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Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
We compared systematic and random survey techniques to estimate breeding population sizes of burrow-nesting petrel species on Marion Island. White-chinned (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and blue (Halobaena caerulea) petrel population sizes were estimated in systematic surveys (which attempt to count every colony) in 2009 and 2012, respectively. In 2015, we counted burrows of white-chinned, blue and great-winged (Pterodroma macroptera) petrels within 52 randomized strip transects (25 m wide, total 144 km). Burrow densities were extrapolated by Geographic Information System-derived habitat attributes (geology, vegetation, slope, elevation, aspect) to generate island-wide burrow estimates. Great-winged petrel burrows were found singly or in small groups at low densities (2 burrows ha−1); white-chinned petrel burrows were in loose clusters at moderate densities (3 burrows ha−1); and blue petrel burrows were in tight clusters at high densities (13 burrows ha−1). The random survey estimated 58% more white-chinned petrels but 42% fewer blue petrels than the systematic surveys. The results suggest that random transects are best suited for species that are widely distributed at low densities, but become increasingly poor for estimating population sizes of species with clustered distributions. Repeated fixed transects provide a robust way to monitor changes in colony density and area, but might fail to detect the formation/disappearance of new colonies.
Perceptions of social-contextual food environments and associated factors that influence food purchases are understudied in American Indian (AI) communities. The purpose of the present study was to: (i) understand the perceived local food environment; (ii) investigate social-contextual factors that influence family food-purchasing choices; and (iii) identify diet intervention strategies.
This qualitative study consisted of focus groups with primary household shoppers and key-informant interviews with food retailers, local government food assistance programme directors and a dietitian. An inductive, constant comparison approach was used to identify major themes.
A large AI reservation community in the north-central USA.
Four focus groups (n 31) and seven key-informant interviews were conducted in February and May 2016.
Perceptions of both the higher cost of healthy foods and limited access to these foods influenced the types of foods participants purchased. Dependence on government assistance programmes and the timing of benefits also contributed to the types of foods purchased. Participants described purchasing foods based on the dietary needs and preferences of their children. Suggestions for improving the purchase and consumption of healthy foods included: culturally relevant and family-centred cooking classes and workshops focused on monthly food budgeting. Participants also emphasized the importance of involving the entire community in healthy eating initiatives.
Cost and access were the major perceived barriers to healthy eating in this large rural AI community. Recommended interventions included: (i) family-friendly and culturally relevant cooking classes; (ii) healthy food-budgeting skills training; and (iii) approaches that engage the entire community.
Significant reductions recently seen in the size of wide-bandgap power electronics have not been accompanied by a relative decrease in the size of the corresponding magnetic components. To achieve this, a new generation of materials with high magnetic saturation and permeability are needed. Here, we develop gram-scale syntheses of superparamagnetic Fe/FexOy core–shell nanoparticles and incorporate them as the magnetic component in a strongly magnetic nanocomposite. Nanocomposites are typically formed by the organization of nanoparticles within a polymeric matrix. However, this approach can lead to high organic fractions and phase separation; reducing the performance of the resulting material. Here, we form aminated nanoparticles that are then cross-linked using epoxy chemistry. The result is a magnetic nanoparticle component that is covalently linked and well separated. By using this ‘matrix-free’ approach, we can substantially increase the magnetic nanoparticle fraction, while still maintaining good separation, leading to a superparamagnetic nanocomposite with strong magnetic properties.
Objectives: To evaluate prospective and retrospective memory abilities in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) Veterans with and without a self-reported history of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Methods: Sixty-one OEF/OIF/OND Veterans, including Veterans with a self-reported history of blast-related mTBI (mTBI group; n=42) and Veterans without a self-reported history of TBI (control group; n=19) completed the Memory for Intentions Test, a measure of prospective memory (PM), and two measures of retrospective memory (RM), the California Verbal Learning Test-II and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised. Results: Veterans in the mTBI group exhibited significantly lower PM performance than the control group, but the groups did not differ in their performance on RM measures. Further analysis revealed that Veterans in the mTBI group with current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD+) demonstrated significantly lower performance on the PM measure than Veterans in the control group. PM performance by Veterans in the mTBI group without current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD-) was intermediate between the mTBI/PTSD+ and control groups, and results for the mTBI/PTSD- group were not significantly different from either of the other two groups. Conclusions: Results suggest that PM performance may be a sensitive marker of cognitive dysfunction among OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with a history of self-reported blast-related mTBI and comorbid PTSD. Reduced PM may account, in part, for complaints of cognitive difficulties in this Veteran cohort, even years post-injury. (JINS, 2018, 24, 324–334)
The ability of the aorta to buffer blood flow and provide diastolic perfusion (Windkessel function) is a determinant of cardiovascular health. We have reported cardiac dysfunction indicating downstream vascular abnormalities in young adult baboons who were intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) at birth as a result of moderate maternal nutrient reduction. Using 3 T MRI, we examined IUGR offspring (eight male, eight female; 5.7 years; human equivalent 25 years) and age-matched controls (eight male, eight female; 5.6 years) to quantify distal descending aortic cross-section (AC) and distensibility (AD). ANOVA showed decreased IUGR AC/body surface area (0.9±0.05 cm2/m2v. 1.2±0.06 cm2/m2, M±s.e.m., P<0.005) and AD (1.7±0.2 v. 4.0±0.5×10−3/mmHg, P<0.005) without sex difference or group-sex interaction, suggesting intrinsic vascular pathology and impaired development persisting in adulthood. Future studies should evaluate potential consequences of these changes on coronary perfusion, afterload and blood pressure.
Most of the atomic species originating in the solar atmosphere between the upper chromosphere and the corona have their strong characteristic wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum. A simple normal-incidence spectrometer system with solar blind detectors such as the Harvard instrument operating between approximately 250 Å and 1350 Å is ideally suited for observing in this most interesting range of the solar atmosphere where the temperature rises outward from 104 to 3 × 106 K. The temperature range represented by the various atomic and ionic species in the extreme ultraviolet is associated with many types of solar structure, prominences and filaments, the supergranulation cells and network, active regions and their associated loop structures and other features. Simultaneous observations in lines of different characteristic temperatures provide a three-dimensional probe of the solar atmosphere. In the instrument, the principal polychromatic position observes the Lyman continuum, Lα, C II, C III, O IV, O VI, and Mg x with seven detectors simultaneously from the same spatial image element, 5″ in size. Approximately 60 additional polychromatic positions are used routinely to carry out specific observing programs, for example, covering several lines of a given stage of ionization, observing lines or continuum from specific species of interest such as helium in prominences, comparing combinations of lines from a given ionic species such as O v where the relative intensities give a rather direct measurement of the density at a given temperature, or measuring differing positions in the Lyman continuum providing intensity measurements which can be interpreted in terms of the departure from ionization equilibrium.
New mid-Cretaceous stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) records of multiple planktonic foraminiferal species and coexisting coccoliths from Blake Nose (western North Atlantic) document a major depth-ecology reorganization of planktonic foraminifera. Across the Albian/Cenomanian boundary, deep-dwelling Praeglobotruncana stephani and Rotalipora globotruncanoides adapted to living at a shallower depth, while, at the same time, the population of surface-dwelling Paracostellagerina libyca declined. Subsequently, the opportunistic species Hedbergella delrioensis shifted to a deep environment, and the deep-dwelling forms Rotalipora montsalvensis and Rotalipora reicheli first appeared. The primary paleoenvironmental cause of the observed changes in planktonic adaptive strategies is uncertain, yet their coincidence with an earliest Cenomanian cooling trend reported elsewhere implicates the importance of reduced upper-ocean stratification. Although there has been an implicit assumption that the species-specific depth habitats of fossil planktonic foraminifera were invariant through time, planktonic paleoecology is a potential variable. Accordingly, the possibility of evolutionary changes in planktonic foraminiferal depth ecology should be a primary consideration (along with other environmental parameters) in paleoceanographic interpretations of foraminiferal stable isotope data.
In this paper we review some preliminary results from the Harvard College Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroheliometer on ATM that pertain to solar activity. The results reviewed here are described in more detail in other papers referred to in the text. In the following paragraphs we first describe the instrument and its capabilities, and then turn to results on active regions, sunspots, flares, EUV bright points, coronal holes, and prominences.
This paper departs somewhat from the usual interpretation of the subject of this symposium, in which instrumental techniques normally deal with diverse aspects of experiment design or construction. Rather, we will concern ourselves here with some innovations in the ground control optimization of the modes of data acquisition once an instrument is in orbit. Although the fullest possible utilization of the data gathering capability of a device is of vital interest to the success of the experiment and the mission, the subject has not been discussed at length in the open forum of scientific meetings. The planning of the data gathering and processing aspects of a mission must receive as careful attention as instrument design and test if the characteristics of the instrument are to be fully exploited.
The present article on the recently excavated neolithic painted pottery fron Ta-ti-wan, Kansu, is intended as a follow-up to a comprehensive treatment of neolithic pottery published in the BMFEA 1981 and is written in light of a re-assessment by some Chinese scholars of the relationships between the Kansu and Central Plains styles. According to the view offered here, the Miao-ti-kou style is seen in its nascent phase at Ta-ti-wan and is explained as having developed from a combination of elements from the Pan-p'o and Wei River styles. The Wei River style is perceived to derive from Ma-chia-yao, although the later stages of Ma-chia-yao may have been coeval with the florescence of Miao-ti-kou.
This paper investigates the relationships between the Early Metal Age cultures of the Inner Mongolia and Gansu-Qinghai area with the Erlitou culture of the Central Plains region, and addresses the issue whether specific metal objects characteristic of these cultures may have their source of inspiration in areas as remote as southern Siberia and present-day Afghanistan and southern Turkmenistan. The proposal that China at the very beginning of its Bronze Age may have been affected by long-distance cultural transmissions depends upon recent reevaluations of the early history of the Eurasian steppe, in particular the advent of nomadic pastoralism and horse riding, and upon newly recalibrated carbon dates ascertained for specific Siberian sites and for the Bactrian-Margiana complex.
The question whether the Xia and the Shang signify a relatively homogeneous culture or relatively distinct cultures is approached through efforts both to determine whether the late Erlitou culture dates to the final years of dynastic Xia or to the beginning of Shang and to identify, in turn, those early Bronze Age sites most likely to correspond to the first recorded Shang capitals. By contrasting traditional chronologies with the developmental sequences of artifacts, the author reaches the conclusion that the Bronze Age remains at Erlitou represent the late Xia culture and the discoveries at Zhengzhou, the period of the Bo capital. A close affiliation between the Shang and the Xia rulers in the time prior to the conquest, revealed by the Bamboo Annals, is shown to be consistent with the archaeological evidence which Indicates that the transition between the two dynastic periods was characterized primarily by continuous development, rather than by disruption or radical change. The proposal is also made that the most significant influence from the eastcoast cultures upon those of the Zhong Yuan may have occurred during Xia times, instead of during Shang.
Acute respiratory decompensation can occur on a background of slowly progressive airway compromise, for example in laryngeal squamous cell cancer. Surgeons in ENT, together with anaesthetists, are often asked to evaluate airway risk and as yet there is no widely adopted standardised approach.
This paper reports the case of an 82-year-old male, who presented with acute airway compromise due to both endolaryngeal obstruction from a squamous cell cancer and extralaryngeal compression from massive subcutaneous emphysema.
Primary total laryngectomy was performed, but the patient declined adjuvant radiotherapy. He died a year later from a heart attack without evidence of recurrence.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of acute airway compromise from extralaryngeal subcutaneous emphysema secondary to laryngeal cancer. Options for acute airway management are discussed.
Introduced house mice Mus musculus L. have been discovered to be major predators of chicks of the Tristan albatross Diomedea dabbenena L. and Atlantic petrel Pterodroma incerta Schlegel and to also predate great shearwater Puffinus gravis O'Reilly chicks at Gough Island, and similar predatory behaviour has been reported for house mice on Marion Island. Observations on Gough Island over three breeding seasons of nesting Atlantic yellow-nosed albatrosses Thalassarche chlororhynchos Gmelin and dark-mantled sooty albatross Phoebetria fusca Hilsenberg indicate that house mice are also preying on these two species: the first records of mice preying upon summer-breeding albatross species on Gough Island. Predation on these two albatross species appears to be relatively rare (∼2% for the Atlantic yellow-nosed albatrosses) and ongoing monitoring is required to ascertain if the impact of mice is increasing. Conservation actions to eradicate mice from Gough Island will be of benefit to these species and other species that are being impacted by this invasive species.
The predatory behaviour of introduced house mice Mus musculus at Gough Island is known to impact on albatross and petrels, resulting in the Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena and Atlantic Petrel Pterodroma incerta being listed as “Critically Endangered” and “Endangered”, respectively. Although predation has been documented for two burrowing petrels and one albatross species, the impact of house mice on other burrowing petrels on Gough Island is unknown. We report burrow occupancy and breeding success of Atlantic Petrels, Soft-plumaged Petrels Pterodroma mollis, Broad-billed Prions Pachyptila vittata, Grey Petrels Procellaria cinerea and Great Shearwaters Puffinus gravis. With the exception of the Great Shearwater, breeding parameters of burrowing petrels at Gough Island were very poor, with low burrow occupancy (range 4–42%) and low breeding success (0–44%) for four species, and high rates of chick mortality in Atlantic Petrel burrows. Breeding success decreased with mass, suggesting that smaller species are hardest hit, and winter-breeding species had lower breeding success than summer breeders. The results indicate that introduced house mice are having a detrimental impact on a wider range of species than previously recorded and are likely to be causing population declines among most burrowing petrels on Gough Island. The very low values of burrow occupancy recorded for Soft-plumaged Petrels and Broad-billed Prions and greatly reduced abundance of burrowing petrels in comparison to earlier decades indicate that Gough Island’s formerly abundant petrel populations are greatly threatened by the impact of predatory house mice which can only be halted by the eradication of this species from the island.
To experimentally compare the effects of eating or skipping breakfast on energy expenditure, activity levels and dietary habits.
A randomised cross-over trial, lasting 2 weeks. Participants were provided breakfast during one week and were required to fast until mid-day during the other week.
Forty-nine participants (twenty-six female and twenty-three male participants) were recruited. Food intake was monitored using food diaries, and energy expenditure was assessed using pedometers and heart rate monitors. Morningness–eveningness, physical activity and health were assessed using validated questionnaires.
Across all participants, daily energy expenditure did not differ between the two experimental conditions. Total energy intake over 24 h did not vary with condition (male participants: 8134 (sd 447) kJ/d and 7514 (sd 368) kJ/d; female participants: 7778 (sd 410) kJ/d and 7531 (sd 535) kJ/d, for the breakfast and no-breakfast conditions, respectively). However, when comparing habitual breakfast eaters with those with irregular or breakfast-skipping habits, it was found that male non-habitual breakfast eaters consumed significantly (P = 0·029) more energy during the breakfast condition. Furthermore, female participants who were habitual breakfast eaters were found to eat significantly (P = 0·005) more and later in the day under the no-breakfast condition.
Although the suggestion that breakfast is a behavioural marker for appropriate dietary and physical activity patterns is not refuted by the present findings, our data suggest that the effect of breakfast may vary as a function of gender and morning eating habits, and thus there may be other mechanisms that link BMI and breakfast consumption behaviour.