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Research has shown that 20–30% of prisoners meet the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methylphenidate reduces ADHD symptoms, but effects in prisoners are uncertain because of comorbid mental health and substance use disorders.
To estimate the efficacy of an osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-methylphenidate) in reducing ADHD symptoms in young adult prisoners with ADHD.
We conducted an 8-week parallel-arm, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial of OROS-methylphenidate versus placebo in male prisoners (aged 16–25 years) meeting the DSM-5 criteria for ADHD. Primary outcome was ADHD symptoms at 8 weeks, using the investigator-rated Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS-O). Thirteen secondary outcomes were measured, including emotional dysregulation, mind wandering, violent attitudes, mental health symptoms, and prison officer and educational staff ratings of behaviour and aggression.
In the OROS-methylphenidate arm, mean CAARS-O score at 8 weeks was estimated to be reduced by 0.57 points relative to the placebo arm (95% CI −2.41 to 3.56), and non-significant. The responder rate, defined as a 20% reduction in CAARS-O score, was 48.3% for the OROS-methylphenidate arm and 47.9% for the placebo arm. No statistically significant trial arm differences were detected for any of the secondary outcomes. Mean final titrated dose was 53.8 mg in the OROS-methylphenidate arm.
ADHD symptoms did not respond to OROS-methylphenidate in young adult prisoners. The findings do not support routine treatment with OROS-methylphenidate in this population. Further research is needed to evaluate effects of higher average dosing and adherence to treatment, multi-modal treatments and preventative interventions in the community.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
An in situ electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) technique has been developed to investigate the dynamic processes associated with electron-beam nanofabrication on thin membranes. In this article, practical applications germane to e-beam nanofabrication are illustrated with a case study of the drilling of nanometer-sized pores in silicon nitride membranes. This technique involves successive acquisitions of the plasmon-loss and the core-level ionization-loss spectra in real time, both of which provide the information regarding the hole-drilling kinetics, including two respective rates for total mass loss, individual nitrogen and silicon element depletion, and the change of the atomic bonding environment. In addition, the in situ EELS also provides an alternative method for endpoint detection with a potentially higher time resolution than by imaging. On the basis of the time evolution of in situ EELS spectra, a qualitative working model combining knock-on sputtering, irradiation-induced mass transport, and phase separation can be proposed.
The most common cause of composition modification to a specimen during electron probe microanalysis is the field induced migration of light elements. This is an indirect effect which occurs in response to the long range electric fields that form when dielectric specimens suffer charge imbalance. The result is that the ions are redistributed within the sample according to their respective mobilities and the affect is enhanced rather than eliminated when the sample is coated. The ions typically move radially outward in thin samples because of the excess production of secondary electrons from the specimen surfaces, Cazaux(1986)and downwards in conventional SEM samples when the field is due primarily to the deposition of electrons within the bulk of the specimen
Field induced migration is responsible for most of the elemental signal variations observed during the microanalysis of silicate glasses containing sodium or potassium ions.
The crystallization of an amorphous thin film, when it is annealed, can be described in terms of the latent heat of the transformation and an activation energy which depends upon the configurational entropy of the surface of the crystallizing interface. An expression is derived for anatase, the low temperature form of titanium oxide, which is consistent with the growth that is observed.
The study of radiation effects in complex silicate glasses has received renewed attention because of their use in special applications such as high level nuclear waste immobilization and fiber optics. Radiation changes the properties of these glasses by altering their electronic and atomic configurations. These alterations or defects may cause dilatations or microscopic phase changes along with absorption centers that limit the optical application of the glasses. Atomic displacements induced in the already disordered structure of the glasses may affect their use where heavy irradiating particles such as alpha particles, alpha recoils, fission fragments, or accelerated ions are present. Large changes (up to 1%) in density may result. In some cases the radiation damage may be severe enough to affect the durability of the glass in aqueous solutions.
In this paper, we review the literature concerning radiation effects on density, durability, stored energy, microstructure and optical properties of silicate glasses. Both simple glasses and complex glasses used for immobilization of nuclear waste are considered.
The growth of an oriented anatase grain structure from the post-deposition annealing of amorphous reactive ion-beam-deposited thin films of titanium oxide has been demonstrated. The transformation has been observed directly by electron microscopy and the crystallization of the films occurs only when their thicknesses are greater than about 50 nm. Substrate effects were not found to be significant to the crystallization, which could also be induced by annealing freestanding films. The transformation processes can be described in terms of existing theories of crystal growth where the amorphous film is described as a supercooled liquid.
The reactive ion beam deposition of ceramic films onto unheated substrates can produce amorphous films with essentially molecular mixing. The annealing and hot isotatic pressing (hipping) of these films to produce crystalline phases have reproducable effects which are sensitive to the temperature and the density of the film. Experiments with titanium oxides indicate that it is principally the equilibrium phases that are formed and that hipping can be used to encourage the same transformations at lower temperatures.
Thin films of titanium oxide close to the stoichiometry of TiO2 were deposited onto unheated substrates of sodium chloride. Some of the films were removed from the substrate by floating them off in water and the remainder were either annealed or hipped to induce crystallization. The anneals were performed either in air or argon and the hipping was done under an argon pressure of about twenty thousand pounds per square inch. Several of the free standing films were annealed in the same atmospheres on nickel grids. All the specimens were prepared for transmission electron microscopy by the same floating technique and were examined in a Philips 400 T.E.M. at 125 keV. The as deposited films were amorphous and showed no visible texture other than that derived from a small amount of porosity. The films were sufficiently conductive that they could be examined directly in the T.E.M. without carbon coating provided they were supported on a grid of fairly fine mesh. One specimen was also examined in the Kratos 1.5 MeV high voltage electron microscope at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The specimen was annealed in vacuum using an in-situ hot stage to directly observe the behavior of the film.
The post deposition annealing and hipping of these films reproducibly induced the crystallization of anatase below 800°C. This is the equilibrium phase  and the extent to which the films transformed and the morphology of the growing crystallites were determined principally by the film thickness. There was little difference between the responses of free standing films and films left on the salt substrate. They tended to transform at about the same temperature, which was reproduced in the in-situ hot stage experiment and the microsructures which formed were very similar. The dependence upon thickness was also reflected in all the microstructures of the different post deposition treatments and it was possible to complete the transformations that were very sluggish in some of the films by hipping them at the same temperatures.
The radiation damage of a nuclear waste glass is shown to be associated with enhanced phase decomposition, oxygen bubble formation, and, when the glass is exposed to air saturated water, enhanced leaching.
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