil wars had mostly been an intra-Protestant fight over them. Yet neither those internecine religio-political wars nor the subsequent political revolution of the late seventeenth century had resolved definitively any of the fundamental questions about church and state raised originally by the sixteenth-century religious Reformations. Those who had lived through the Sacheverell crisis, the Bangorian controversy or the fiercely anti-clerical 1730s recognized this all too well: historians, alas, have not.
History supplanted nature as the most important apologetical language among English polemical divines during the mid-eighteenth century, but not for the reasons usually adduced. The triumph of history over nature owed everything to the power of orthodox patronage and to nature’s demonstrable apologetical efficacy, and nothing to natural theology’s supposed failure sufficiently to prove God’s existence. Put another way, by the late 1720s orthodox apologists had come to believe that the popular argument from design in nature applied equally to history. Moreover, the argument from design in history appears to have been an apologetical strategy which accorded more closely with the disposition of an increasingly orthodox episcopate during the mid-century period. Little evidences the mid-century historical turn — a shift either missed or ignored by most historians — more clearly than the second generation (1730–1785) of the Boyle lectures, a series of public sermons founded by Robert Boyle in order to defend Christianity from the attacks of unbelievers. For whereas the first generation of lecturers founded their defences of Christianity on natural theology, the second built on Christianity’s historical record.
Diurnal raptors have declined significantly in western Africa since the 1960s. To evaluate the impact of traditional medicine and bushmeat trade on raptors, we examined carcasses offered at markets at 67 sites (1–80 stands per site) in 12 countries in western Africa during 1990–2013. Black kite Milvus migrans and hooded vulture Necrosyrtes monachus together accounted for 41% of 2,646 carcasses comprising 52 species. Twenty-seven percent of carcasses were of species categorized as Near Threatened, Vulnerable or Endangered on the IUCN Red List. Common species were traded more frequently than rarer species, as were species with frequent scavenging behaviour (vs non-scavenging), generalist or savannah habitat use (vs forest), and an Afrotropical (vs Palearctic) breeding range. Large Afrotropical vultures were recorded in the highest absolute and relative numbers in Nigeria, whereas in Central Africa, palm-nut vultures Gypohierax angolensis were the most abundant vulture species. Estimates based on data extrapolation indicated that within West Africa 73% of carcasses were traded in Nigeria, 21% in Benin and 5% elsewhere. Offtake per annum in West Africa was estimated to be 975–1,462 hooded vultures, 356–534 palm-nut vultures, 188–282 Rüppell's griffons Gyps rueppellii, 154–231 African white-backed vultures Gyps africanus, 143–214 lappet-faced vultures Torgos tracheliotos, and 40–60 crowned eagles Stephanoaetus coronatus. This represents a sizeable proportion of regional populations, suggesting that trade is likely to be contributing significantly to declines. Stronger commitment is needed, especially by governments in Nigeria and Benin, to halt the trade in threatened raptors and prevent their extirpation.
An extensive reed bed on the north shore of the inner Tay Estuary is briefly described. Studies in the summers of 1975, 1976 and 1978 showed it to comprise monodominant stands of Phragmites communis Trin. The standing crop of shoots was sampled at the end of the season of vegetative growth and analysed by simple biometrical methods. Certain important spatial and architectural characteristics of the community varied in a regular manner with position in the bed. Estimates of the above ground productivity of intact stands ranged from 100 to 150 tonnes/ha in a poor growing season. Commercial harvesting operations, conducted since 1975, produced an immediate and consistent decrease in shoot stature, apparently followed by a slow increase in density and productivity. The behaviour of the downshore edge of the bed and the details of its annual development above and below ground require further study.
We report a patient with a malignant carotid body paraganglioma treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. We discuss her treatment and outcome in the light of the published literature.
A 26-year-old woman presented with a 12-month history of a painless, left-sided neck lump. Ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a carotid body tumour, which at surgical excision was found to be adherent to the vagus and hypoglossal cranial nerves (X and XII). The tumour was resected from the surrounding structures. Two local lymph nodes were removed to allow access. The internal carotid artery was also involved and had to be repaired with a synthetic graft. Histology and immunohistochemistry confirmed malignant carotid body paraganglioma. There were positive resection margins, and cervical lymph node metastasis was reported in one of the two nodes. Post-operatively, she had left Horner's syndrome, left vocal fold palsy and right upper limb weakness, all of which resolved spontaneously. She underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and remained recurrence free after 30 months.
Malignant carotid body paraganglioma can affect young adults, with an insidious onset of symptoms. In this patient, local excision (without neck dissection) and adjuvant radiotherapy were well tolerated and resulted in satisfactory local disease control.
Implantation with 400 keV Ag or Cu ions improves the near-surface microstructural quality and reflectance of diamond turned and mechanically polished flat copper laser mirrors. Spectroscopic ellipsometry is sensitive to changes in either the microscopic surface roughness, or in the nearsurface substrate void fraction, and both parameters are observed to change upon implantation. Substrate density as a function of ion fluence peaks at about 5 × 10 15cm-2. Low energy (300 eV) Ar ion implantation can cause either a reduction or increase in microscopic surface roughness, depending on fluence.
Variable Angle of incidence Spectroscopie Ellipsometry (VASE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy (XTEM), are used to measure heterojunction layer thicknesses in an AlGaAs/GaAs sample. All three techniques yield the same thickness values within error limits.
High energy Si implantation into GaAs is of interest for the fabrication of fully implanted monolithic microwave integrated circuits. 30Si has been implanted into LEC GaAs at energies of 1, 2, 4, and 6 MeV. We have measured atomic concentration profiles using SIMS and carrier concentration profiles using an electrolytic CV procedure. Theoretical atomic profiles have been calculated using TRIM-86. Excellent SIMS dynamic range and low background (<1014/cm3) was achieved for the profiles by the use of 30Si. The range statistics and profile shape factors: Rm, Rp, ΔRp, skewness (Y1), kurtosis (B2), and maximum Si density (Nmax) have been determined from the SIMS data by applying a Pearson IV computer fitting routine. The first two moments (Rp and ΔRp) were also obtained from the carrier profiles and the theoretical profiles. The range and standard deviation obtained from each profile have a maximum difference of only 15%, and the difference is usually less than 10%. This is less than the mutual experimental uncertainty of 17%. The samples were activated using a furnace anneal (800°C, 15 min) with a Si3N4 cap and using rapid thermal anneal (1000°C, 10s) with and without a Si3N4 cap. No redistribution of Si was observed for any of the anneal conditions within experimental error.
A Tonks-Langmuir type model for a one-dimensional low pressure (collisionless) plasma containing at least two species of Maxwellian negative charge carriers is examined. The solutions of this model yield the positive ion energy distribution at the sheath edge without needing to specify the ionization process. This distribution has a width consistent with the potential drop across the plasma, and is shown to satisfy the generalised Bohm criterion for sheath formation. However by assuming a form for the ionization rate in the plasma, the potential profile across the discharge has been calculated. It has been found that for a range of plasma parameters the solution for the potential at which quasineutrality fails becomes triple valued; the physical solution in this regime is identified.
Many plasmas used for materials processing contain negative ions. It is important to understand how these ions influence the positive ion energy distribution at the substrate where the processing occurs.
This work is also of relevance to the behaviour of Langmuir probes in electronegative plasmas.
Complete conductivity spectra have been taken of a lithium ion conducting glass of composition B2O3 · 0.56Li2O · 0.45LiBr and of lithium stabilized Na-β″-alumina, at various temperatures. — In the glass, it has forthe first time been possible to separate the hopping and vibrational contributions to theconductivity. The resulting hopping conductivity spectra display high-frequency plateaux similar to those known to exist in crystalline solid electrolytes like RbAg415 and Na-β-alumina. In the dispersive regime, the spectra are characterized bytwo different power-law exponents, p = 0.6 and q = 1.3. The data are evaluated by combined application of the jump relaxation model and the dynamic structure model. — Na-β″-alumina has pronounced high-frequency plateaux between about 200 GHz and 400 GHz. The hopping observed in the spectra can be decomposed into hops that are a priori unsuccessful and others that can be treated in terms of the jump relaxation model. The latter fraction is found to increase with increasing temperature.
A comparative study of CH4 :H2 , and CH4 :H2 :Ar rf-plasma and microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma etching of GaAs and InP is presented. The study is in two parts;
(i) Kinetic studies of GaAs and InP etch rates as a function of the constituent gas flow rates, applied rf and microwave powers, substrate temperature and position. The results indicate that CH4 :H2 :Ar ECR etching of GaAs is 10× more efficient in the utilisation of the CH4 precursor gas than rf-plasmas. However, the absolute etch rates are lower (70 nm min−1 for rf and 25 nm min−1 for rf biassed ECR-plasmas).The effect of etching conditions on InP morphology is also examined.
(ii) The study of electrical “damage” in GaAs/AlGaAs high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) Hall bar structures, was investigated by ECR-plasma etching off the top GaAs capping layer. Results indicate that ECR-plasma etching with an rf-bias between 0V and −30V does not significantly effect the electrical characteristics of such devices at 300K, with some degredation at 1.2 K.
Fishery independent indices of spawning biomass of Atlantic bluefin tuna in
western North Atlantic Ocean are presented which utilize National Marine
Fisheries Service ichthyoplankton survey data collected from 1977 through
2007 in the Gulf of Mexico. Indices were developed using similarly
standardized data from which previous indices were developed (i.e. abundance
of larvae with a first daily otolith increment formed per 100 m2 of
water sampled with bongo gear). Indices were also developed for the first
time from standardized data collected with neuston gear [i.e. abundance of
5-mm larvae (i.e. seven-day-old larvae) per 10 minute tow]. Indices of
larval abundance were developed using delta-lognormal models, including
following covariates: time of day, time of month, area sampled and year. Due
to the large frequency of zero catches during ichthyoplankton surveys, a
zero-inflated delta-lognormal approach was also used to develop indices.
Finally, a multivariate delta-lognormal approach was employed to develop
indices of annual abundance based on both bongo and neuston catches. The
results of these approaches were compared with one another and with other
indices of larval abundance previously developed for the Gulf of Mexico.
Residual analyses indicated that abundance indices of Atlantic bluefin tuna
larvae were more appropriately developed from bongo-collected data through
the zero-inflated delta-lognormal approach than other data sets and modeling
approaches. Also, when modeling bongo-collected data with the zero-inflated
delta-lognormal approach, the index values increased, indicating some
correction for zero-inflation, and their variability decreased as compared
to indices developed with the delta-lognormal approach.
This book is about religion, reform, and modernity. More specifically, it is about Thomas Secker (1693–1768), the orthodox church reform effort which he spearheaded, and the lessons that reform effort tells us about eighteenth-century England. Historians need some sort of intellectual glue to hold together the swaths of time we study, or else the past risks becoming just a jumble of chaotic events. Religious change and the attendant political conflict serve as an important cohesive for studies of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England, while the birth of the modern world does so for the eighteenth. Yet where sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English men and women were clearly concerned with Protestantism, popery, and arbitrary government, it is not evident that those living during the eighteenth century were preoccupied by modernity. Put another way, while recent historians of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England have tended to address the historical problems which consumed those whom they study, their counterparts examining the eighteenth century have more often let present-day concerns shape their research agendas: rather than subject the eighteenth century to the ‘historians' question – where did things stand?’, most recent scholars have tended instead to pose the ‘solipsistic question…where did I come from?’ Indeed, the growing interest in the period has coincided neatly with the increasing scholarly conviction that the eighteenth century gave birth to the modern world. It is our very own creation myth.
To question whether the eighteenth century was the crucible of modernity is not to deny that important transformations took place then. It is merely to suggest that the nature, scope, pace, and causes of that change have been either overstated or misconstrued. This book suggests that Thomas Secker’s life possesses a seismographic quality, one which should force us to look afresh at some important aspects of English society during the century after the Glorious Revolution. In particular orthodox church reform – itself hitherto unappreciated and, at once, both a reflection of and a response to societal change – elucidates at least two salient points. Firstly, most, including orthodox reform’s most strident detractors, looked prescriptively to the past for solutions to current societal problems: the answers for the future lay behind them, not in front of them.